• Natural resource base of the Fairbanks North Star Borough

      Wolff, E.N.; Haring, R.C. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1967)
      This report on the natural resource base of the Fairbanks North Star Borough is one of several continuing research projects related to community planning in Alaska. It represents an interdisciplinary effort of the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory and the Institute of Social, Economic and Government Research at the University of Alaska. The result is a synthesis of the economic development potential of natural resources in the greater Fairbanks region.
    • Natural revegetation of placer mined lands of interior Alaska II

      McKendrick, J.D., Neiland, B.J., and Holmes, K. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1980)
      To the uninitiated eye an aerial photo of Fairbanks’ surrounding area includes patches of what might appear to be the channels left by the workings of a bark beetle grub. These series of parallel mounds with sequences of smaller undulations on their surfaces are actually composed of coarse gravel and are the product of some forty years of gold dredging. Started in 1928, dredging was concentrated in several of the tributary valleys of the Tanana River and Goldstream Creek. Some of these tailings piles support lush growth while others are relatively bare. At present, no ecologically oriented studies, either qualitative or quantitative, have been published concerning the gold dredge tailings. It was therefore the intent of this study to obtain a broad picture of the present stage of revegetation, in order that further ecological work and, hopefully, assisted rehabilitation may be facilitated.
    • North Slope Borough water study: a background for planning

      Johnson, Ronald A.; Dreyer, Linda Dwight (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1977-06-15)
      The Planning and Research Section of Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources initiated this pilot water study with the North Slope Borough and the University of Alaska's Arctic Environmental Information and Data Center and Institute of Water Resources. Traditional and present water uses in the eight North Slope Borough villages are examined to assist in evaluating and planning for present and future water use, treatment, and disposal requirements.
    • A Northern Snowmelt Model

      McDougall, James; Carlson, Robert F. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-08)
      In early 1968, a large petroleum discovery was made in the Prudhoe Bay area of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain. This discovery has led Alaska into a period of development of unprecedented speed and magnitude. This development will require the construction of many engineering facilities which are affected by the water resources. The design of each of these requires an understanding of the hydrologic system, a system which is dominated in Alaska by low temperatures, high latitudes, large elevation differences and sparse data. The latter factor is unique to Alaska and makes application of common design techniques virtually impossible.
    • Nutrient chemistry of a large, deep lake in subarctic Alaska

      LaPerriere, J. D.; Tilsworth, T.; Casper, L. A. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1977-08)
      The primary objective of this project was to assess the state of the water quality of Harding Lake, and to attempt to predict the effects of future development within its watershed. Since the major effect of degradation of water quality due to human activity is the promotion of nuisance growths of plants, the major emphasis was placed on measurements of plant growth and concentrations of the major nutrients they require. Planktonic algal growth was found to be low, below 95.6 gm/m2/year, and the growth of submerged rooted plants was found to be relatively less important at approximately 1.35 gm/m2/year. Measurements of the growth of attached algae were not conducted, therefore the relative importance of their growth is currently unknown. A model for predicting the effect of future real estate development in the watershed was modified and applied to this lake. This model adequately describes current water quality conditions, and is assumed to have some predictive ability, but several cautions concerning application of this model to Harding Lake are discussed. A secondary objective was to study the thermal regime of a deep subarctic lake. Intensive water temperature measurements were made throughout one year and less intensive measurements were conducted during two additional years. The possibility that this lake may occasionally stratify thermally under the ice and not mix completely in the spring was discovered. The implications of this possibility are discussed for management of subarctic lakes. Hydrologic and energy budgets of this lake are attempted; the annual heat budget is estimated at 1.96 x 104 ± 1.7 x 103 cal/cm2. The results of a study of domestic water supply and waste disposal alternatives in the watershed, and the potential for enteric bacterial contamination of the lake water are presented. Limited work on the zooplankton, fishes, and benthic macroinvertebrates of this lake is also presented.
    • Occurrence and distribution of barite in the permo-triassic siksikpuk formation along the Brooks Range haul road

      Payne, M.W. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1980-03)
      Barite commonly occurs in Permian to Triassic age rocks along the north flank of the Brooks Range. The Siksikpuk Formation (Wolfcampian to lowest Guadalupian age) is noted for its barite and is well exposed in the vicinity of Galbraith Lake along the pipeline haul road (Figure 1). The proximity of these barite deposits to an existing road made them a logical selection for investigation. The study was designed to provide detailed stratigraphic information on barite quantity and quality, associated clay mineralogy, and relationship of barite to environments of deposition.
    • Optimum transportation systems to serve the mineral industry north of the Yukon basin in Alaska

      Wolff, E.N.; Lambert, C.; Johansen, N.I.; Rhodes, E.M.; Solie, R.J. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1972)
      In 1972 the U. S . Bureau of Mines awarded a grant (No. G 01 22096) to the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, University of Alaska, for a research project to determine optimum transportation systems to serve the mineral industry north of the Yukon River basin in Alaska. The study was conducted during the period May 1 - November 1, 1972. The study assesses the mineral potential of the region and selects two copper deposits: a known one at Bornite, and a potential one on the upper Koyukuk River. Two possible mining sites within the extensive coal bearing region north of the Brooks Range are also selected. A computer model was developed to perform an economic analysis of technically feasible transportation modes and routes from these four sites to Alaskan ports from which minerals could be shipped to markets. Transport modes considered are highway, rail, cargo aircraft, river barge, winter haul road and air cushion vehicles (A.C.V.). The computer program calculates the present worth of tax benefits from mining and transportation and revenues based on the value of minerals at the port, as well as the auxillary benefits derived from the anticipated use of the routes by the tourist industry. Annual and fixed costs of mining and transportation of minerals are calculated, and benefit-cost ratios determined for each combination of routes and modes serving the four mineral sites. The study concludes that the best systems in terms of a high benefit-cost ratio are those utilizing a minimum of new construction of conventional highways or railroads. The optimum system as derived from this study is one linking together existing transportation systems with aircraft or A.C.V. These modes are feasible only for the shipment of a high value product, namely blister copper produced by a smelter at the mining site, Of the several alternatives considered for the shipment of coal, only a slurry pipeline to an as yet undeveloped port on the Arctic coast showed significant promise. The study recommends that: 1. More government support should be given to mineral exploration in Alaska. 2. Potential mineral industry development should be considered in transportation planning at state and federal levels. 3. Additional research pertinent to mining and processing of minerals in the North should be conducted, and the feasibility of smelting minerals within Alaska explored. 4. Alternatives for providing power to Northwestern Alaska should be investigated.
    • Organic and Color Removal from Water Supplies by Synthetic Resinous Adsorbents: Completion Report

      Tilsworth, Timothy (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-01)
    • Oxygen application to chloride leaching of complex sulfide ores

      Chou, Kuo Tung (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1987)
      The study investigates leaching of complex sulfide ores with simultaneous regeneration of the leaching solution and removal of dissolved iron to balance the iron concentration in the leaching process. To minimize environmental pollution and obtain high metal extraction from the ores, leaching with a ferric chloride solution is adapted to treat Delta sulfide ores. The experimental results indicate that under high oxygen pressure leaching, oxidation of ferrous ion to ferric ion and partial precipitation of iron from solution can occur simultaneously. However, the findings also indicate that leaching the ores with simultaneous iron precipitation in one operation is difficult. It is better to precipitate excess iron in one stage; then leach the ores in another stage using the regenerated leaching solution.
    • Petrographic evaluation of coking potential of selected coals and blends

      Harkinson, F.C. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1965)
      The United States Bureau of Mines, Geological Survey, and other agencies have made extensive investigations on Alaskan coals. Coke tests on Alaskan coals as early as 1908 have indicatedd, that a few coals are of coking quality. However, lack of known coking coal reserves large enough for economic exploitation precludes competitive marketing. These coals which do indicate coking quality often occur in isolated areas and in complex geologic structure, thus prohibiting development. This study by no means defines the economic feasibility of mining, processing, or marketing of potential coking coals, but rather is concerned with new innovations of coal science to determine the possibility of blending coking cads with non-coking coals. Results i n d a t e that coherent coke products may be made by this blending and further illustrates a possible increase in reserves of coking coal.
    • Petrographic, mineralogical and chemical characterization of certain arctic Alaskan coals from the Cape Beaufort region

      Rao, P.D. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1980)
      Coal seams for the Cape Beaufort region of Arctic Northwestern Alaska were sampled by drilling by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, Juneau and the U.S. Geological Survey, Anchorage). Samples from the drill holes were supplied to the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory. These are Cretaceous coals ranging in rank from high volatile bituminous A to B. A total of 48 samples from 18 drill holes intersecting 14 seams were studied. Floatsink separations were made at 1.50 specific gravity for ten of these samples. Raw coals and float-sink pr'oducts were characterized for proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, ash fusibility, vitrinite reflectance, coal petrology in reflected light, quantitative determination of mineral matter by x-ray diffraction and infrared spectrophotometry of low temperature ash, major minor and trace elements by atomic absorption and emission spectrochemical analysis. Influence of beneficiation and geological significance of these characteristics, and organic affinity of trace elements are discussed. A generalized scheme for analysis of coal ash by atomic absorption and emission spectrochemical methods is presented.
    • Petrologic and geochemical characterization of the Red Dog and other base-metal sulfide and barite deposits in the De Long Mountains, Western Brooks Range, Alaska

      Lueck, Larry (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1986)
      Low Cu content, lead isotope ratios, mineralogy, stratigraphy, geochemistry, and morphology of the stratiform Red Dog and Drenchwater Zn-Pb-Ba deposits are consistent with a syngenetic, submarineexhalative origin in a Carboniferous back-arc or epicontinental rift basin. Red Dog apparently formed without vulcanism from ocean-floor hot springs like those active in the Guaymas Basin today. while submarine eruptions accompanied or followed Drenchwater sulfide emplacement. Story Creek and Ginny Creek epigenetic Zn-Pb mineralization is hosted in older sediments of the same basinal sequence. Lead isotope ratios from all four deposits are virtually identical. averaging Pb206/Pb204 = 18.408, Pb207/Pb204 = 15.598, Pb208/Pb204 = 38.250. These values fit the plumbotectonics lead growth curves for the orogene. This lead similarity also implies that the Ginny Creek and Story Creek occurrences are genetically related to Red Dog and Drenchwater, by remobilization or as parts of a regional 'plumbing system ' that fed the exhalative deposits.
    • Petrology of Cretaceous coals from Northern Alaska

      Rao, P.D.; Smith, J.E. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1983)
      Alaska has large coal resources and a major portion of these lie on the Arctic North Slope. A project was initiated with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy to conduct a reconnaissance petrological survey of the Northern Alaska field, in order to get a better idea of the potential for liquefaction of the coals.
    • Photochemical Degradation of Malathion

      Schneider, Marlys; Smith, G. Warren (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-03)
      This is the final completion report for a two-year project which began 1 November 1975. The original completion date was extended to 30 September 1977 to allow collection of samples and data through the summer of 1977. Malathion is a thiophosphate insecticide, 0,0-dimethly-S-(l,2dicarbethoxyethyl) phosphorodithioate: It is less toxic than DDT and decomposes over a much shorter period of time. With the suspension of DDT in pest control programs in 1965, use of malathion has been increasingly widespread in Alaska's interior. In spite of its low toxicity to animals, malathion is poisonous at some level. Lethal doses for domestic sheep and cattle are 150 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg. of body weight, respectively. The fatal dose of malathion for a 70 kg man has been estimated to be 60 g, with some clinical exceptions (McKee and Wolfe, 1963; Hayes, 1964). Dietary levels (ppm) producing minimal or no effect after continuous feeding for 90 days to 2 years to rats and dogs have been reported as 100-1000 and 100, respectively (Lehman, 1965). On the other hand, malathion has been identified by gas chromatography in extracts of water associated with several fish kills (Garrison, Keith, and Alford, 1972). In a study of malathion persistence in the soil near Fairbanks, Alaska, during the summer of 1967, half of the sampling sites showed the presence of malathion and its oxidation product, malaoxon, prior to aerial spraying (Holty, 1970). Since there had been no ground spraying since the summer of 1966, this would indicate that malathion was not degrading in the environment as fast as anticipated. This is important since it is then possible for the spring runoff to carry significant quantities of the pesticide and its degradation products into streams and rivers in the area. Retention of the malathion appears to depend on the amount of rainfall, and the summer of 1966 had been very dry. During the wetter summer of 1967, the post-spray soil samples showed a rapid drop in the level of malathion except at sampling sites in "mucky" soils which also increased noticeably in moisture as the amount of rainfall accumulated (Figure 1). Very little has been known about the aqueous photodecomposition of malathion and nothing was known of its vapor phase stability under atmospheric conditions and exposure to sunlight prior to this study.
    • Placer mining in Alaska

      Cook, D.J. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1983)
    • Placer mining in Alaska II

      Wolff, E.N., Robinson, M.S., Cook, D.J., and Thomas, B. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1980)
      During July, August and September, 1979, a team from the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory visited a number of placer mining districts that could be reached by automobile, hence at a reasonable cost for transportation. These districts yielded varying amounts of information that will be of value to the industry. The district visited were: 1. Fairbanks, 2. Circle (Birch Creak), 3. Livengood (Tolovana), 4. Manley Hot Springs, 5. Fortymile, 6. Klondike, 7. Kantishna, 8. Yentna.
    • The Politics of Hydroelectric Power in Alaska: Rampart and Devil Canyon -- A Case Study

      Naske, Claus-M.; Hunt, William R. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-10)
      Hydroelectric power in Alaska has had a curious history--and an instructive one. This study focuses on three separate projects: Eklutna, Rampart, and Devil Canyon. The Eklutna project functions today; Rampart was not constructed; and the Devil Canyon project is still in the planning stage. Yet for all their differences in location, goals, and fate, the projects were related; and, taken together, their histories highlight all the essential political elements involved in hydroelectric power construction. There is still a fourth project which is functioning today--the Snettisham installation near Juneau which is not considered in this paper. A complex decision-making process determines the progress of such large projects. In following these three Alaskan projects, we can gain a better perspective on the roles of the several government agencies and the public; thus we can assess some of the inherent complexities. Such an assessment fully substantiates the conclusion that it takes more than moving dirt to build a dam.
    • Polyethylene Sheeting as a Water Surface Cover in Sub-zero Temperatures

      Behlke, Charles; McDougall, James (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-12)
      The occurrence of temperatures below -20°C in central Alaska produces a situation conducive to the formation of ice fog. By far the largest source of ice fog in the Fairbanks area is the evaporation of water in the cooling ponds of power plants. In an attempt to find methods to reduce this evaporation and subsequent fogging, a study was conducted during the winter of 1973 in order to examine the feasibility of using po1yethylene sheeting as a water surface cover. An uncovered insulated tank of water was placed on the roof of the Engineering Building of the University of Alaska. The water was circulated to prevent stratification and kept from freezing by a thermostatically controlled heater. From January 23 through February 2, the water surface was 1eft uncovered. Evaporation rates were measured daily by maintaining the water surface at a constant level. During the period of February 2 through 11, the water surface was covered with a sheet of clear polyethylene, thereby eliminating evaporation. Throughout the period of study, daily readings were made of the power consumption of the heater and pump. Temperatures within and above the tank were also frequently measured with copper-constantine thermocouples. From the data co11ected, a daily energy balance for the tank was calculated. Taken into consideration were the net short-wave and long-wave energy exchange, heat loss due to evaporation and sensible heat transfer, heat loss through the sides of the tank, change in stored energy, and energy input from heater and pump. Results indicate that polyethylene is an effective water surface cover that could be used to virtually eliminate evaporation from cooling ponds.
    • Practical Application of Foam Fractionation Treatment of Low Quality Water

      Murphy, R. Sage (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1969)
      The foaming technique has found extensive use for organic, ion, and colloid separations from liquid systems. When used to remove an ion or a colloid, a specific surface-active agent of opposite charge to the particle being removed is added to the solution and floated to the surface of the suspension by gas bubbles. The ion or colloid is adsorbed at the bubble interfaces and collected within the froth formed at the surface of the container. The froth, with the contaminant or concentrated material (depending upon the process and its use) is physically separated at this point and further processed or discharged to waste. The clarified bottom liquid is therefore suitable for other uses. In the water supply field, the bottom liquid is the important product that is to be recovered and used for consumptive purposes. Much research has been performed on the theory and applications of various adsorptive bubble separation methods. These studies are well documented in the literature for various industries and applications which might take advantage of the method. It was not the intent of this work to amplify the findings of other research. The project was undertaken in an attempt to scale-up laboratory experiments previously performed at this Institute. No extension of theory, new processes, or revolutionary findings were attempted.
    • Preliminary report mineral resources of northern Alaska

      Wolff, E.N.; Heiner, L.E.; Lu, F.C. (1967)
      This report is a preliminary report by the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory to the NORTH committee on the subject of mineral resources in the region to be traversed by a proposed railroad.