• Factors affecting costs of mining in Alaska

      Lambert, C.; Taylor, D. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1982)
      The basic factors which affect the cost of mining in Alaska are discussed herein. Contrary to popular opinion, cold weather is not the major factor. This problem has, for the most part, been solved through experience in Eastern Canada and later efforts in British Columbia and the Yukon. Remoteness and isolation and its effect upon personnel, inventory and services of all kinds are among the more difficult with which to anticipate and cope. Considerable creativity is required to solve these problems, which differ somewhat with the type and location of mineral deposit, and will quite likely require solutions at variance with the current attitudes and practices of the company involved. In Alaska, electric power, transportation and land tenure pose difficulties of a type not experienced when existing mines in Canada were developed.
    • Factors Affecting Water Management on the North Slope of Alaska

      Greenwood, Julian K.; Murphy, R. Sage (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972-02)
      The North Slope of Alaska is undergoing sudden development following the recent discovery of large oil and gas reserves in the area. The water resources of the region should be carefully managed both to ensure adequate supplies of usable water at reasonable cost, and to guard against excessive deterioration of water quality. The likely effects on the environment of man's activities are investigated and found to be poorly understood at the present time. Research priorities are suggested to supply rapid answers to questions of immediate importance. The applicability of a regional management concept to the North Slope waters is considered and the concept is recommended as part of a broad land and water planning philosophy which would emphasize regional control over state and federal control. The use of economic incentives rather than standards for the control of water quality is not recommended at the present time.
    • Ferric chloride leaching of the Delta sulfide ores and gold extraction from the leaching residue

      Lin, H.K.; Rao, P.D. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1988)
      Conventional differential and bulk flotation processes have difficulties in achieving high recoveries with acceptable grades far zinc, lead and copper from the complex sulfide ores found at Tok, Alaska. Furthermore, gold and silver, which account for a significant fraction of total value of the ores, are distributed evenly in the flotation tailings and concentrate. Therefore, processing both flotation tailings and concentrate would be necessary to obtain high recoveries of gold and silver. A mineralogical study revealed that the economic sulfide minerals are interstitially associated with a large preponderance of pyrite. The economic sulfide minerals are 10 to 40 microns in size. These mineralogical facts explain the difficulties encountered in the flotation process. A hydrometallurgical method involving ferric chloride leaching and subsequent steps to recover lead, zinc, silver and copper from the leach liquor has been studied at the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, University of Alaska Fairbanks for the treatment of Delta ores. This alternative is attractive for processing complex sulfide ores which conventional flotation and smelting cannot handle. In addition, the liberation of sulfur in the environmentally acceptable elemental form, rather than as sulfur dioxide, may prove a major advantage of this hydrometallurgical method because of stringent environmental regulations.
    • Fifth annual conference on Alaskan placer mining

      Campbell, B.W.; Madonna, J.A.; Husted, S.M. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1983)
      An abridged format of papers, presentations and addresses given during the 1983 conference held on March 30-31, 1983 compiled and edited by Bruce W. Campbell, Jim Madonna, and M. Susan Husted.
    • Final report - mineral resources of northern Alaska

      Heiner, L.E.; Wolff, E.N. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1968)
      PURPOSE. This is the final report on the work authorized on July 29, 1967, by the NORTH Commission. The purpose is to inventory mineral resources in northern Alaska and to delineate favorable mineral areas, insofar as possible. Later, a mineral policy study was added and a survey of available airborne geophysics. The Alaska Railroad made possible the large scale dredging at Fairbanks and became a feeder to all interior districts. It allowed the building of military bases during and after World War II. Freight moves predominantly north.
    • Flood Frequency Design in Sparse-data Regions

      Carlson, Robert F.; Fox, Patricia M. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-06)
      This report summarizes work conducted with funds received from the Office of Water Research and Technology (OWRT), Project B-030-ALAS, Flood Frequency in Sparse-Data Regions. The study was conducted from July 1, 1974, to June 30, 1976, plus a one-year extension to June 30, 1977. The technical results are given in a number of publications which are referenced and abstracted here along with a presentation of the overall philosophy of the project and a coherent summary of the work. Alaska may be characterized, as can most northern areas, by a very sparse data collection network of hydrologic variables. In combination with several physical characteristics of northern hydrology, the sparse data network leads to a very difficult design circumstance. The most well known physical aspect of northern hydrology is permafrost. Other factors of importance are large elevation differences, regional inhomogeneity, high latitude, low temperatures, and the very dynamic nature of the spring breakup. These factors, in combination with the short data base in northern regions, cause hydrologic design to have a large degree of uncertainty.
    • Flood Frequency Estimation in Northern Sparse Data Regions: Completion Report

      Carlson, Robert F.; Fox, Patricia (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-07)
      The primary objective of this project was to complete development of an arctic hydrologic model and to evaluate its usefulness in generating information useful for a design tool in estimation of peak flow discharges. The peak flow discharges studied were those generally analyzed and evaluated in the design of facilities for stream crossings.
    • Focus on Alaska's coal '75, proceedings of the conference

      Rao, P.D.; Wolff, E.N. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1975)
      Interest in Alaska's coals has increased greatly in the last few years partly as a II result of the public's realization that we are in a real energy shortage and partly because the building of the Alaska pipe line has demonstrated that transportation for Alaska's raw materials can be supplied if needed. Both President Ford and Secretary of Interior Kleppe have pointedly stated that Alaska must furnish much of the nation's energy needs in the next few decades. During the years 1974 and 1975, industry also showed greater interest as indicated by the large scale exploration activities in the Nenana, Beluga and Susitna coal fields. As a result of all of this interest it was decided that the time was right for an exchange of information on Alaska's coal; to bring people together and bring them up to date, and this conference was the result. Focus on Alaska's Coal, the first conference of its kind, attracted wide participation and apparently an enthusiastic response. The papers and the audience questions showed an overriding concern for the nation's energy needs and the possibility that Alaska can help alleviate those needs with its enormous solid fuel resources along with its oil and gas resources. As a result of the conference, the following points were brought into focus: Alaska's coal deposits are much more extensive than hitherto known. The development of a coal industry in Alaska to supply west coast markets is no longer a dream, and will in fact be a reality before long. Additional research on characterization and upgrading of coals is needed to further evaluate the potential of the enormous reserves. Alaska's coals are low in sulfur and thus are environmentally more acceptable. It is hoped that this conference brought into focus the opportunities Alaska offers to the nation and as a result, that work will be stimulated leading to the further development and utilization of its coal resources.
    • Focus on Alaska's coal '80, proceedings of the conference

      Rao, P.D.; Wolff, E.N. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1980)
      The principal objectives of the conference were to bring together current knowledge on Alaska's coal resources, mining methods, utilization and marketing, and every interested party to share this knowledge. The excellent papers presented and the large number of participants indicates that the objectives were accomplished.
    • Focus on Alaska's coal '86 - proceedings of the conference

      Rao, P.D. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1987)
      This volume contains 35 papers presented at the two-day conference, "Focus on Alaska's Coal '86," held in Anchorage at the Hotel Captain Cook on October 28 and 29, 1986.
    • Focus on Alaska's coal '93 - proceedings of the conference

      Rao, P.D.; Walsh, D.E. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1994)
      This volume contains 20 of the 28 papers presented at the two-day conference, "Focus on Alaska's Coal '93," held in Anchorage at the Hotel Captain Cook on May 5-7; 1993. "Focus on Alaska's Coal '93" is the fourth in a series of conferences. "Focus on Alaska's Coal 1975" and "Focus on Alaska's Coal 1980" were held in Fairbanks, and "Focus on Alaska's Coal '86" was held in Anchorage. Their proceedings have been published.
    • Fortran IV program for processing geochemical sediment data, 34 p.

      Heiner, L.E. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1970)
      A general computer program has been written to process geochemical data resulting from the analysis of up to 34 trace elements per sample. This program will: 1. Produce a table for direct inclusion in formalreports. The table contains the map number and field number of the geochemical samples, the corresponding elemental values and a table giving descriptive data about the sample. Prior to printing, the samples are arranged according to map number for easy correspondence between the table of values and to the geochemical map. 2. Compute the average value for each element, normally and lognormally. 3. Compute the standard deviation for each element, normally and lognormally. 4. Compute the threshold value for each element, normally and lognormally. 5. Compute the anomalous concentrations for each element, normally and lognormally. 6. Draw lognormal, or standard histograms for each element. All geochemical samples taken by the Alaska Division of Mines and Geology during the summer of 1968 and 1969 were processed by this program or a modification of the program. The program can be modified to enable production of automatic maps and tables of anomalous samples.
    • Fortran IV trent-surface program for the IBM 360 model 40 computer

      Heiner, Lawrence; Geller, Stephen P. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1966)
      A Fortran IV trend surface program with polynomial contouring and residual plotting has been adapted to the University of Alaska IBM 360 Model 40 Computer. The program will compute equations of polynomials of the first through sixth degree, measures of the goodness of fit of the surfaces, tabulate original data, x y coordinates and corresponding residuals for each surface; contour each polynomial, and plot original values and residuals for each surface computed.
    • Fourth annual conference Alaskan placer mining

      Campbell, B.W.; DiMarchi, J.J.; Wolff, E.N. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1982)
      An abridged format of papers, presentations and addresses given during the conference held on March 30-31, 1982, compiled and edited by: Bruce W. Campbell, John J. DiMarchi, and Ernest N. Wolff.
    • Geochemical-geophysical investigations, Fairbanks district

      Heiner, L.E.; Beistline, E.H.; Moody, D.W.; Thomas, B.I.; Wallis, J.E.; Loperfido, J.C.; Peterson, R.J.; Wolff, E.N. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1967)
      Trace element distribution in a subarctic valley in the Cleary Hill area of the Fairbanks gold district has been studied. Zinc and arsenic have been found excellent pathfinder elements for auriferous deposits. Methods of analysis for copper, lead, zinc, molybdenum, silver and arsenic as well as heavy metals are discussed. The University of Alaska method #2 has been improved, Terrain, slope, and frozen ground have little effect upon the distribution of trace elements associated with the Cleary H i l l vein. A new method for the determination of zinc using dilute acid is proposed. Analysis of geochemical data by trend surface procedures proved effective for localization of anomalies.
    • Geology and Geochemistry of the Ship Creek and Monashka Creek reservoirs, Southcentral Alaska

      Hawkins, Daniel B.; Nelson, Gordon L. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1976-01)
      Graywacke from the Ship Creek watershed, dissolves incongruently in distilled water. The dissolution appears to follow a first-order rate law which in integrated form is: k = -2.303/t log No-Q/No where No is the concentration in ppm of Ca, Mg, Na or K in the graywacke, Q is the total quantity of these ions leached in time t(days), k is the rate constant in days-1. Experimentally derived rate constants for the dissolution of graywacke in distilled water at 5oC are log k+2CA, -4.128 day-1; log k+2Mg, -6.174 day-1; log k+Na, -5.800 day-1; and log k+K, -5.249 day-1. The above constants are for 40 to +100 mesh graywacke. A surface area correction term must be inserted in the above equation if it is applied to a different size fraction. Using the above equation and rate constants, the chemical composition of a water in contact with graywacke was calculated. With the exception of magnesium, the agreement between the calculated composition and that of Ship Creek water was good. Assuming that the groundwater in the Ship Creek watershed contacts about 1.5X104cm2 graywacke per liter, 120 to 360 days are required at 5oC to produce the concentration of ions observed in Ship Creek. Release of exchangeable H+ from the soil mat to the reservoir water will not significant1y lower the pH of the water. Leaching of heavy metals from sulfides contained in the bedrock of the two watersheds does not pose a water quality hazard. Lineaments in the bedrock at Monashka Creek may provide channels through which water may seep from the reservoir. These are not expected to pose a problem in retaining water in the reservoir, but they may result in small, new springs down grade from the reservoir.
    • Geology of a subarctic, tin-bearing batholith - Circle Hot Springs, Alaska

      Wilkinson, Kathy (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1987)
      A small batholith (56mi2) outcrops approximately 94 miles northeast of Fairbanks. It occurs in a historically rich area for placer gold. Additionally, placer tin has been recorded in the creeks that flow through or adjacent to the batholith.
    • Geophysical and Biological Reconnaissance of Rock Habitats in Western Camden Bay, Beaufort Sea, Alaska

      Dunton, K. H.; Schonberg, S. V.; Schell, Donald M. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1983-05)
      This report presents the results of a 10-day geophysical and biological survey in western Camden Bay, in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. The primary objective of this survey was to confirm the existence of boulders and cobbles on the seafloor as reported by Barnes (1981, 1982). The survey area extended from the eastern edge of the Canning River (mud flat area) to Kangigivik Point and seaward to the 14m contour line (Fig. 1). A solid boundary of pack ice prevented any survey work seaward of the 14m contour. We had proposed to examine the seabed to the 18m contour.
    • Glacial Processes and Their Relationship to Streamflow Flute Glacier, Alaska

      Long, William E. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972-01)
      Flute Glacier is located at the head of the South Fork of Eagle River, Alaska, about twenty air-miles east northeast of Anchorage. It is a small north-facing glacier, approximately two miles long and half a mile wide, situated in a deep glacial valley (see Figure 1). Elevations on the glacier range from 3,500 feet at the terminous to 5,800 feet at the top of the accumulation area. Water from Flute Glacier becomes the South Fork of Eagle River, draining about 32 square miles of area compared to a 192 square mile drainage basin for Eagle River. Limited discharge measurements made during October 1968 suggest that the South Fork contributes about 20% of the water flowing down Eagle River. Glacial meltwater forms an important percentage of the waters of the Eagle River system. Glaciers feeding the main Eagle River are large, complex and difficult to study. Flute Glacier, relatively small and of simple plan, was selected for study because of its small size and proximity to the metropolitan area of Anchorage. Water from the Eagle River system is presently included in the plans for future water supply for Anchorage. The Eagle River valley up to the 500 ft contour is a federal power reserve. The climate of the area surrounding Flute Glacier is alpine with cool temperatures and higher than average precipitation for the area. All the glacier is above treeline so no plant life is obvious. Mountain sheep inhabit the sharp alpine peaks surrounding the glacier.
    • Ground Water Quality Effects on Domestic Water Utilization

      Smith, Daniel W.; Casper, Lawrence A. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-03)