• Managing Water Resources for Alaska's Development: Proceedings

      Aldrich, James W. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1983-11)
    • The market for insulation in Alaska and feasibility of the regional manufacture of insulating materials

      Haring, R.C.; Beasley, C.A. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1965)
      This investigation was undertaken jointly by the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory and the Institute of Business, Economic and Government Research at the University of Alaska. It is one of a continuing series of studies concerning the market and utilization rate for selected structural materials within Alaska. The overall objective of these studies is to identify opportunities for the regional manufacture of selected building products. In this manner, this limited study of insulation markets complements more extensive previous studies concerning Alaskan cement and clay products, markets and manufacturing feasibility.
    • The market potential for Alaskan clay products

      Beasley, C.A. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory (MIRL), 1965)
      This study was originally proposed to the Alaska Department of Economic Development and Planning as part of a continuing effort by the Mineral Industry Research Lab of the University of Alaska to strengthen and diversity the mineral industry of the state.
    • Metallogeny of the Fairbanks Mining District, Alaska and adjacent areas

      Metz, P.A. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1991)
      The Fairbanks mining district encompasses an area of 1500 km2 (600 miles2) centred just north of the City of Fairbanks, Alaska. The district is one of six mining areas located in or near the northwestern margin of the Yukon-Tanana Uplands of east-central Alaska and the Yukon Territory, Canada. The six mining districts in Alaska (Fairbanks, Circle, Steese, Richardson, Tolovana and Kantishna) and the Klondike district nearby in the Yukon Territory, have an aggregate placer gold production of 25 million troy ounces. This production establishes the region as one of the largest gold producing areas of North America. The aim of the present investigation is to define, classify and explain the genesis of the several primary sources from which the placer gold deposits of the region were derived. Through geological mapping and sampling of the districts, the 350 identified primary mineral occurrences are classified into eight categories as follows: (1) metamorphosed volcanic-exhalative and associated low-sulfide Au-quartz veins, (2) Cu-Mo-Au porphyries, (3) precious metal enriched massive sulfides, (4) epithermal veins in plutonic rocks, (5) Au-bearing tungsten skarns, (6) Sn greisen-gold-quartz veins, (7) Sediment-hosted gold of the Carlin type, and (8) palaeoplacer gold deposits. Geological mapping and sampling has also established that recent faulting and regional uplift are responsible for stream capture, stream drainage reversal, resorting of stream sediments, and modem alluvial placer formation. The volcanic-exhalative mineralization is hosted in metamorphosed low-K tholeiitic basalts, Ca-poor rhyolitic tuffs, and cherts. In the Fairbanks district the rocks are informally referred to as the Cleary sequence. Detrital zircons from the sequence yield U-Pb ages in the ranges 1.2, 1.3- 1.4, 1.8-1.9,2.5, and 3.4 Ga. The bimodal volcanic rocks are enriched in Au, Ag, As, Sb, and W. Average gold contents of the rocks exceed average crustal abundances by two orders of magnitude. Locally the metavolcanic rocks contain base metal massive sulfide mineralization with grades up to 20% combined Pb-Zn, 3 g/tonne Au, and 500 g/tonne Ag. These metavolcanic rock are correlated with those occurring in the Kantishna district (Spruce Creek sequence) and in the Circle district (Bonanza Creek sequence). The mineralized bimodal metavolcanic suite is thus shown to extend along strike for 350 krn (210 miles) through the Yukon-Tanana Terrane. In the Fairbanks district the Cleary sequence rocks are thrust over Type C eclogites. These eclogites trend northeasterly along the regional strike to the Circle quadrangle and are correlated with the eclogites of the central Yukon Territory. Lead 206/204 and 207/204 ratios from galena from the metavolcanic sequences and from the vein deposits are similar with average values of 19.10 and 15.69 respectively. The eclogitic rocks are less radiogenic with 206/204 and 207/204 ratios of 18.80 and 15.65 respectively. Low sulfide Au-quartz veins within the metavolcanic sequences are shown to be the product of multiple thermal and deformational events in the terrane taking place at 160-185, 140-145, and 90-125 Ma, K-Ar. Studies of the fluid inclusions in the metamorphic and vein quartz demonstrate that fluid compositions (1-20 mole % CO2; 3-5 wt % NaCl equiv.) and homogenization temperatures (275-375°C) are closely similar. Gold contents of the vein systems range from 5 to 18 g/tonne. Calc-alkaline plutons of Cretaceous (85-1 10 Ma) and Tertiary (50-70 Ma) age K-Ar host epithermal veins, Sn-greisen, and W-skarn mineralization, all of which are demonstrably gold-bearing. Rb-Sr initial ratios for the mineralized composite plutons are greater than 0.71 1 indicating that anatexis of the lower crust was the source of the granitic magma. The Cu-Mo-Au porphyry mineralization is hosted in the Tertiary plutons that intrude lower Palaeozoic and Mesozoic sediments of the North American Continental Margin (NACM) in the Tolovana district. The NACM rocks are separated from the metavolcanic sequence by the eclogitic rocks and by major thrust faults. Paleoplacer Au deposits hosted in continental clastic rocks of Eocene to Pliocene age are described. These have formed in small grabens adjacent to major strike-slip faults bounding the Yukon-Tanana Terrane on the northeast and southwest respectively. These structures, the Tintina and Denali Faults, controlled sedimentation and placer formation in these grabens. Using compilations of tonnage/grade data from examples of primary deposits analogous to those identified in the Yukon-Tanana Terrane, it is shown that a single large-scale deposit of any of these types could have supplied all the gold contained in the placer deposits of the region.
    • Methods of Flood Flow Determination in Sparse Data Regions

      Carlson, Robert F.; Fox, Patricia M.; Shrader, Stephen D. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-06)
    • Microbial ecology of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

      Brown, Edward J.; Rasley, Brian T.; Dixon, David P.; Hong, Seongho; Luong, Huan V.; Braddock, Joan F. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1990-03)
    • Mineral investigations of D-2 lands in the Philip Smith Mountains and Chandler Lake quadrangles

      Metz, P.A. and Robinson, M.S. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1979)
      Eight hundred and sixty-five stream sediment samples were collected over an area of approximately 2,120 square kilometers (828 square miles) in the Chandler Lake and Philip Smith Mountains quadrangles (Fig. 1). The samples were analyzed by atomic absorption methods for Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag and Mo. Statistical reduction of the data resulted in the definition of 86 anomalous samples. The majority of the anomalous samples were from streams draining either the Hunt Fork Shale, Kanayut Conglomerate, or the Lisburne Group. The anomalous samples are grouped in ten separate areas; eight of these areas warrant additional field examination. The number of geochemical anomalies within the area indicates that region has good potential for copper, lead and zinc sulfide mineral deposits.
    • Mineral resources of southeastern Alaska

      Wolff, E.N.; Heiner, L.E. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1971)
      This report is part of a series by the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory describing the mineral occurrences of Alaska. Thus far reports have been issued on Northern Alaska (No. 16) Seward Peninsula (No. 18) and the Wrangell Mountain - Prince William Sound areas (No. 27). All of these reports contain tabulations of all deposits described in the literature. Report No, 27 also has computer drawn maps showing locations of mineral occurrences and a computer printout of certain data about each property. The magnetic tape which produced this printout was made as part of the project under which the report was written, It is capable of printing several options, as described in M. I.R. L. Report No. 24. The present report, M, I, R. L. Report No. 28, also contains a printout, and is also backed up by a magnetic tape. The location maps contained in the back pocket of this report have already been published in limited edition as M. I .R. L. Report No. 25, because it was desired to disseminate the information contained on them as fast as possible. It i s hoped that reports such as this eventually will be issued for all of Alaska.
    • Mining in Alaska - environmental impact and pollution control

      Johansen, N. I. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1975)
      Environmental factors affecting mining are difficult to establish in Alaska due to the absence of large scale hard rock mining activities at the present time. Currently, experience is gathered from (and to a large degree based on) construction of above ground facilities such as roads, pipelines, and buildings. Past mining activities appear to have had little lasting effect on the natural environment, the exceptions being mine tailings and surface structures. This report, sponsored by the U. S. Bureau of Mines, present general engineering activities, considers the interaction of permafrost and underground mining, summarizes available literature and indicates possible environmental problems that might be encountered in Alaska based on Scandinavian experiences in large-scale northern mining operations. How the Scandinavians are solving their problems is also discussed.
    • Modeling snowmelt runoff in an arctic coastal plain

      Carlson, Robert F.; Norton, William; McDougall, James (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-01)
      Present and impending oil exploration and development activity on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain has created a need to better understand the region's water resources. The remoteness of the area and an almost complete lack of hydrologic data preclude the use of usual hydrologic analysis techniques. Attempts by the Institute of Water Resources to synthesize this data led to the development of snowmelt runoff models which simulate the spring runoff, an important part of the hydrologic system. The snowmelt model produces a snowmelt hydrograph which is converted by the runoff model into a runoff hydrograph. The snowmelt model subdivides the snowpack into two layers. Daily climatological parameters govern the heat transfer between snowpack and atmosphere. Once the heat flux received or emitted by the snowpack has been computed, the melting processes within the snowpack are considered. Computed parameters of the snowpack are density, depth, water equivalent, water content, temperature, and thermal quality. The runoff model uses a three-parameter linear storage model to transform the snowmelt hydrograph into a runoff hydrograph. The parameters represent the amount of storage, the rate of runoff, and the lag between snowmelt and runoff. Using Prudhoe Bay weather data as input, and comparing the output to runoff data from the Kuparuk, Putuligayuk, and Sagavanirktok Rivers for the years 1970 and 1971, produced results which indicate that the models perform satisfactorily.
    • Natural resource base of the Fairbanks North Star Borough

      Wolff, E.N.; Haring, R.C. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1967)
      This report on the natural resource base of the Fairbanks North Star Borough is one of several continuing research projects related to community planning in Alaska. It represents an interdisciplinary effort of the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory and the Institute of Social, Economic and Government Research at the University of Alaska. The result is a synthesis of the economic development potential of natural resources in the greater Fairbanks region.
    • Natural revegetation of placer mined lands of interior Alaska II

      McKendrick, J.D., Neiland, B.J., and Holmes, K. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1980)
      To the uninitiated eye an aerial photo of Fairbanks’ surrounding area includes patches of what might appear to be the channels left by the workings of a bark beetle grub. These series of parallel mounds with sequences of smaller undulations on their surfaces are actually composed of coarse gravel and are the product of some forty years of gold dredging. Started in 1928, dredging was concentrated in several of the tributary valleys of the Tanana River and Goldstream Creek. Some of these tailings piles support lush growth while others are relatively bare. At present, no ecologically oriented studies, either qualitative or quantitative, have been published concerning the gold dredge tailings. It was therefore the intent of this study to obtain a broad picture of the present stage of revegetation, in order that further ecological work and, hopefully, assisted rehabilitation may be facilitated.
    • North Slope Borough water study: a background for planning

      Johnson, Ronald A.; Dreyer, Linda Dwight (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1977-06-15)
      The Planning and Research Section of Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources initiated this pilot water study with the North Slope Borough and the University of Alaska's Arctic Environmental Information and Data Center and Institute of Water Resources. Traditional and present water uses in the eight North Slope Borough villages are examined to assist in evaluating and planning for present and future water use, treatment, and disposal requirements.
    • A Northern Snowmelt Model

      McDougall, James; Carlson, Robert F. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-08)
      In early 1968, a large petroleum discovery was made in the Prudhoe Bay area of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain. This discovery has led Alaska into a period of development of unprecedented speed and magnitude. This development will require the construction of many engineering facilities which are affected by the water resources. The design of each of these requires an understanding of the hydrologic system, a system which is dominated in Alaska by low temperatures, high latitudes, large elevation differences and sparse data. The latter factor is unique to Alaska and makes application of common design techniques virtually impossible.
    • Nutrient chemistry of a large, deep lake in subarctic Alaska

      LaPerriere, J. D.; Tilsworth, T.; Casper, L. A. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1977-08)
      The primary objective of this project was to assess the state of the water quality of Harding Lake, and to attempt to predict the effects of future development within its watershed. Since the major effect of degradation of water quality due to human activity is the promotion of nuisance growths of plants, the major emphasis was placed on measurements of plant growth and concentrations of the major nutrients they require. Planktonic algal growth was found to be low, below 95.6 gm/m2/year, and the growth of submerged rooted plants was found to be relatively less important at approximately 1.35 gm/m2/year. Measurements of the growth of attached algae were not conducted, therefore the relative importance of their growth is currently unknown. A model for predicting the effect of future real estate development in the watershed was modified and applied to this lake. This model adequately describes current water quality conditions, and is assumed to have some predictive ability, but several cautions concerning application of this model to Harding Lake are discussed. A secondary objective was to study the thermal regime of a deep subarctic lake. Intensive water temperature measurements were made throughout one year and less intensive measurements were conducted during two additional years. The possibility that this lake may occasionally stratify thermally under the ice and not mix completely in the spring was discovered. The implications of this possibility are discussed for management of subarctic lakes. Hydrologic and energy budgets of this lake are attempted; the annual heat budget is estimated at 1.96 x 104 ± 1.7 x 103 cal/cm2. The results of a study of domestic water supply and waste disposal alternatives in the watershed, and the potential for enteric bacterial contamination of the lake water are presented. Limited work on the zooplankton, fishes, and benthic macroinvertebrates of this lake is also presented.
    • Occurrence and distribution of barite in the permo-triassic siksikpuk formation along the Brooks Range haul road

      Payne, M.W. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1980-03)
      Barite commonly occurs in Permian to Triassic age rocks along the north flank of the Brooks Range. The Siksikpuk Formation (Wolfcampian to lowest Guadalupian age) is noted for its barite and is well exposed in the vicinity of Galbraith Lake along the pipeline haul road (Figure 1). The proximity of these barite deposits to an existing road made them a logical selection for investigation. The study was designed to provide detailed stratigraphic information on barite quantity and quality, associated clay mineralogy, and relationship of barite to environments of deposition.
    • Optimum transportation systems to serve the mineral industry north of the Yukon basin in Alaska

      Wolff, E.N.; Lambert, C.; Johansen, N.I.; Rhodes, E.M.; Solie, R.J. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1972)
      In 1972 the U. S . Bureau of Mines awarded a grant (No. G 01 22096) to the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, University of Alaska, for a research project to determine optimum transportation systems to serve the mineral industry north of the Yukon River basin in Alaska. The study was conducted during the period May 1 - November 1, 1972. The study assesses the mineral potential of the region and selects two copper deposits: a known one at Bornite, and a potential one on the upper Koyukuk River. Two possible mining sites within the extensive coal bearing region north of the Brooks Range are also selected. A computer model was developed to perform an economic analysis of technically feasible transportation modes and routes from these four sites to Alaskan ports from which minerals could be shipped to markets. Transport modes considered are highway, rail, cargo aircraft, river barge, winter haul road and air cushion vehicles (A.C.V.). The computer program calculates the present worth of tax benefits from mining and transportation and revenues based on the value of minerals at the port, as well as the auxillary benefits derived from the anticipated use of the routes by the tourist industry. Annual and fixed costs of mining and transportation of minerals are calculated, and benefit-cost ratios determined for each combination of routes and modes serving the four mineral sites. The study concludes that the best systems in terms of a high benefit-cost ratio are those utilizing a minimum of new construction of conventional highways or railroads. The optimum system as derived from this study is one linking together existing transportation systems with aircraft or A.C.V. These modes are feasible only for the shipment of a high value product, namely blister copper produced by a smelter at the mining site, Of the several alternatives considered for the shipment of coal, only a slurry pipeline to an as yet undeveloped port on the Arctic coast showed significant promise. The study recommends that: 1. More government support should be given to mineral exploration in Alaska. 2. Potential mineral industry development should be considered in transportation planning at state and federal levels. 3. Additional research pertinent to mining and processing of minerals in the North should be conducted, and the feasibility of smelting minerals within Alaska explored. 4. Alternatives for providing power to Northwestern Alaska should be investigated.
    • Organic and Color Removal from Water Supplies by Synthetic Resinous Adsorbents: Completion Report

      Tilsworth, Timothy (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-01)
    • Oxygen application to chloride leaching of complex sulfide ores

      Chou, Kuo Tung (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1987)
      The study investigates leaching of complex sulfide ores with simultaneous regeneration of the leaching solution and removal of dissolved iron to balance the iron concentration in the leaching process. To minimize environmental pollution and obtain high metal extraction from the ores, leaching with a ferric chloride solution is adapted to treat Delta sulfide ores. The experimental results indicate that under high oxygen pressure leaching, oxidation of ferrous ion to ferric ion and partial precipitation of iron from solution can occur simultaneously. However, the findings also indicate that leaching the ores with simultaneous iron precipitation in one operation is difficult. It is better to precipitate excess iron in one stage; then leach the ores in another stage using the regenerated leaching solution.
    • Petrographic evaluation of coking potential of selected coals and blends

      Harkinson, F.C. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1965)
      The United States Bureau of Mines, Geological Survey, and other agencies have made extensive investigations on Alaskan coals. Coke tests on Alaskan coals as early as 1908 have indicatedd, that a few coals are of coking quality. However, lack of known coking coal reserves large enough for economic exploitation precludes competitive marketing. These coals which do indicate coking quality often occur in isolated areas and in complex geologic structure, thus prohibiting development. This study by no means defines the economic feasibility of mining, processing, or marketing of potential coking coals, but rather is concerned with new innovations of coal science to determine the possibility of blending coking cads with non-coking coals. Results i n d a t e that coherent coke products may be made by this blending and further illustrates a possible increase in reserves of coking coal.