• Petrographic evaluation of coking potential of selected coals and blends

      Harkinson, F.C. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1965)
      The United States Bureau of Mines, Geological Survey, and other agencies have made extensive investigations on Alaskan coals. Coke tests on Alaskan coals as early as 1908 have indicatedd, that a few coals are of coking quality. However, lack of known coking coal reserves large enough for economic exploitation precludes competitive marketing. These coals which do indicate coking quality often occur in isolated areas and in complex geologic structure, thus prohibiting development. This study by no means defines the economic feasibility of mining, processing, or marketing of potential coking coals, but rather is concerned with new innovations of coal science to determine the possibility of blending coking cads with non-coking coals. Results i n d a t e that coherent coke products may be made by this blending and further illustrates a possible increase in reserves of coking coal.
    • Petrographic, mineralogical and chemical characterization of certain arctic Alaskan coals from the Cape Beaufort region

      Rao, P.D. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1980)
      Coal seams for the Cape Beaufort region of Arctic Northwestern Alaska were sampled by drilling by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, Juneau and the U.S. Geological Survey, Anchorage). Samples from the drill holes were supplied to the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory. These are Cretaceous coals ranging in rank from high volatile bituminous A to B. A total of 48 samples from 18 drill holes intersecting 14 seams were studied. Floatsink separations were made at 1.50 specific gravity for ten of these samples. Raw coals and float-sink pr'oducts were characterized for proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, ash fusibility, vitrinite reflectance, coal petrology in reflected light, quantitative determination of mineral matter by x-ray diffraction and infrared spectrophotometry of low temperature ash, major minor and trace elements by atomic absorption and emission spectrochemical analysis. Influence of beneficiation and geological significance of these characteristics, and organic affinity of trace elements are discussed. A generalized scheme for analysis of coal ash by atomic absorption and emission spectrochemical methods is presented.
    • Petrologic and geochemical characterization of the Red Dog and other base-metal sulfide and barite deposits in the De Long Mountains, Western Brooks Range, Alaska

      Lueck, Larry (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1986)
      Low Cu content, lead isotope ratios, mineralogy, stratigraphy, geochemistry, and morphology of the stratiform Red Dog and Drenchwater Zn-Pb-Ba deposits are consistent with a syngenetic, submarineexhalative origin in a Carboniferous back-arc or epicontinental rift basin. Red Dog apparently formed without vulcanism from ocean-floor hot springs like those active in the Guaymas Basin today. while submarine eruptions accompanied or followed Drenchwater sulfide emplacement. Story Creek and Ginny Creek epigenetic Zn-Pb mineralization is hosted in older sediments of the same basinal sequence. Lead isotope ratios from all four deposits are virtually identical. averaging Pb206/Pb204 = 18.408, Pb207/Pb204 = 15.598, Pb208/Pb204 = 38.250. These values fit the plumbotectonics lead growth curves for the orogene. This lead similarity also implies that the Ginny Creek and Story Creek occurrences are genetically related to Red Dog and Drenchwater, by remobilization or as parts of a regional 'plumbing system ' that fed the exhalative deposits.
    • Petrology of Cretaceous coals from Northern Alaska

      Rao, P.D.; Smith, J.E. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1983)
      Alaska has large coal resources and a major portion of these lie on the Arctic North Slope. A project was initiated with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy to conduct a reconnaissance petrological survey of the Northern Alaska field, in order to get a better idea of the potential for liquefaction of the coals.
    • Photochemical Degradation of Malathion

      Schneider, Marlys; Smith, G. Warren (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-03)
      This is the final completion report for a two-year project which began 1 November 1975. The original completion date was extended to 30 September 1977 to allow collection of samples and data through the summer of 1977. Malathion is a thiophosphate insecticide, 0,0-dimethly-S-(l,2dicarbethoxyethyl) phosphorodithioate: It is less toxic than DDT and decomposes over a much shorter period of time. With the suspension of DDT in pest control programs in 1965, use of malathion has been increasingly widespread in Alaska's interior. In spite of its low toxicity to animals, malathion is poisonous at some level. Lethal doses for domestic sheep and cattle are 150 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg. of body weight, respectively. The fatal dose of malathion for a 70 kg man has been estimated to be 60 g, with some clinical exceptions (McKee and Wolfe, 1963; Hayes, 1964). Dietary levels (ppm) producing minimal or no effect after continuous feeding for 90 days to 2 years to rats and dogs have been reported as 100-1000 and 100, respectively (Lehman, 1965). On the other hand, malathion has been identified by gas chromatography in extracts of water associated with several fish kills (Garrison, Keith, and Alford, 1972). In a study of malathion persistence in the soil near Fairbanks, Alaska, during the summer of 1967, half of the sampling sites showed the presence of malathion and its oxidation product, malaoxon, prior to aerial spraying (Holty, 1970). Since there had been no ground spraying since the summer of 1966, this would indicate that malathion was not degrading in the environment as fast as anticipated. This is important since it is then possible for the spring runoff to carry significant quantities of the pesticide and its degradation products into streams and rivers in the area. Retention of the malathion appears to depend on the amount of rainfall, and the summer of 1966 had been very dry. During the wetter summer of 1967, the post-spray soil samples showed a rapid drop in the level of malathion except at sampling sites in "mucky" soils which also increased noticeably in moisture as the amount of rainfall accumulated (Figure 1). Very little has been known about the aqueous photodecomposition of malathion and nothing was known of its vapor phase stability under atmospheric conditions and exposure to sunlight prior to this study.
    • Placer mining in Alaska

      Cook, D.J. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1983)
    • Placer mining in Alaska II

      Wolff, E.N., Robinson, M.S., Cook, D.J., and Thomas, B. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1980)
      During July, August and September, 1979, a team from the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory visited a number of placer mining districts that could be reached by automobile, hence at a reasonable cost for transportation. These districts yielded varying amounts of information that will be of value to the industry. The district visited were: 1. Fairbanks, 2. Circle (Birch Creak), 3. Livengood (Tolovana), 4. Manley Hot Springs, 5. Fortymile, 6. Klondike, 7. Kantishna, 8. Yentna.
    • The Politics of Hydroelectric Power in Alaska: Rampart and Devil Canyon -- A Case Study

      Naske, Claus-M.; Hunt, William R. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-10)
      Hydroelectric power in Alaska has had a curious history--and an instructive one. This study focuses on three separate projects: Eklutna, Rampart, and Devil Canyon. The Eklutna project functions today; Rampart was not constructed; and the Devil Canyon project is still in the planning stage. Yet for all their differences in location, goals, and fate, the projects were related; and, taken together, their histories highlight all the essential political elements involved in hydroelectric power construction. There is still a fourth project which is functioning today--the Snettisham installation near Juneau which is not considered in this paper. A complex decision-making process determines the progress of such large projects. In following these three Alaskan projects, we can gain a better perspective on the roles of the several government agencies and the public; thus we can assess some of the inherent complexities. Such an assessment fully substantiates the conclusion that it takes more than moving dirt to build a dam.
    • Polyethylene Sheeting as a Water Surface Cover in Sub-zero Temperatures

      Behlke, Charles; McDougall, James (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-12)
      The occurrence of temperatures below -20°C in central Alaska produces a situation conducive to the formation of ice fog. By far the largest source of ice fog in the Fairbanks area is the evaporation of water in the cooling ponds of power plants. In an attempt to find methods to reduce this evaporation and subsequent fogging, a study was conducted during the winter of 1973 in order to examine the feasibility of using po1yethylene sheeting as a water surface cover. An uncovered insulated tank of water was placed on the roof of the Engineering Building of the University of Alaska. The water was circulated to prevent stratification and kept from freezing by a thermostatically controlled heater. From January 23 through February 2, the water surface was 1eft uncovered. Evaporation rates were measured daily by maintaining the water surface at a constant level. During the period of February 2 through 11, the water surface was covered with a sheet of clear polyethylene, thereby eliminating evaporation. Throughout the period of study, daily readings were made of the power consumption of the heater and pump. Temperatures within and above the tank were also frequently measured with copper-constantine thermocouples. From the data co11ected, a daily energy balance for the tank was calculated. Taken into consideration were the net short-wave and long-wave energy exchange, heat loss due to evaporation and sensible heat transfer, heat loss through the sides of the tank, change in stored energy, and energy input from heater and pump. Results indicate that polyethylene is an effective water surface cover that could be used to virtually eliminate evaporation from cooling ponds.
    • Practical Application of Foam Fractionation Treatment of Low Quality Water

      Murphy, R. Sage (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1969)
      The foaming technique has found extensive use for organic, ion, and colloid separations from liquid systems. When used to remove an ion or a colloid, a specific surface-active agent of opposite charge to the particle being removed is added to the solution and floated to the surface of the suspension by gas bubbles. The ion or colloid is adsorbed at the bubble interfaces and collected within the froth formed at the surface of the container. The froth, with the contaminant or concentrated material (depending upon the process and its use) is physically separated at this point and further processed or discharged to waste. The clarified bottom liquid is therefore suitable for other uses. In the water supply field, the bottom liquid is the important product that is to be recovered and used for consumptive purposes. Much research has been performed on the theory and applications of various adsorptive bubble separation methods. These studies are well documented in the literature for various industries and applications which might take advantage of the method. It was not the intent of this work to amplify the findings of other research. The project was undertaken in an attempt to scale-up laboratory experiments previously performed at this Institute. No extension of theory, new processes, or revolutionary findings were attempted.
    • Preliminary report mineral resources of northern Alaska

      Wolff, E.N.; Heiner, L.E.; Lu, F.C. (1967)
      This report is a preliminary report by the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory to the NORTH committee on the subject of mineral resources in the region to be traversed by a proposed railroad.
    • Preliminary Results on the Structure and Functioning of a Taiga Watershed

      Lotspeich, Frederick B.; Slaughter, Charles W. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1981-11)
      Comprehensive research in ecosystem functioning may logically be undertaken in the conceptual and physical context of complete drainage basins (watersheds or catchments). The watershed forms a fundamental, cohesive landscape unit in terms of water movement following initial receipt of precipitation. Water itself is a fundamental agent in energy flux, nutrient transport, and in plant and animal life. The Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed is an interagency endeavor aimed at understanding hydrologic and, ultimately, ecological functioning in the subarctic taiga, the discontinuous permafrost uplands of central Alaska. Initial work includes acquisition and analysis of data on soils, vegetation, local climate, hydrology, and stream quality. Information acquired in the research watershed is summarized here, and implications for future data acquisition and research are considered.
    • Preliminary studies of frozen gravel properties related to underground mining

      Skudrzyk, F.J., Barker, C.R., and Mazurkiewicz, M. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1982-04)
      This report describes research conducted by Drs. Frank J. Skudrzyk, Clark R. Barker and Marian Mazurkiewicz over a period of time from February 15 to April 15, 1982 for the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The scope of the project, established through discussions with Dr. Chris Lambert, representing the UA, was to conduct pilot studies of frozen gravel properties related to underground mining in permafrost: high pressure water jet cutting characteristics and uniaxial compressive test (uniaxial compressive strength and Young's modulus measurement). It has been agreed that the tests would be conducted on an artificial material simulating the frozen gravel.
    • Preliminary studies of the effectiveness of water jet cutting on frozen ground

      Skudrzyk, F.J. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1983-08)
      Cutting of artificially frozen gravel and ice was performed under laboratory conditions at pressures ranging from 3000 to 15000 psi (20.7 to 103.5 MPa) and flow rates below 4 gpm (0.24 L/s). During the second stage of this preliminary study additional cutting and "drilling" were conducted in the permafrost tunnel at Fox, at pressures ranging from 2000 to 4400 psi (13.8 to 30.4 MPa) and flow rate up to 40 gpm (2.4 L/s). The erodability of the material (energy required to remove a unit volume of material) was calculated and used as a basis for finding the optimum conditions for frozen gravel disintegration. Recommendations for further studies are also included.
    • Procedure for estimating tourism benefits

      Solie, R.J. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1973)
      Mineral Industry Research laboratory Report No. 29, "Optimum Transportation Systems to Serve the Mineral Industry North of the Yukon Basin in Alaska", considers the transportation needs of the area north of the Yukon. The only industries that can be established there within the foreseeable future are minerals production, recreation, reindeer husbandry, and trapping. The present paper, M.I. R. L. Report No. 29A was originally written as an appendix to Report No. 29. After some consideration, if was decided that al though it is. too detai Ied an analysis of tourism tobe included in M.I.R.L. Report No. 29, it also is too valuable a contribution to not be published at all. Therefore, it has been published in its present form as a separate report. It is recommended that M. I. R. L. Report No. 29 be consulted, especially Chapter 6.
    • A Program for the Collection, Storage, and Analysis of Baseline Environmental Data for Cook Inlet, Alaska

      Wagner, David G.; Murphy, R. Sage; Behlke, Charles E. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1968)
      The scope of this report is to provide a general, yet comprehensive, description of the Cook Inlet System which will serve as a basis for understanding the interrelated natural and man-made factors governing its future; to present a program of field research studies for the estuarine environment that will describe the existing state of the Inlet with respect to the water quality and biota; to provide a framework whereby the program of studies can be evaluated and redirected in light of the preliminary results; and, to provide a method of storing and analyzing the data from the investigations so that it can be made available to interested parties in the most efficient manner possible.
    • Reconnaissance of the Distribution and Abundance of Schistosomatium Douthitti, a Possible Human Disease Agent in Surface Waters in Alaska

      Swartz, L.G. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1968-02)
      Studies during the summer and early fall of 1967 show that Schistosomatium douthitti, a blood fluke which may pose a health hazard to man, is well established in the surface waters and surrounding terrestrial environments in the Fairbanks area. It is almost certain that this situation exists throughout Interior Alaska. Ecologically and geologically, the lakes and ponds in which it has been found are the most abundant types in the Interior and both the specific lakes and the types which they represent are abundantly used by man. The life cycle of the worm in this area is probably sustained mostly in small mammals, especially in Microtus pennsvlvanicus but also in Clethrionomys rutilus. The infection certainly over-winters in the mammal host but probably also survives in the snail host under the ice. Although the fluke was only found in two of the nine mammalian species examined, it is probable that it occurs in other than Microtus pennsvlvanicus and Clethrionomys rutilus.
    • Report of research progress 1971-1973

      MIRL (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1973)
    • Report of the Joint U.S.-Canadian Northern Civil Engineering Research Workshop

      Carlson, Robert F.; Morgenstern, N. R. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-03-20)
      The Joint Canadian-United States Northern Civil Engineering Research Workshop was held at the University of Alberta campus, Edmonton, Alberta on March 20 through 22, 1978. Over 40 participants from government, universities, and private practice from both the U.S. and Canada discussed northern civil engineering research for 2 1/2 days. The results of their effort are presented in this report. The nature of a report coming from spontaneous conversation will be somewhat uneven in coverage, language, and tone. However, we feel obligated to preserve the initial intent and language of the various workshop groups and each report should represent the original conclusion as nearly as possible. We acted as the principal instigators of the workshop and were ably assisted by an excellent group of workshop chairmen: Jack Clark, Lorne Gold, Charles Neill, Daniel Rogness, James Rooney, and Daniel Smith. We particularly want to acknowledge the assistance of the Boreal Institute for organizing and providing much of the administrative and secretarial support for the workshop, and the staff of the Institute of Water Resources for assisting with the organizing and publication processes. The workshop was sponsored by the National Science Foundation of the United States, the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs of Canada, the Boreal Institute and Department of Civil Engineering of the University of Alberta, and the Institute of Water Resources of the University of Alaska. R. F. Carlson N. R. Morgenstern
    • Research into the safety and efficiency of underground placer mining and frozen ground

      Huang, S.L. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1983-09)
      Some of the underground excavation problems encountered in arctic and subarctic environments associated with thermal disturbance are excessive settlement of ground surface and pronounced displacement around openings. This study investigated the possible links between the significant settlement. Ground temperature was found to be the most influential. An empirical equation was developed for the USBM gravel room to predict the effect of temperature on creep of frozen gravel. Separation of the roof gravel and silt was observed as steady heating process increased the gravel temperature by one degree. The temperature dependent material constants were estimated from the laboratory testings. The factors affecting the creep characteristics were temperature and applied stress level. The primary creep behavior of frozen gravel loaded under 18% of unconfined compressive strength at 25° and 29° could be predicted empirically.