• Handbook for the Alaskan Prospector

      Wolff, Ernest (Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 1969)
      It is hoped that this book will be of value to many different classes of men engaged in the search for mineral deposits. These classes might include the experienced practical prospector who would like to learn something of geology; the young geologist who needs information on practical prospecting; the novice who needs a comprehensive reference; and the all around experienced exploration engineer or geologist who might need to refer to some specialized technique, look up a reference in the bibliography, or read a resume of the geology of a particular area, Because this book is aimed at so many different classes, different chapters are written assuming different levels of learning and experience. This, no doubt, will prove troublesome at times, but it is believed to be the best way to insure that the information contained in each chapter will reach with maximum effectiveness the group for whom it is intended.
    • Handbook of geophysical prospecting methods for the Alaskan prospector

      Heiner, L.E. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1969)
      This Handbook has been compiled to acquaint the Alaskan prospector with the more recent application of geophysics for locating economic metallic minerals. For this reason, well documented subjects such as the use of the dip needle and mineral detectors have been excluded.
    • Heat and Mass Transfer in Cold Regions Soils

      Kane, Douglas L.; Luthin, James N.; Taylor, George S. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1975-06)
    • Heavy minerals in Alaskan beach sand deposits

      Cook, D.J. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1969)
      Beach sand deposits along Alaska's shoreline have been prospected and worked for their precious metal content since the time of Russian occupation. Areas such as the Nome Beaches of the Seward Peninsula have been very productive, and in recent years exploration has proceded to include off shore extensions of these deposits. Evaluation of associated heavy mineral contents of these deposits, however, have been cursory and in most cases neglected entirely. In view of the thousands of miles of Alaskan coastline with known mineral provinces on adjacent land; much information is needed concerning the origin of mineral constituents, evaluation of past and present beach deposits and possibilities of off shore extensions of tho continental shelf. This report is concerned with samples of beach sand material submitted to the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory by individuals. These samples, taken from various locations, cannot be viewed as programs designed to delineate reserves from the respective areas. They should be considered as reconnaissance samples to indicate the mineral constituents present and the need for more comprehensive evaluation. Systematic and complete evaluation of all mineral constituents, including precious materials, is a major undertaking because of the erratic nature of the deposits. Special studies are required concerning sampling techniques, mining methods, recovery systems and marketing procedures. It is, therefore, beyond the financial capabilities of most individuals and requires the involvement of government agencies or corporations to obtain the necessary data to determine economic feasibility .
    • A Historical Survey of Water Utilization in the Cook Inlet - Susitna Basin, Alaska

      Hunt, William R. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-06)
      The objectives of the study encompassed a scholarly investigation of the appropriate archival and published literature on the Cook-Inlet-Susitna Basin, and the publication of the articles and a book-length history of the utilization of water resources. There are many aspects of Alaskan history to which historians have not given serious attention. Certainly there has been no historical consideration of the importance of water resources in Alaska. Issues that have involved water use have either been treated journalistically or have been the subject of scientific monographs. The understanding of the public can sometimes be confused by the journalistic treatment of events while scientific reports are seldom read. There is a definite need for a well-researched, lively survey of an important spect of Alaska's history. Many years passed before systematic scientific work was carried out in the Cook Inlet-Susitna region but the uses of its water resources for sanitation, transport, food, and power were intensified as time passed. The region has had significance for well over 200 years to the western peoples who settled there and, of course, for much longer to its aboriginal inhabitants. There has never been a substantial history written of the region, although some aspects of its past have been surveyed in a few pub1ished works, and there has never been a historical survey of water utilization for any region of Alaska. Increasingly, the development of the region will involve political decision. The public scrutiny of the environmental impact of new dam and other construction is not likely to decline. Further petroleum leasing in the outer continental shelf areas will raise questions of the best uses which can be made of the water and other resources. The wisdom of these decisions depends upon our knowledge of all of the factors involved. An understanding of what has happened in the past as people have made use of the water resources could contribute to the effectiveness of judgments made in the future.
    • History of Alaskan Operations of United States Smelting, Refining and Mining Company

      Boswell, John C. (Mineral Industries Research Laboratory, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 1979-03)
    • Hydrogeochemistry of the Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed

      Hawkins, Daniel B.; Glover, David M. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1982-03)
      Bedrock of the Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed dissolves incongruently with a first-order rate constant of about 5 x 10-6 day-1 at 5° C. The resulting solution is potassium-calcium-magnesium rich. The soil-plant environment acts on this solution through sorption of potassium and by evapotranspiration to yield a solution that is relatively depleted in potassium and enriched in calcium and magnesium, but with the same molar ratio of Ca:Mg as the fluid from the rock dissolution. This fluid from the soil-plant reservoir is the dominant contributor of ions to stream waters. Using the discriminant functions obtained by multiple discriminant analysis DPKR = 0.572Si02 + 0.240Ca + 2.89Mg - 0.384Na + 0.452N03 - 9.18 DCRB = 0.913Si02 + 0.042Ca + 1.28Mg + 1.17Na + 4.63N03 - 7.27, the waters of Caribou Creek and Poker Creek can be distinguished on the basis of chemical composition. In general, Poker Creek waters are slightly more concentrated than Caribou Creek waters. On the average, 1.4 x 10^13g H20/year leaves the watershed as surface water. At an average calcium concentration of 14 ppm for the water, 0.1% for the bedrock, and a watershed area of 46 mi^2, this flow corresponds to a maximum loss of about 17 metric tons of rock per hectare per year.
    • Hydrologic Properties of Subarctic Organic Soils

      Kane, Douglas L.; Seifert, Richard D.; Taylor, George S. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-01)
      The need for understanding the natural system and how it responds to various stresses is important; this is especially so in an environment where the climate not only sustains permafrost, but develops massive seasonal frost as well. Consequently, the role of the shallow surface organic layer is also quite important. Since a slight change in the soil thermal regime may bring about a phase change in the water or ice, therefore, the system response to surface alterations such as burning can be quite severe. The need for a better understanding of the behavior and properties of the organic layer is, therefore, accentuated. The central theme of this study was the examination of the hydrologic and hydraulic properties of subarctic organic soils. Summarized in this paper are the results of three aspects of subarctic organic soil examinations conducted during the duration of the project. First, a field site was set up in Washington Creek with the major emphasis on measuring numerous variables of that soil system during the summer. The greatest variations in moisture content occur in the thick organic soils that exist at this site. Our major emphasis was to study the soil moisture levels in these soils. This topic is covered in the first major section, including associated laboratory studies. Those laboratory studies include investigations of several hydraulic and hydrologic properties of taiga organic and mineral soils. Second, some field data on organic moisture levels was collected at the site of prescribed burns in Washington Creek to ascertain the sustainability of fires as a function of moisture levels. This portion of the study is described under the second major heading. The last element of this study was a continued application of the two-dimensional flow model that was developed in an earlier study funded by the U. S. Forest Service, Institute of Northern Forestry, and reported by Kane, Luthin, and Taylor (1975a). Many of the results and concepts gathered in the field work were integrated into the modeling effort, which is aimed at producing better estimates of the hydrologic effects of surface disturbances in the black spruce taiga subarctic ecosystem. This knowledge should also contribute to better fire management decisions of the same system.
    • Hydrological Interpretation of Basin Morphology

      Fox, John D. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-08)
      Hydrologic processes in a particular basin are governed by three groups of factors: input regimes of mass and energy, the nature of mass and energy transfer and transformation, and the biophysical characteristics of the basin. This third group provides the structural or morphological framework in which hydrologic processes are taking place and, as such, contributes significantly to the uniqueness of specific basin response.
    • Hydrology of the Central Arctic River Basins of Alaska

      Kane, Douglas L.; Carlson, Robert F. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-12)
    • Hydrometallurgy of complex sulfide ores, process development

      Rao, P.D. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1988)
      In 1984, Nerco Minerals Co. signed a cooperative agreement with the University of Alaska to conduct hydrometallurgical research. The principle objective of the agreement was to conduct bench scale research to study the problems of leaching the sulfide ore and the recovery of its valuable metals. Nerco has provided funding on an annual basis. Information contained in this publication is a result of this research.
    • Hydrometallurgy of the delta sulfide ores, first stage report

      Letwoski, F.; Chous, Kuo-tung; Rao, P.D. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1986)
      This report presents the results of hydrometallurgical research carried out from September 16, 1985 to June 30, 1986 on metals recovery from complex sulfide ores from the Delta deposit near Tok, Alaska. The leaching characteristics performed for 6 different ore samples indicate that the most valuable components form the following order: Zn > Au > Pb > Ag > Cu > So. Further study demonstrates that direct leaching of the ore is effective both in chloride as well as in sulfate oxidizing solutions coupled with separating of leached solid components by flotation. Three variants of the ore processing with ferric chloride or fenic sulfate leaching are analyzed: one flowsheet with direct ore leaching in ferric chloride solution followed by leaching-flotation step, with subsequent zinc separation in a solvent extraction step and electrolysis in chloride solution; and two flowsheets of direct ore leaching with ferric sulfate solution followed by a leaching-flotation step, with zinc sulfate electrolysis and other metals recovery in chloride leaching sreps. In two last flowsheets silver is recovered during the chloride leaching steps and gold h m flotation products during the cyanide leaching. Preliminary economic and technical evaluation is presented. The engineering study on apparatus for the fast leaching- flotation processing and on better accumulation of gold and silver in one semi-product are concluded for the next year of research.
    • Hydrometallurgy of the delta sulfide ores, second stage report

      Letowski, F.; Rao, P.D. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1987)
      This report contains results of the Fluidized-Bed Leaching (FBL) initially adapted to improve Leaching-Flotation processing of Delta ores in sulfate solution. The research carried out in the continuous laboratory installation show, however, that the new, 3-phase (solid-liquid-gaseous) reactor also performs satisfactorily in other leaching systems. A new process of pyritic matrix destruction for precious metals recovery in the FBL reactor, and a new process for recovery of zinc and other metals in a chloride system are proposed on the basis of laboratory results.
    • Hydrometeorological Literature Review for the Delta-Clearwater Creek Area

      Fox, John D. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-06)
      Phase One of this study consists of a search for existing hydrometeorological data or other information relevant to environmental baseline studies of the Delta-Clearwater Creek agricultural development project. A general summary of this literature search is presented below; a detailed annotated bibliography immediately follows the summary. Phase Two consists initially of a preliminary analysis, based on existing information, of the local water budget, the groundwater regime, and the potential for transport of agricultural chemicals into the water system. Finally, evaluation and comments on the adequacy or sufficiency of existing data and recommendation for future work are made. Selected charts, diagrams, or tables of data have been included in the text where such information is relevant, but not voluminous.
    • Improvement of the Fairbanks Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide Transport Model -- A Program for Calibration, Verification and Implementation

      Carlson, Robert F.; Hok, Charlotte (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1980-10)
      In the early 70s, state, local and federal officials in Fairbanks, Alaska, became concerned with the rising incidence of high carbon monoxide episodes. Because of that concern, the Alaska Department of Highways (forerunner of the Department of Transportation and Public Facilities) and the Fairbanks North Star Borough requested that the Institute of Water Resources undertake a study to develop a computer model capability for understanding the transport of carbon monoxide and other pollutants within the Fairbanks airshed. The work was completed in June of 1976. Two publications (Carlson and Fox, 1976; Norton and Carlson, 1976) describe the initial development, documentation and implementation of the computer model. The model, ACOSP (Atmospheric Carbon monOxide Simulation Program), describes the two-dimensional behavior of pollutants in the atmosphere via solution of the convection-diffusion equation using the finite element method of numerical analysis.
    • The influence of decomposing salmon on water chemistry

      Brickell, David C.; Goering, John J. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1971)
      To increase our knowledge of the biological and chemical effects of the decomposition of seafood material, we have initiated a study of the decomposition of salmon carcasses in a natural system in southeastern Alaska (i.e. Little Port Walter estuary). The Pacific salmon migrates through this estuary when returning to its natal stream to spawn. Following spawning the fish die and the carcasses are eventually carried to the estuary where they sink to the bottom. During periods of low stream flow, the dead carcasses may remain in the stream itself until higher stream flows transport them to the estuary. In years of large escapements, the density of fish in the spawning stream can be very high. In the system chosen for our work, spawning densities greater than six fish per m2 have been recorded although at the time the current study was conducted the spawning density was slightly more than two fish per m2. Since our system involves primarily pink salmon (O. gorbuscha), the average weight of the fish can be assumed to be 2-3 kilograms. Thus, our study is concerned with the fate and distribution of some 75 metric tons of organic matter in the form of salmon carcasses in one small estuary in Southeastern Alaska. We are particularly interested in determining: (1) the effects of the salmon carcass decomposition on the nitrogen chemistry of the water in which the decomposition occurs; (2) the form and distribution of the organic matter which is returned to the marine system; and (3) the rate at which remineralization occurs. This paper presents the results of our initial investigations.
    • Inherent and Maximum Microbiological Activity in Smith Lake : Project Completion Report

      Burton, S. (University of Alaska; Institute of Water Resources, 1968)
      POPULAR ABSTRACT: Bacterial populations were examined in a sub-Arctic lake to augment the understanding of the flow of organic material and other nutrients through these waters. Several micro-organisms were isolated, capable of converting atmospheric nitrogen into biologically available forms. Also organisms capable of removing organic materials at very low temperatures, psychrophiles, were isolated. Enzymes from these unusual organisms were examined to determine what allows these unusual activity at low temperatures. The activities of these enzymes were not found to be unusual.
    • Investigation of an ozone-filter system for color and iron removal at low temperatures

      Smith, Daniel W.; Hargesheimer, John M. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1975-10)
      The application of ozonation as a disinfectant and as a treatment process for both water and wastewater has been increasing in recent years. The study of ozone application to Arctic and subarctic waters, which are normally at low temperatures, has been limited. Many portions of the Alaskan Arctic and subarctic are plagued with waters which exceed the 1962 Drinking Water Standards for one or more parameters. The iron content and color of the water are among the most common offenders. This project was directed toward the examination of a method for water treatment utilizing ozone to meet the iron and color limits for drinking water. The three principle objectives of the project were: (1) to examine the effect of ozone on several known qualities of water, (2) to examine the effect of ozone on representative samples of surface and ground water, and (3) to develop a laboratory scale system for iron and color removal utilizing ozone followed by sand filtration.
    • Investigations of lightweight aggregates in Alaska

      Heiner, L.E.; Loskamp, A.N. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1966)
      Increased construction costs coupled with the current large demand for aggregate materials prompted an investigation by the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory to find deposits of shale suitable for the manufacture of lightweight aggregate near the cities of Anchorage and Fairbanks.
    • Iron in Surface and Subsurface Waters, Grizzly Bar, Southeastern Alaska

      Hoskin, Charles M.; Slatt, Roger M. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972-08)
      Atomic absorption spectrophotometric measurements for total iron were made on 69 samples of water from 8 different environments in an outwash fan built by meltwater streams from the retreating Norris Glacier on granodiorite bedrock. Norris Glacier ice contained no iron (3 samples), a subglacial stream contained 5.5 ppm Fe (1 sample), and a meltwater lake fronting Norris Glacier contained 0.7 ppm Fe (3 samples). Iron content of ground water from outwash ranged between 0.0 and 17.0 ppm (6 samples); surface streams fed by emergent ground water on the fan periphery contained 0.0 to 0.2 ppm Fe (13 samples). Taku Inlet waters contained 6.4 ppm Fe (3 samples). Subsurface water from an intertidal mud flat contained between 0.0 and 27.0, X 5.9, ppm Fe (31 samples). Surface and subsurface water from a bog and associated stream contained 1 ppm Fe (12 samples). Little exchangeable Fe was found. In situ measurements in water for Eh showed large positive values (+0.30 to +0.50 volts) and pH was slightly alkaline. The single most important source of iron was vermiculitized biotite. Iron was transported in water in the particulate state, except in outwash ground water where particulate Fe+3 was reduced to dissolved Fe+2. Iron deposits of Fe(OH)3 were found near the top of the outwash water table.