• Deadfall Syncline coal, quality and reserves

      Callahan, J.E.; Rao, P.D.; Walsh, D.E. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1992)
      PRESENT INVESTIGATION The purpose of the 1991 drilling program was twofold: 1. To evaluate the coal reserves in a previously identified thick coal in an area of low structural dips and dip-slope topography near the axial plunge of the west extension of the Deadfall Syncline, primarily for surface mining, and to determine the feasibility of mining additional beds in conjunction with the thick coal. (For the purposes of this investigation, this coal is designated K3 as explained below), 2. To examine a continuous and unbroken stratigraphic interval of the Corwin formation in the northeastern part of the Deadfall Syncline as an initial step toward evaluation of the whole basin. This was accomplished by drilling overlapping holes aligned generally parallel to the dip direction, and spaced in accordance with the magnitude of dip and depth capacity of the drill. About 720 feet of stratigraphic section were covered in this way. A total of fourteen exploratory holes were drilled, ranging from 116 to 426 feet in depth (Figure 2). The drill was a Mobil B-60 mounted on a Nodwell tracked vehicle. Circulation was provided by a large compressor mounted on another Nodwell. Most of the footage was drilled with an air hammer, which provided a significant improvement in drilling rates over conventional rotary drilling. Lithology of cuttings from all holes was logged continuously, and composite grab samples from each 5 or 10 foot interval were taken. Coal cuttings were collected on a (relatively) clean plastic sheet, and promptly double bagged in plastic to minimize loss of bed moisture. Cores were taken from the K3 coal at 3 drill hole locations, and the underlying K4 coal was also cored at one of these 3 holes. A comparison of core length to geophysical logs indicates essentially 100% recovery for all cores. All samples, including rock cuttings, were shipped to the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory (MIRL), University of Alaska Fairbanks, for analyses and/or storage. All holes were logged with a Gearhart-Owen GeoLogger using natural garmna and gammagamma density tools. The log response with these tools for coals is distinct and unambiguous, particularly that of the density log, and the resolution is sufficient to estimate bed thickness to within 3 to 4 inches (Figures 8 and 9).
    • Determination mercury in Alaskan coals by flameless atomic absorption

      Rao, P.D. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1973)
      An oxygen combustion, double gold amalgamation system is constructed for the determination of mercury in Alaskan coals. Solutions have been found for certain problems in design and operation. The effect of operating variables have been thoroughly evaluated and analytical procedure is outlined. The system involves combustion of goal in an oxygen atmosphere and amalgamating mercury on gold coils. The amalgamated mercury is released by heating and measured in an atomic absorption cell.
    • Determination of molybdenum in geological materials

      Rao, P.D. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1971-09)
      This paper will describe a method for the determination of molybdenum in geological materials. It is known that molybdenum as molybdate or phosphomolybdate ion can be extracted using the liquid ion exchanger, Aliquat 336 (methyl tricapryl ammonium chloride, available from General Mills, Inc. Kankakee, Ill.). Aliquat 336 has been used for analytical separation of gold, tungsten, and actinide-lanthanide elements.
    • The determination of titanium in titaniferous magnetite ores by atomic absorption spectrophotometry

      Rao, P.D. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1972-03)
      Amos and Willis (1) first investigated the use of nitrous oxide for the determination of titanium. They found that the presence of HF and iron enhance the absorption of titanium. They recommended “much more extensive investigation before a practicing chemical analyst can determine this element in a routine fashion by atomic absorption.” Various authors (2, 3, 4, 5, 6) have investigated titanium by atomic absorption and have recommended a number of different procedures to remove interference. In attempting to analyze lithium metaborate fusions (7, 8) of titaniferous magnetite ores of Alaska by atomic absorption, it was found that the interferences are not completely removed by any single approach suggested in the literature. Silicon, iron and aluminum could vary widely between samples and an approach was needed that would completely eliminate interference effects of all these elements, without having to match the gross matrix composition of samples and standards.
    • Development of a Conceptual Hydrologic Model for a Sub-Arctic Watershed

      Carlson, Robert F. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972-06)
      The Caribou-Poker Creek Research Watershed began as an Alaskan inter-agency effort in 1969. As more data becomes accumulated, as more hydrologic analysis is accomplished and as a greater variety of activities are carried out on the watershed, there is a need to understand the complete hydrologic system of the watershed. This report describes the development of a general hydrologic system model which describes the runoff occurrence on the watershed. The model will provide a basis upon which to make comparative observations, to suggest changes in·the model structure and to point out further measurement needs. A conceptual model study such as this work should not be thought of as a final answer to all systems analysis within the watershed or even the most desirable answer in many cases. There is a definite need, however, for a conceptual model because of the variety of activities and investigators, many of which do not have a complete understanding of the whole system. A complete and flexible conceptual model provides a convenient focal point for all types of investigators, regardless of their background and interest in the overall system. The Caribou-Poker Creek Research Watershed is located approximately 25 miles northwest of Fairbanks, Alaska. It is about 40 square miles in size and covers a variety of terrain which is typical of Interior Alaska. Other details concerning this watershed may be found in Slaughter (1971). Results of hydrologic data to date has been primarily data collection and reporting (Slaughter, 1972). The model as it is offered in this report is not intended to be a complete study of conceptual watershed modeling. Rather, the intention is to illustrate the derivation of a conceptual model and illustrate how it is applied to a particular watershed.
    • Development of a light-weight low cost self potential unit

      Zonge, K.L. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1968)
      A lightweight, low cost self-potential unit has been developed using solid state components. The parts for the basic unit including batteries, copper sulfate pots, and hookup wire costs approximately $70.00. The device is instant reading and weighs two pounds. The batteries used have a shelf life of ten years and an estimated operation life (based on continuous use for ten hours per day) of sixty days. This instrument was developed specifically for the Alaskan prospector who is concerned with weight and cost of field instrumentation.
    • Development of an Operational Northern Aquatic Ecosystem Model: Completion Report

      Carlson, Robert F.; Fox, Patricia M.; LaPerriere, Jacqueline D. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1977-06)
    • Distribution of certain minor elements in Alaskan coals

      Rao, P.D. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1968)
      Seventy-five samples of coal from Northern Alaska, Jarvis Creek, Nenana, Matanuska, Kenai and Bering River Coal Fields were analyzed by quantitative spectrochemical procedures f o r lead, gallium, copper, barium, beryllium, nickel, titanium, vanadium, zirconium, cobalt, chromium, germanium, and tin. Other elements, of significance, identified from the spectrograms were, gold and silver identified in certain Nenana coals and silver in coals from Chickaloon in the Matanuska field, in concentrations up to several parts per million of coal ash. Forty-one of the above samples were sink-floated to study the distribution of minor elements between the organic and inorganic phases of the coals. Relative affinities of the minor of the minor elements to the organic matter in the coal is discussed.
    • Distribution of Organics from Salmon Decomposition: Completion Report

      Goering, J.; Brickell, D. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972-12)
      In the fall of 1969, an OWRR-supported study of salmon carcass decomposition was initiated with the intent of collecting information on the biological and chemical dynamics of the decomposition and deposition of salmon wastes in Alaskan estuaries. The study aim was to elucidate the rates and mechanisms of the chemical transformations that accompany breakdown of fish flesh and to reveal the capacity of the Alaskan estuaries to handle quantities of organic seafood waste without presenting a pollution problem. This study has been in progress for several years, and the results have markedly increased our understanding of the decomposition of such organic materials in coastal streams and estuaries.
    • Distribution, analysis, and recovery of fine gold from alluvial deposits

      Cook, D.J.; Rao, P.D. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1973)
      The United States Bureau of Mines, in its Heavy Metals Program, desired to have research performed to determine the size-frequency distribution and possible economic value of gold particles in the fine size ranges of Alaskan placer deposits. Primary interest was involved in obtaining evidence of the occurrence of fine gold and to determine the ameanability of standard sampling and production methods in the evaluation and recovery processes. A research contract between the United States Bureau of Mines and the University of Alaska was initiated in June, 1968 as the first phase of this investigation, but was subsequently modified in June, 1969 to include beneficiation processes amenable to recovery as well as evaluation methods for fine and flakey gold. In searching the literature relative to fine gold in Alaskan placer deposits, it was found that virtually no research has been devoted to determining the extent of fine gold distribution and its effect on evaluation and subsequent recovery methods. Standard evaluation techniques have relied on gravity methods of concentration and recovery of the visible gold from the concentrate. In general, this has proved satisfactory in that operational recovery methods used were probably not conducive to retaining gold particles of less than 100 mesh in size. Operators have made no attempt to obtain a size analysis of gold in a head sample, but many have kept records of the size distribution of the gold as actually recovered. A review of these records, from selected areas, indicates that the -100 mesh gold represents from 0 to 5% of the total gold recovered. Although figures of this type may point to a probably fine gold loss, the difficulties inherent in evaluating the tailng material or modifying the recovery system have usually discouraged efforts in this direction.
    • Economic and Organizational Issues in Alaska Water Quality Management

      Erickson, Gregg K.; Tussing, Arlon R. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1971-09)
    • Effect of Waste Discharges into a Silt-laden Estuary: A Case Study of Cook Inlet, Alaska

      Murphy, R. Sage; Carlson, Robert F.; Nyquist, David; Britch, Robert (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972-11)
      Cook Inlet is not well known. Although its thirty-foot tidal range is widely appreciated, its other characteristics, such as turbulence, horizontal velocities of flow, suspended sediment loads, natural biological productivity, the effects of fresh water inflows, temperature, and wind stresses, are seldom acknowledged. The fact that the Inlet has not been used for recreation nor for significant commercial activity explains why the average person is not more aware of these characteristics. Because of the gray cast created by the suspended sediments in the summer and the ice floes in the winter, the Inlet does not have the aura of a beautiful bay or fjord. The shoreline is inhospitable for parks and development, the currents too strong for recreational activities, and, because of the high silt concentration, there is little fishing. Yet, Cook Inlet, for all its negative attributes, can in no way be considered an unlimited dumping ground for the wastes of man. It may be better suited for this purpose than many bays in North America, but it does have a finite capacity for receiving wastes without unduly disturbing natural conditions. This report was written for the interested layman by engineers and scientists who tried to present some highly technical information in such a manner that it could be understood by environmentalists, concerned citizens, students, decision makers, and lawmakers alike. In attempting to address such a diverse audience, we risked failing to be completely understood by any one group. However, all too often research results are written solely for other researchers, a practice which leads to the advancement of knowledge but not necessarily to its immediate use by practicing engineers nor to its inclusion in social, economic, and political decision-making processes. We hope this report will shorten the usual time lag between the acquisition of new information and its use. Several additional reports will be available for a limited distribution. These will be directed to technicians who wish to know the mathematical derivations, assumptions, and other scientific details used in the study. Technical papers by the individual authors, published in national and international scientific and engineering journals, are also anticipated.
    • The Effectiveness of a Contact Filter for the Removal of Iron from Ground Water

      Kim, Steve W. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1971-01)
      Various types of modified filters were investigated to replace greensand filters which clogged when removing ground water. A properly designed uniform-grain sized filter can increase the filtration time more than ten times that of ordinary sand or greensand filters. The filter medium was obtained by passing commercial filter material between two standard sieves of a close size range, so that the resulting medium was of a uniform size. The head loss rate on such a medium was independent of the filter depth and was inversely proportional to the almost 3/2 power of the grain size. On the other hand, the filter depth was almost linearly proportional to the time of protective action. The effects of the grain size, filter depth, and filter material on the filter run were evaluated with a synthetic iron water; and optimum filter depths for each unisized material were determined. At identical filtration conditions, anthracite had a 70 to 110% longer filter run than the sand medium, and it was attributed to the greater porosity of the former. Expectedly, the time to reach initial leakage of the iron floc was greater with the coarse and more porous medium. but was reduced to an insignificant amount when the filter depth was increased to three to six feet. The performance of unisized filters on permanganate-treated ground water was much better than that of fine-grained greensand. Applicability of experimental data on an existing filtration theory was investigated
    • The Effects of Extreme Floods and Placer Mining on the Basic Productivity of Sub Arctic Streams : A Completion Report

      Morrow, James E. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1971)
      The original proposal for this project was submitted to OWRR in the fall of 1967 and envisioned a two year investigation involving the principal investigator and three graduate student assistants, with a first year budget of nearly $25,000.00. However, the project was approved for only one year, with a total budget of $5,757.00. In addition, even these funds did not become available until August 1968. Because of the lateness of availability and the sharp curtailment of the total amount, it was not possible to purchase any equipment. Hence, measurements of rainfall, current velocity, basic productivity, etc., had to be abondoned. All that could be done was to acquire data on the bottom fauna and some physico-chemical characteristics of the water.
    • The effects of placer mining on the environment in Central Alaska

      Wolff, E.N.; Thomas, B (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1982)
      Within the Tolovana Mining District, as a result of placer mining, 800 acres of land have been disturbed (0.25% of the land area) and 4 million cubic yards of much have been transported down the Tolovana River through the subsiding Minto Flats. This has increased the rate of sedimentation of the lakes adjacent to the Tolovana River. Mine tailings are about 50% revegetated by natural species. Approximately 60 million cubic yards of muck must be removed to mine the Livengood deposits. A large area of settling ponds will be needed if the deposit is stripped by hydraulic means, or a large area for stacking overburden if mechanical stripping is required. The Crooked Creek area, mined for 80 years has 1,900 acres disturbed (0.7% of the land area) and 200,000 cubic yards of much has been stripped. No correlation is apparent between mining and the non-anadromous fish population, although sport fishing is considered by some to be not as good as a result of mining. Portions of the stream system observed to be impacted with mud showed evidence of having been periodically flushed out. Slave analysis and trace element analysis were applied in an attempt to trace sediments back to their sources, but were not successful. Mining is the pioneer industry around which much of the State of Alaska developed. The transportation network required by the mining industry benefits sportsmen, the tour industry, and directly increases the value of adjacent land. The profit from mining brought much of the early population to the state, and will be a steady source of revenue in years to come.
    • Effects of Reservoir Clearing on Water Quality in the Arctic and Subarctic: Completion Report

      Smith, Daniel W.; Justice, Stanley R. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1975-01)
    • Effects of seasonability and variability of streamflow on nearshore coastal areas: final report

      Carlson, Robert F.; Seifert, Richard D.; Kane, Douglas L. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1977-01)
      General nature and scope of the study: This study examines the variability of streamflow in all gaged Alaskan rivers and streams which terminate in the ocean. Forty-one such streams have been gaged for varying periods of time by the U. S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division. Attempts have been made to characterize streamflow statistically using standard hydrological methods. The analysis scheme which was employed is shown in the flow chart which follows. In addition to the statistical characterization, the following will be described for each stream when possible: 1. average period of break-up initiation (10-day period) 2. average period of freeze-up (10-day period) 3. miscellaneous break-up and freeze-up data. 4. relative hypsometric curve for each basin 5. observations on past ice-jam flooding 6. verbal description of annual flow variation 7. original indices developed in this study to relate streamflow variability to basin characteristics and regional climate.
    • The Effects of Surface Disturbances on the Leaching of Heavy Metals

      Dixson, David P.; Brown, Edward J. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1987-10)
      The harmful effects of heavy metal contamination of surface waters impacted by gold mining activity are well documented. An examination was conducted on the effects of surface disturbances in Wade Creek on the concentrations of heavy metals in solution, and whether Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, a bacteria found in heavy metal contaminated drainages from placer mines, is found in the drainage. Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was not detected in this particular setting. The effects of mining activity and relandscaping of stockpiled tailings showed in a short distance, a net increase of dissolved arsenic, copper, zinc, and iron. However, the long distance impact of dissolved metals was minimal. Generally, it seems that the dampening of the total suspended solids had a direct effect on the removal of metals dissolved in solution.
    • The Effects of Suspended Silts and Clays on Self-purification in Natural Waters: Protein Adsorption

      Murray, Ann P. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972-04)
      The effects of the suspended sediments found in many natural waters on the microbial processes involved in the self-purification of those waters are not known. Clays and silts with their large surface area per unit weight have an immense capacity for adsorbing nutrient molecules from solution, but the extent to which such adsorption takes place is largely unknown. Adsorption of a major portion of a biodegradable substance from solution onto a solid surface would significantly alter its susceptibility to bacterial attack and, hence, also the rate at which it is decomposed. In this paper are reported the results of adsorption experiments with soil materials found in some Alaskan waters which are typically heavily sediment-laden. The affinities of these soils for the protein bovine serum albumin were measured as a function of pH, temperature, and protein concentration. An empirical relationship was discovered, for a given soil material, between the equilibrium protein concentration and the initial protein-to-soil ratio. Temperature variations from 5 to 25°C had no detectable effect on adsorption, whereas variations in pH between 2 and 10 had dramatic effects on the extent of adsorption. The amount of protein adsorbed at the pH of the natural water system was so small as to lead one to predict that adsorption of this protein onto suspended sediments would have a negligible effect on the rate at which the protein would be decomposed by bacteria in the aqueous environment.
    • Effects of Thermal Discharge Upon a Subarctic Stream: Completion Report

      Carlson, Robert F.; Tilsworth, Timothy; Hok, Charlotte (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-06)