• Laboratory Rearing Experiments on Artificially Propagated Inconnu (Stenodus leucichthys)

      LaPerriere, Jacqueline D. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-06)
    • Land Application of Domestic Sludge in Cold Climates

      Johnson, Ronald A. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1979)
      Aerobically digested sludge from the Fairbanks sewage treatment plant was worked into the soil on several plots at the University of Alaska in the summer of 1978. Some of the sludge had been air dried for up to six months prior to application while some was taken directly from the thickener. Applications varied from 12 to 100 tons of solids/acre. For sludge applied in July and August, the fecal coliform count decayed by several orders of magnitude by the middle of September.. There was no significant movement of fecal coliform bacteria either vertically or laterally. Lime was used to raise the pH of one plot to 12, completely killing the fecal coliform bacteria within several days. The nutrient distribution demonstrated the potential for enriching soils by sludge addition. The main purpose of the study was to investigate the feasibility of this concept for remote military sites. Air drying followed by land application may represent a viable means of sludge disposal.
    • Land Disposal of Secondary Lagoon Effluents (Pilot Project)

      Smith, Daniel W. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1975-01)
      The principle objective of this effort was to assist the US Army, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, in conducting a pilot land disposal project in the interior region of Alaska. This project was a preliminary investigation of the feasibility of land disposal of secondary effluent from an aerated lagoon during the summer months. The hope was to examine the possible use of this technique to meet 1977 standards for the quality of secondary effluents.
    • Landsat linear features and mineral occurrences in Alaska

      Metz, P.A. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1983)
      In order to develop and better understanding of the regional structural controls of the metallic mineral deposits of Alaska, a detailed examination was made of the linear features and trends interpreted from Landsat imagery. In addition, local structural features and alteration zones were examined by ratio analysis of selected Landsat images. The linear trend analysis provided new regional structural data for previously proposed mineral deposit models and also provided new evidence for the extension of the existing models. Preliminary evidence also suggests linear intersection control of some types of mineral occurrences and that trend analysis may result in the definition of areas favorable for future mineral exploration. Ratio image analysis indicates that alteration zones and local structural features can be identified by use of Landsat imagery. Ratio image analysis for the definition of alteration zones must be used with caution, however, since the alteration associated with the various mineral deposits may not be differentiated by the technique.
    • Late-Pleistocene Syngenetic Permafrost in the CRREL Permafrost Tunnel, Fox, Alaska

      Kanevskiy, M.Z.; French, H.M.; Shur, Y.L. (Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2008)
      Late-Pleistocene syngenetic permafrost exposed in the walls and ceiling of the CRREL permafrost tunnel consists of ice-and organic-rich silty sediments penetrated by ice wedges. Evidence of long-continued syngenetic freezing under cold-climate conditions includes the dominance of lenticular and micro-lenticular cryostructures throughout the walls, ice veins and wedges at many levels, the presence of undecomposed rootlets, and organic-rich layers that reflect the former positions of the ground surface. Fluvio-thermal modifications are indicated by bodies ofthermokarst-cave ('pool') ice, by soil and ice pseudomorphs, and by reticulate-chaotic cryostructures associated with freezing ofsaturated sediments trapped in underground channels.
    • The Limnology of Two Dissimilar Subarctic Streams and Implications of Resource Development

      LaPerriere, Jacqueline D.; Nyquist, David (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-03)
      Because of the relatively undeveloped condition of arctic and subarctic Alaska, an opportunity is presented to draw up water quality management plans before extensive perturbation. These plans cannot, unfortunately , be based upon those drawn up for more temperate regions where much is known about natural stream conditions, for in these Alaskan areas, little is known about the natural physical, chemical, and biological cycles of streams or about their ability to handle the stresses that will be exerted on them should development take place. The Chena River, in subarctic, interior Alaska, near the city of Fairbanks, has been studied to evaluate the impact of pending construction and operation of flood control structures (Frey, Mueller and Berry, 1970). This river however has already been developed, especially along its lower reaches where the city of Fairbanks is situated. The watersheds of the two streams chosen for this study roughly parallel each other, although the Chatanika River watershed is about twice as long as that of Goldstream Creek. In addition to the dissimilarity in size, these two streams also differ in regard to terrain, at least along the respective stretches that were studied. The Goldstream Creek study area runs through a bog and extensive muskeg. The Chatanika River, however, was for the most part sampled in the area of mountainous terrain. The intent of this study was to obtain comprehensive physical and chemical data, to survey the resident invertebrates, and to evaluate the assimilative capabilities of both streams.
    • Managing Water Resources for Alaska's Development: Proceedings

      Aldrich, James W. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1983-11)
    • The market for insulation in Alaska and feasibility of the regional manufacture of insulating materials

      Haring, R.C.; Beasley, C.A. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1965)
      This investigation was undertaken jointly by the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory and the Institute of Business, Economic and Government Research at the University of Alaska. It is one of a continuing series of studies concerning the market and utilization rate for selected structural materials within Alaska. The overall objective of these studies is to identify opportunities for the regional manufacture of selected building products. In this manner, this limited study of insulation markets complements more extensive previous studies concerning Alaskan cement and clay products, markets and manufacturing feasibility.
    • The market potential for Alaskan clay products

      Beasley, C.A. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory (MIRL), 1965)
      This study was originally proposed to the Alaska Department of Economic Development and Planning as part of a continuing effort by the Mineral Industry Research Lab of the University of Alaska to strengthen and diversity the mineral industry of the state.
    • Metallogeny of the Fairbanks Mining District, Alaska and adjacent areas

      Metz, P.A. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1991)
      The Fairbanks mining district encompasses an area of 1500 km2 (600 miles2) centred just north of the City of Fairbanks, Alaska. The district is one of six mining areas located in or near the northwestern margin of the Yukon-Tanana Uplands of east-central Alaska and the Yukon Territory, Canada. The six mining districts in Alaska (Fairbanks, Circle, Steese, Richardson, Tolovana and Kantishna) and the Klondike district nearby in the Yukon Territory, have an aggregate placer gold production of 25 million troy ounces. This production establishes the region as one of the largest gold producing areas of North America. The aim of the present investigation is to define, classify and explain the genesis of the several primary sources from which the placer gold deposits of the region were derived. Through geological mapping and sampling of the districts, the 350 identified primary mineral occurrences are classified into eight categories as follows: (1) metamorphosed volcanic-exhalative and associated low-sulfide Au-quartz veins, (2) Cu-Mo-Au porphyries, (3) precious metal enriched massive sulfides, (4) epithermal veins in plutonic rocks, (5) Au-bearing tungsten skarns, (6) Sn greisen-gold-quartz veins, (7) Sediment-hosted gold of the Carlin type, and (8) palaeoplacer gold deposits. Geological mapping and sampling has also established that recent faulting and regional uplift are responsible for stream capture, stream drainage reversal, resorting of stream sediments, and modem alluvial placer formation. The volcanic-exhalative mineralization is hosted in metamorphosed low-K tholeiitic basalts, Ca-poor rhyolitic tuffs, and cherts. In the Fairbanks district the rocks are informally referred to as the Cleary sequence. Detrital zircons from the sequence yield U-Pb ages in the ranges 1.2, 1.3- 1.4, 1.8-1.9,2.5, and 3.4 Ga. The bimodal volcanic rocks are enriched in Au, Ag, As, Sb, and W. Average gold contents of the rocks exceed average crustal abundances by two orders of magnitude. Locally the metavolcanic rocks contain base metal massive sulfide mineralization with grades up to 20% combined Pb-Zn, 3 g/tonne Au, and 500 g/tonne Ag. These metavolcanic rock are correlated with those occurring in the Kantishna district (Spruce Creek sequence) and in the Circle district (Bonanza Creek sequence). The mineralized bimodal metavolcanic suite is thus shown to extend along strike for 350 krn (210 miles) through the Yukon-Tanana Terrane. In the Fairbanks district the Cleary sequence rocks are thrust over Type C eclogites. These eclogites trend northeasterly along the regional strike to the Circle quadrangle and are correlated with the eclogites of the central Yukon Territory. Lead 206/204 and 207/204 ratios from galena from the metavolcanic sequences and from the vein deposits are similar with average values of 19.10 and 15.69 respectively. The eclogitic rocks are less radiogenic with 206/204 and 207/204 ratios of 18.80 and 15.65 respectively. Low sulfide Au-quartz veins within the metavolcanic sequences are shown to be the product of multiple thermal and deformational events in the terrane taking place at 160-185, 140-145, and 90-125 Ma, K-Ar. Studies of the fluid inclusions in the metamorphic and vein quartz demonstrate that fluid compositions (1-20 mole % CO2; 3-5 wt % NaCl equiv.) and homogenization temperatures (275-375°C) are closely similar. Gold contents of the vein systems range from 5 to 18 g/tonne. Calc-alkaline plutons of Cretaceous (85-1 10 Ma) and Tertiary (50-70 Ma) age K-Ar host epithermal veins, Sn-greisen, and W-skarn mineralization, all of which are demonstrably gold-bearing. Rb-Sr initial ratios for the mineralized composite plutons are greater than 0.71 1 indicating that anatexis of the lower crust was the source of the granitic magma. The Cu-Mo-Au porphyry mineralization is hosted in the Tertiary plutons that intrude lower Palaeozoic and Mesozoic sediments of the North American Continental Margin (NACM) in the Tolovana district. The NACM rocks are separated from the metavolcanic sequence by the eclogitic rocks and by major thrust faults. Paleoplacer Au deposits hosted in continental clastic rocks of Eocene to Pliocene age are described. These have formed in small grabens adjacent to major strike-slip faults bounding the Yukon-Tanana Terrane on the northeast and southwest respectively. These structures, the Tintina and Denali Faults, controlled sedimentation and placer formation in these grabens. Using compilations of tonnage/grade data from examples of primary deposits analogous to those identified in the Yukon-Tanana Terrane, it is shown that a single large-scale deposit of any of these types could have supplied all the gold contained in the placer deposits of the region.
    • Methods of Flood Flow Determination in Sparse Data Regions

      Carlson, Robert F.; Fox, Patricia M.; Shrader, Stephen D. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-06)
    • Microbial ecology of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

      Brown, Edward J.; Rasley, Brian T.; Dixon, David P.; Hong, Seongho; Luong, Huan V.; Braddock, Joan F. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1990-03)
    • Mineral investigations of D-2 lands in the Philip Smith Mountains and Chandler Lake quadrangles

      Metz, P.A. and Robinson, M.S. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1979)
      Eight hundred and sixty-five stream sediment samples were collected over an area of approximately 2,120 square kilometers (828 square miles) in the Chandler Lake and Philip Smith Mountains quadrangles (Fig. 1). The samples were analyzed by atomic absorption methods for Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag and Mo. Statistical reduction of the data resulted in the definition of 86 anomalous samples. The majority of the anomalous samples were from streams draining either the Hunt Fork Shale, Kanayut Conglomerate, or the Lisburne Group. The anomalous samples are grouped in ten separate areas; eight of these areas warrant additional field examination. The number of geochemical anomalies within the area indicates that region has good potential for copper, lead and zinc sulfide mineral deposits.
    • Mineral resources of southeastern Alaska

      Wolff, E.N.; Heiner, L.E. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1971)
      This report is part of a series by the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory describing the mineral occurrences of Alaska. Thus far reports have been issued on Northern Alaska (No. 16) Seward Peninsula (No. 18) and the Wrangell Mountain - Prince William Sound areas (No. 27). All of these reports contain tabulations of all deposits described in the literature. Report No, 27 also has computer drawn maps showing locations of mineral occurrences and a computer printout of certain data about each property. The magnetic tape which produced this printout was made as part of the project under which the report was written, It is capable of printing several options, as described in M. I.R. L. Report No. 24. The present report, M, I, R. L. Report No. 28, also contains a printout, and is also backed up by a magnetic tape. The location maps contained in the back pocket of this report have already been published in limited edition as M. I .R. L. Report No. 25, because it was desired to disseminate the information contained on them as fast as possible. It i s hoped that reports such as this eventually will be issued for all of Alaska.
    • Mining in Alaska - environmental impact and pollution control

      Johansen, N. I. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1975)
      Environmental factors affecting mining are difficult to establish in Alaska due to the absence of large scale hard rock mining activities at the present time. Currently, experience is gathered from (and to a large degree based on) construction of above ground facilities such as roads, pipelines, and buildings. Past mining activities appear to have had little lasting effect on the natural environment, the exceptions being mine tailings and surface structures. This report, sponsored by the U. S. Bureau of Mines, present general engineering activities, considers the interaction of permafrost and underground mining, summarizes available literature and indicates possible environmental problems that might be encountered in Alaska based on Scandinavian experiences in large-scale northern mining operations. How the Scandinavians are solving their problems is also discussed.
    • Modeling snowmelt runoff in an arctic coastal plain

      Carlson, Robert F.; Norton, William; McDougall, James (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-01)
      Present and impending oil exploration and development activity on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain has created a need to better understand the region's water resources. The remoteness of the area and an almost complete lack of hydrologic data preclude the use of usual hydrologic analysis techniques. Attempts by the Institute of Water Resources to synthesize this data led to the development of snowmelt runoff models which simulate the spring runoff, an important part of the hydrologic system. The snowmelt model produces a snowmelt hydrograph which is converted by the runoff model into a runoff hydrograph. The snowmelt model subdivides the snowpack into two layers. Daily climatological parameters govern the heat transfer between snowpack and atmosphere. Once the heat flux received or emitted by the snowpack has been computed, the melting processes within the snowpack are considered. Computed parameters of the snowpack are density, depth, water equivalent, water content, temperature, and thermal quality. The runoff model uses a three-parameter linear storage model to transform the snowmelt hydrograph into a runoff hydrograph. The parameters represent the amount of storage, the rate of runoff, and the lag between snowmelt and runoff. Using Prudhoe Bay weather data as input, and comparing the output to runoff data from the Kuparuk, Putuligayuk, and Sagavanirktok Rivers for the years 1970 and 1971, produced results which indicate that the models perform satisfactorily.
    • Natural resource base of the Fairbanks North Star Borough

      Wolff, E.N.; Haring, R.C. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1967)
      This report on the natural resource base of the Fairbanks North Star Borough is one of several continuing research projects related to community planning in Alaska. It represents an interdisciplinary effort of the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory and the Institute of Social, Economic and Government Research at the University of Alaska. The result is a synthesis of the economic development potential of natural resources in the greater Fairbanks region.
    • Natural revegetation of placer mined lands of interior Alaska II

      McKendrick, J.D., Neiland, B.J., and Holmes, K. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1980)
      To the uninitiated eye an aerial photo of Fairbanks’ surrounding area includes patches of what might appear to be the channels left by the workings of a bark beetle grub. These series of parallel mounds with sequences of smaller undulations on their surfaces are actually composed of coarse gravel and are the product of some forty years of gold dredging. Started in 1928, dredging was concentrated in several of the tributary valleys of the Tanana River and Goldstream Creek. Some of these tailings piles support lush growth while others are relatively bare. At present, no ecologically oriented studies, either qualitative or quantitative, have been published concerning the gold dredge tailings. It was therefore the intent of this study to obtain a broad picture of the present stage of revegetation, in order that further ecological work and, hopefully, assisted rehabilitation may be facilitated.
    • North Slope Borough water study: a background for planning

      Johnson, Ronald A.; Dreyer, Linda Dwight (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1977-06-15)
      The Planning and Research Section of Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources initiated this pilot water study with the North Slope Borough and the University of Alaska's Arctic Environmental Information and Data Center and Institute of Water Resources. Traditional and present water uses in the eight North Slope Borough villages are examined to assist in evaluating and planning for present and future water use, treatment, and disposal requirements.
    • A Northern Snowmelt Model

      McDougall, James; Carlson, Robert F. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-08)
      In early 1968, a large petroleum discovery was made in the Prudhoe Bay area of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain. This discovery has led Alaska into a period of development of unprecedented speed and magnitude. This development will require the construction of many engineering facilities which are affected by the water resources. The design of each of these requires an understanding of the hydrologic system, a system which is dominated in Alaska by low temperatures, high latitudes, large elevation differences and sparse data. The latter factor is unique to Alaska and makes application of common design techniques virtually impossible.