• Carbon Monoxide Exposure and Human Health

      Joy, Richard W.; Tilsworth, Timothy; Williams, Darrell D. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1975-02)
    • A Catalog of Hydroclimatological Data for Alaska's Coastal Zone

      Carlson, Robert F.; Weller, Gunter (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972-05)
      In order to perceive a better understanding of the interrelationships of the coastal zone water we proposed a research project which was to sort out many of the complex variables. The project was not begun due to the lack of sufficient funds. We did, however, begin a limited literature search and listing of hydroclimatological data sources of Alaska's coastal zone. We felt this would be a modest but useful start towards the larger study. It should also have some practical usefulness to others. This data catalog is a result of this initial study. Because of the wide variety of types of agency which collect data and the literally hundreds of sources through which they are reported, it is often quite bewildering for even experienced investigators to sort out what can be found and where. Although we are sure that the catalog is far from complete, we feel that it is a useful beginning towards an attempt to better understand the hydroclimatological processes in Alaska's coastal zone. We wish to invite contributions and criticisms which could lead to an improved and more comprehensive version at some future date.
    • The Characteristics and Ultimate Disposal of Waste Septic Tank Sludge

      Tilsworth, Timothy (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-11)
    • Characteristics and utilization of fly ash

      Lu, F.C.; Rao, P.D. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1971)
      Fly ash produced by four power plants in Fairbanks and vicinity was collected and analyzed. Current fly ash specification and potential users of fly ash in general and in the Fairbanks area in particular were evaluated. A detailed bibliography on utilization of fly ash is appended for reference by producers and potential users of fly ash.
    • Characterization and evaluation of washability of Alaskan coals

      Rao, P.D.; Wolff, E.N. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1980)
      This report is a result of the second part of a continuing study to obtain washability data for Alaskan coals to supplement the efforts of the U.S. Department of Energy in their ongoing studies on washability of U.S. coals.
    • Characterization and evaluation of washability of Alaskan coals - fifty selected seams from various coal fields

      Rao, P.D. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1986)
      FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT: September 30,1976 to February 28,1986
    • Characterization and evaluation of washability of Alaskan coals - phase i - selected seams from Nenana, Jarvis Creek and Matanuska coal fields

      Rao, P.D.; Wolff, E.N. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1979)
      This report covers the results of a study conducted to obtain washability data for Alaskan coals to supplement the efforts of the U.S. Department of Energy (formerly U.S. Bureau of Mines) in its ongoing studies on washability of U.S. coals.
    • Characterization and evaluation of washability of Alaskan coals - phase iii, selected seams from the northern Alaska, Nulato, Eagle, Nenana, Broad Pass, Kenai, Beluga, and Chignik coal fields

      Rao, P.D.; Wolff, E.N. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1982)
      This report is a result of the third part of a continuing study to obtain washability date for Alaskan coals, to supplement the efforts of the U.S. Department of Energy in their ongoing studies on washability of U.S. coals. Washability characteristics were determined for fifteen coal samples from the Northern Alaska, Nulato, Eagle, Nenana, Broad Pass, Kenai, Beluga and Chignik coal fields. The raw coals were crushed to 1-1/2 inches, 2/8 inch and 14 mesh topsizes, and float-sink separations were made at 1.30, 1.40 and 1.70 specific gravities.
    • Characterization and evaluation of washability of Alaskan Coals - phase iv, selected seams from the northern Alaska, Chicago Creek, Unalakleet, Nenana, Matanuska, Beluga, Yentna, and Herendeen Bay coal fields

      Rao, P.D.; Wolff, E.N. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1982)
      This report is a result of the fourth and final part of a study to obtain washability data for Alaskan coals, to supplement the efforts of the U.S. Department of Energy in their ongoing studies on washability of U.S. coals. Washability characteristics were determined for fifteen coal samples from the Northern Alaska, Chicago Creek, Unalakleet, Nenana, Matanuska, Beluga, Yentna and Herendeen Bay coal fields. The raw coal was crushed to 1 1/2 inches, 3/8 inch and 14 mesh top sizes, and float-sink separations were made at 1.30, 1.40 and 1.60 specific gravities.
    • Characterization and washability studies of raw coal from the Little Tonzona Field, Alaska

      Rao, P.D.; Walsh, D.E.; Phillips, N.; Charlie, K.G. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1991)
      Coal occurs in an isolated exposure of Tertiary, non-marine sedimentary rocks along the southwest bank of the Little Tonzona River, near Farewell, Alaska. The Little Tonzona River coal field is located approximately 150 air miles northwest of Anchorage, Alaska, and 210 air miles southwest of Fairbanks, Alaska; near the boundaries of Denali National Park. The Alaska Railroad and the Parks Highway are approximately 100 air miles from the coal field at their nearest point. The village of McGrath, on the Kuskokwim River, is located approximately 90 miles to the west (1). An impressive outcrop of coal-bearing Tertiary sediments is exposed for a distance of more than 275 feet on the west bank of the Little Tonzona River (Figure 1). More than seven coal beds, ranging in thickness from 3 feet ta 30 feet, with a cumulative thickness of over 134 feet, are interbedded with clay beds up to 40 feet thick. The clays are fine textured, extremely plastic, light grey to nearly white bentonites andlor tonsteins. Doyon Ltd., an ANSCA Native Corporation, holds land selections covering the inferred limits of the coal field. During 1980 and 1981, Doyon entered into exploration agreements with McIntyre Mines Inc. of Nevada. The two season exploration program took place from June 1,1980 through August 22,1980 and from May 27,1981 through August 22, 1981. During the 1980 field season, geologic mapping, prospecting, stratigraphy, trenching and bulk sampling of all coal outcrops were performed. This produced a total of 34 samples, which were taken for analysis. In 1981, six diamond drill holes with a cumulative length of 2,935 feet were completed. Core recovery was close to 90%, and a total of 147 coal samples, which represented 802.8 cumulative feet of coal, were taken for analysis. The exploration program confirmed a strike length of over 3 miles to the southwest from the main river bank exposure. Northward extension is unknown at this time. Although outcrop exposure is poor away from the river banks, burnout zones resulting from past coal bed fires form a resistant, recognizable on strike feature in the relatively unindurated Tertialy sequence. The appearance of these burnout zones along strike is often the only surface indication of the buried coal-bearing strata. Well preserved plant fossil impressions in the baked clays date the deposit as probable Miocene (2). Coal characterization and washability studies were performed on all coal samples by the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory of the University of Alaska Fairbanks. This work was conducted under the direction of Dr. P.D. Rao, Professor of Coal Technology.
    • Characterization of Alaska's coals

      Rao, P.D. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1974)
      Coal characterization is a systematic determination of those properties of coal, or of its constituents, that affect its behavior when used. It will help in planning for recovery and use of the extensive Alaskan coal deposits, which have proven reserves of 130 billion tons. This estimate is of necessity based on widely scattered outcrops and meager drill hole data, and the reserves in the Cook Inlet region and the Northern Alaska field are considered to be several fold this figure.
    • Characterization of coal products from high temperature processing of Usibelli low-rank coals

      Rao, P.D.; Walsh, D.E.; Wilson, W.; Li, YuFu (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1991)
      This research project was conducted in association with Gilbert/Commonwealth Inc. as part of an overall techno-economic assessment of high temperature drying of low-rank coals. This report discusses the characteristics of the dried/pyrolyzed products of two high temperature, evaporative processes and the dried product from a hydrothermal process. The long term goal of this and other coal drying studies conducted at MIRL, was to define drying technologies that have significant and real potential to competitively move Alaska's, low-rank coals (LRCs) into the export, steam coal market of the Pacific Rim. In 1990, Japan imported 33 million metric tons (mt) of steam coal with an additional 39 million mt imported by other Far East nations(2). Australia dominates the export steam coal market to these Pacific Rim countries and exported 48 million mt in 1990 and an additional 61 million mt of metallurgical coal(2). The worldwide steam coal export market has been expanding rapidly, from 20 million mt in 1973 to 150 million mt in 1989, and is expected to double to nearly 300 million mt by the end of the century(3). Could Alaska capture only 3% of the projected new world steam coal market, which is not an unreasonable expectation, the value of the state's coal exports would soar from nominally $28 million per year to over $100 million per year. However, without development of economical methods for drying/stabilizing Alaskan LRCs, the only increase in export of Alaskan coals may be from the few "higher rank" coals within a "reasonable" transport range of the existing Alaska rail system or tidewater. Presently the coal from the Usibelli Coal Mine is the only low-rank coal exported internationally as a steam coal; primarily for its blending properties with other coal to improve combustion. But for Alaskan low-rank coals to truly stand on their own merits, economical drying processes must be developed that produce a physically and chemically stable dried product. The technologies that have the most potential for increasing the use of Alaskan coals are those that can reduce the moisture content of these coals economically, and produce a fuel that is accepted in the international market place. Drying technologies will no doubt differ, depending on the end use of the fuel; be it dried lump coal, briquettes or pellets for pulverized coal or stoker applications, or concentrated coal-water fuels made from hot water dried LRCs. There are a number of developing processes that may work with Alaskan coals. Some drying processes, however, have been plagued by the production of excessive amounts of coal fines, Since the demand for Alaskan coal is currently limited to lump size coal, large quantities of fines are a definite liability. In this study, two high temperature drying/pyrolysis processes and one hydrothermal process were investigated. The high temperature drying/pyrolysis processes were conducted at (1) the Western Research Institute, (WRI) an affiliate of the University of Wyoming Research Corporation, Laramie, WY, and (2) Coal Technology Corporation (CTC) of Brisol, VA. Hydrothermal processing was conducted at MIRL, University of Alaska Fairbanks. A summary of these processes and the products they produced follows.
    • Chemical characterization of liquefaction products of an inertinite enriched northern Alaska coals

      Mayasandra, Venugopal (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1989)
      A Northern Alaskan coal rich in inertinites was further enriched by density gradient separations. The degree of condensation of the enriched coal was estimated to be low, mainly 3 ring. The reactivity of the inertinite enriched coal was determined by comparing yields from direct liquefaction with H2 at 0 and 30 minute residence times, 425°C, using an H-donor solvent in one case and moly-catalyst in the other with H2 pressures of 500 and 1000 psig respectively. Solid products were analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy while the hexane solubles were separated into various chemical classes, viz. alkanes, neutral polycyclic aromatic compounds, hydroxy polycyclic aromatic oxygen heterocycles, and secondary, tertiary amino polycyclic aromatic compounds. The chemical compounds in these fractions were further analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS)an dcapillary gas chromatography. This work confirmed earlier data showing that inertinites are not as determinental to liquefaction as previously thought.
    • Clearing Alaskan Water Supply Impoundments : Data

      Smith, Daniel W.; Justice, Stanley R. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1976-04)
      The data contained in IWR-67 (Clearing Alaskan Supply Impoundments: Management and Laboratory Study) was collected to determine the effect on water quality of five proposed Alaskan reservoirs as a function of the extent of clearing in site preparation. The study developed a methodology for such analysis and made recommendations as to the best clearing alternatives for each reservoir site. For graphic presentation and evaluation of the data, refer to IWR-67 and IWR-67-A (Literature Review), published by the Institute of Water Resources, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska.
    • Clearing Alaskan Water Supply Impoundments : Literature Review

      Justice, Stanley R.; Smith, Daniel W. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1976-04)
      This literature review was prepared in conjunction with a research project evaluating the effect on water quality of five proposed Alaskan Reservoirs and recommending clearing alternatives. For the results of the laboratory study and discussion of impoundment management in northern regions refer to "Clearing Alaskan Water Supply Impoundments, Management and Laboratory Study" (IWR-67). The data developed in the laboratory portion of the study is contained in IWR-67-B. Contact the Institute of Water Resources if access to this material is desired. Much of the material in this review was derived from the paper "The Effect of Reservoirs on Water Quality" which was prepared by Stan Justice in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Environmental Quality Engineering.
    • Clearing Alaskan water supply impoundments: management, laboratory study, and literature review

      Smith, Daniel W.; Justice, Stanley R. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1976-04)
      Water supply impoundments in northern regions have seen only limited application. Reasons for the lack of use of such impoundments include the following: 1) little demand for water due to the low population densities and rustic life styles; 2) a lack of conventional distribution systems in many communities; 3) poorly developed technology for construction of dams on permafrost; 4) adequacy of existing river, lake, ice, and lagoon water supplies; 5) shortage of capital to finance the high cost of construction in remote regions.
    • Coal in Alaska requirements to enhance environmentally sound use in both domestic and Pacific Rim markets

      Wilson, W.G.; Irwin, W.; Sims, John; Rao, P.D.; Noll, Bill (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1990)
      This document originates from three meetings held in 1989 with the leaders of the Alaskan Coal Industry and coal technologists from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)~ Mineral Industry Research Laboratory (MIRL) and Geophysical Institute - University of Alaska Fairbanks, the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, the Alaska Science and Technology Commission, several of the Alaska Native Corporations, and a number of coal experts from private industries. The information included is intended to illustrate the vast resource base and quality of Alaskan coals, show the projected size of the Pacific Rim steam coal market, discuss policy changes necessary to facilitate the development of an expanded coal industry, and describe the technology development needs for Alaskan coals to compete in the world market. It is aimed at increasing the general knowledge about the potential of coal in Alaska and providing data for use in marketing the resource.
    • Cold climate water/wastewater transportation and treatment - a bibliography: completion report

      Tilsworth, Timothy; Smith, Daniel M.; Zemansky, G. M.; Justice, Stanley R. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1977-12)
      This bibliography contains 1,400 citations, including published and unpublished papers, on cold-climate water and wastewater transportation and treatment systems. Sources listed include state and federal agency files which contain information on systems in Alaskan communities and the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company camps. References to systems in other northern countries are also included. The objectives of this study were to identify causes of the failure of Alaskan water and wastewater treatment and transportation facilities and to seek methods for design improvements. Originally, the investigators contemplated an evaluation of systems performance in remote areas in relation to the original conception, planning, design, and construction. Because of the tremendous amount of literature examined, the evaluation was undertaken in a subsequent study, "Alaska Wastewater Treatment Technology" (A-058-ALAS) by Dr. Ronald A. Johnson.
    • The combined use of a sand screw, hydrocyclones, and gel-logs to treat placer mine process water

      Chuang, YeKang (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1988)
      This study describes a low-maintenance tailings treatment system for placer mines. A sand screw and two 20 inch hydrocyclones were used to remove gravel, sand and silt from a sluice box discharge. Gel-logs were introduced subsequent to the main settling pond to reduce the suspended solids. Results drawn from a two year study at a placer mine in interior Alaska indicated that: (1) Most of the plus 50 mm particles can be removed from the sluice tailings by the combination of a sand screw and 20 inch hydrocyclones, (2) When using the hydrocyclone overflow, without further cleaning, in recycle operation, the performance of the sand screw and hydrocyclones change due to the build up of fine particles. (3) In laboratory testing cationic type gel-logs proved to be effective in reducing the turbidity of settling pond water from 4,000 NTU to 80 NTU. However, at the mine this test result could not be duplicated even though 14 logs were applied to treat 25% (c 500gpm) of the pond overflow. The cost of installation and operation of the sand screw and hydrocyclone system was about 11% of the total operational cost of the mine in 1986.
    • Community Response Strategies for Environmental Problems of Water Supply and Wastewater Disposal in Fairbanks, Alaska

      Smith, Daniel W.; Pearson, Roger W. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1975-06)
      This report examines the history of the response strategies of the Fairbanks, Alaska, community to problems of water supply and wastewater disposal. Fairbanks is significant since it is the largest settlement in the northern subarctic and arctic regions of North America. Today, the City of Fairbanks and the surrounding urban area have a combined population of over 40,000.