• Saline Conversion and Ice Structures from Artificially Grown Sea Ice

      Peyton, H. R.; Johnson, P. R.; Behlke, C. E. (University of Alaska, Arctic Environmental Engineering Laboratory and University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1967-09)
      The environment of cold regions is generally viewed as inhospitable, primarily due to application of ideal processes and techniques suitable to temperate zones. The work herein is a step toward solving two environmental problems. The first involves the supply of inexpensive, potable water in Arctic regions, the lack of which is a severe detriment to development. Although water does exist in the Arctic, it is neither available in potable form during many months of the year nor does it occur in sufficient quantity near the point of use. Principally, this lack is caused by the aridness of the Arctic and the shallowness of fresh water sources which, for all practical purposes, do not exist but freeze completely each winter season. The remaining liquid water source is the sea. Arctic problems are then similar to other arid regions where the conversion of sea water to potable water or the transmission of potable water to desired locations is necessary. Cold temperatures generally preclude transmission except over very short distances. Desalination by freezing sea water is a much reported process and has been included among the desalination processes under study worldwide. The advantage of this method in the Arctic is the cold winter-time temperature for freezing and the existence of adequate solar energy in the summer for melting self purified ice. Power requirements are greatly reduced using these natural phenomena. The second aspect of this study concerns the use of artificially grown sea ice as a structural material, thinking primarily in terms of coastal facilities such as docks, jetties, islands, platforms, etc. At sufficiently high latitudes, the summer ablation can be controlled to the point where major structures can be maintained intact during the summer. The unit cost of material is quite low because of low energy requirements. The results of this study show that each of these sea water uses have considerable promise. Desalination to potable level was accomplished. Ice growth rates were obtained which indicate that ice structures of substantial size can be built.
    • Second annual conference on Alaskan placer mining, focus on gold

      Campbell, B.W.; Finch, Louella (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1980)
    • Sediment Relations of Selected Alaskan Glacier-fed Streams: Completion Report

      Guymon, G. L. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-06)
    • Significant parameters of mining properties in arctic and subarctic areas of North America

      Hackney, D.A.; Lambert, C. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1983)
      This paper is a review of those factors unique to mining in the Arctic and subarctic. The information was developed from an exhaustive Literature search and personal visits to several northern mines in North America. The intent is to present a broad overview of many of these factors, to identify and stimulate consideration of parameters that are likely to be overlooked by companies end persons wlthout p rior arctic experience. Topics of discussion include exploration, cold weather plant design, blasting in permafrost, living conditions and employees relations. The appendices are a brief discussion of a number of the arctic and subarctic operations in North America. In brief, minlng in northern regions is practical provided the deposit has sufficient value to support the higher construction, transportation and operating costs associated with the remoteness and cold weather. Hiring and retaining good employees and integrating the native labor force into the operation have proven to be the most difficult problems. Equipment and plant operation are problems more easily solved.
    • Sixth annual conference on alaskan placer mining

      Walsh, D.E.; Wray, Susan (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1984)
      An abridged format of papers, presentations and addresses given during the 1984 conference held on March 28-29, 1984, compiled and edited by Daniel E. Walsh and M. Susan Wray.
    • Sludge Production and Disposal for Small Cold Climate Bio-Treatment Plants

      Tilsworth, Timothy (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972-12)
      Ultimate disposal of wastewater sludge has long been a problem which to a large degree has been ignored. Haney (1971) stated that: "Until process sludge can be handled with minimum environmental impact, we cannot claim to have a viable wastewater treatment process". The relationship of sludge disposal to total treatment processes is emphasized by the fact that sludge handling and disposal represents up to 50 percent of the total treatment capital and operating costs (Burd, 1968). Processing of wastewater sludge will, no doubt, receive increased attention in the future because of environmental concerns for our air, land and water. The present technology for processing wastewater treatment plant sludge is well established and includes conditioning, dewatering, and disposal. Many of these processes are highly sophisticated and relatively expensive. Most of the more advanced processes are unsuitable for small wastewater treatment facilities in Alaska.
    • Snowmelt -frozen soil characteristics for a subarctic setting

      Kane, Douglas L.; Seifert, Richard D.; Fox, John D.; Taylor, George S. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-01)
      The pathways of soil water in cold climates are influenced, in addition to the normal forces, by the presence of permafrost and the temperature gradients in the soil system, whereas the infiltration of surface water into the soil system is a function of moisture levels, soil type and condition of the soil (whether it is frozen or not). Snowfall, with subsequent surface storage over a period of several months, typifies Alaskan winters. This snowfall often accounts for 50 per cent or more of the annual precipitation, with ablation occurring over a time span of 2 to 3 weeks in the spring. The melt period represents an event when large quantities of water may enter the soil system; the possibilities exist for recharging the groundwater system, or else generating surface runoff. The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of potential groundwater recharge from snowmelt. Instrumentation was installed and monitored over two winter seasons to quantify the accumulation and ablation of the snowpack. Thermal and moisture data were collected to characterize the snow pack and soil conditions prior to, during, and following the ablation. Lysimeters were installed at various depths to intercept soil water. The volume of potential areal recharge for 1976 was 3.5 cm and for 1977 was 3.0 cm, which represented about 35 per cent of the maximum snowpack content. It is concluded that permafrost-free areas can contribute significantly to groundwater recharge during snowmelt ablation.
    • Solar Energy Resource Potential in Alaska

      Seifert, Richard D.; Zarling, John P. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-03)
      Solar energy applications are receiving attention in Alaska as in much of the rest of the country. Solar energy possibilities for Alaska include domestic water heating, hot-water or hot-air collection for space heating, and the use of passive solar heating in residential or commercial buildings. As a first analysis, this study concentrated on applying solar energy to domestic hot-water heating needs (not space heating) in Alaska, and an analysis of solar hot-water heating economics was performed using the F-CHART solar energy simulation computer program. Results indicate that solar energy cannot compete economically with oil-heated domestic hot water at any of the five study locations in Alaska, but that it may be economical in comparison with electrically heated hot water if solar collector systems can be purchased and installed for $20 to $25 per square foot.
    • Solvent extraction procedure for the determination of tungsten in ores

      Rao, P.D. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1970-11)
      Atomic absorption methods have not been widely used for the determination of tungsten in ores due to its low sensitivity in aqueous solutions (1). A method has now been developed for solvent extraction of tungsten, making rapid determination of tungsten at low concentrations possible. It was found that tungstates, when converted to phosphotungstates, can be effectively extracted into di-isobutyl ketone (2-6 dimethyl - 4 - heptanone) (DIBK) containing Aliquat 336 (methyl tricapryl ammonium chloride from General Mills). This system was effectively used for the extraction of gold from cyanide solutioins (2). Even in aqueous solutions, phospho-tungstates give greater sensitivity (37 µg/ml for 1% absorption) compared to simple tungstates (63 µg/ml for 1% absorption). Standard tungsten solutions for extraction studies were prepared by converting aqueous solutions of sodium tungstate to sodium phospho-tungstate by boiling with ortho phosphoric acid. A Perkin-Elmer Model 303 atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used with a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame at a wavelength of 4008.75 A.
    • Some implications for Alaska of petroleum development on the Norwegian Continental Shelf

      Lynch, D.F. and Johansen, N.I. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1978-06)
      In January 1978, Senator Mike Gravel travelled in Norway to obtain information on Norwegian reactions to petroleum development on the continental shelf of the North and Norwegian Seas. This report presents some implications of Norwegian experiences which may be relevant to Alaska as developed by two University of Alaska professors who accompanied Senator Gravel and his assistant C. Deming Cowles.
    • Southeastern Alaska mineral commodity maps

      Heiner, L.E. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1970)
      Continued interest by exploration companies in a Southeastern Alaska resource study in progress by the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory has prompted the release of some of the maps prior to the completion of the study. A report on the study should be available for distribution during the summer of 1970, and will contain a complete tabulation of all mineral properties and prospects contained in the literature or staked under the mining laws. In addition, the report will contain a description of U. S. Bureau of Mines mining districts, a summary of the geology, and thoughts pertaining to possible controls for ore deposits in the area. The commodity maps contained in this packet represent only those properties currently listed in the State Division of Mines and Geology Kardex System. Information pertaining to all properties tabulated in this system for Southeastern Alaska has been digitized and stored on magnetic tape. The maps were plotted by computer at a scale of approximately 1 " = 20 miles for overlay purposes. The computer utilized the storage and retrieval file of Alaska mineral information developed by the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory (see M. I. R. L. Report No. 24) and the STAMPEDE and contouring program maintained by the University of Alaska.computer center. Each map i s a composite of individually plotted quadrangle maps using the U. S. Geological Survey coordinate system described in U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1139 for property location. At this scale, there i s little error in location.
    • Stratigraphy, petrology, and depositional environments of the Jarvis creek coalfield, Alaska

      Belowich, M. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1988)
      Jarvis Creek basin coals are subbituminous, low in ash, and increase upsection in moisture, most major oxides and trace elements, and vitrinite with subsequent liptinite and inertinite decreases. Sulfide mineral deposits east-southeast of the basin are responsible for the enrichment of the upper coals in sulfur and metals. Sandstones are quartzose, arkosic, and lithic in the lower, middle, and upper units respectively, and were derived from a recycled orogen provenance. Sediment transport was from the south at the base, shifting to an easterly source higher in the section. Deposition was by braided and meandering streams on mid and distal portions of alluvial fans. The lower and middle units are correlative with the Healy Creek Formation, while the upper unit probably correlates with the Lignite Creek Formation. Measured, indicated, and inferred coal reserves are 17, 37, and 227 million short tons respectively, mostly in the upper unit at shallow depths.
    • Study of a static screen, jig, spiral, and a compound water cyclone in a placer gold recovery plant

      Walsh, D.E.; Rao, P.D.; Cook, D.J. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1987)
      During the 1986 mining season both laboratory and field test work were conducted to study the performance efficiencies of a wedge-wire static screen, a Pan-American jig, a Reichert Mark VII spiral, and a 12" compound water cyclone. This work was conducted at EVECO, Inc.'s placer gold operations near Fox, Alaska, and funded by the State of Alaska Department of Natural Resources. The Mineral Industry Research Laboratory of the University of Alaska-Fairbanks perfomed the test work.
    • A study of factors suspected of influencing the settling velocity of fine gold particles

      Walsh, D.E. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1988)
      In this study, the authors used a radiotracer detection system coupled to a frequency counter and the radioisotope, lmAu, to investigate the effect of several variables on the terminal settling velocity of gold particles. The settling velocities of 35 manufactured gold particles (97 mg to 0.03 pg) were determined in order to produce working gold settling velocity vs. size-shape graphs for practical engineering application. Additionally, eight gold spheres were progressively flattened through 3 stages. At each flatness stage their settling velocity was determined. This highlighted the effect on settling velocity of decreasing shape factor for particles of constant mass (97 mg to 0.6 pg). The settling velocities of natural gold particles were also determined and compared to those of the corresponding manufactured particles. Finally, a generalized randomized block design was generated to explore the effects of three variables on the settling velocity of gold grains. The design was to be blocked according to gold size-shape combinations. The three variables (factors) studied were water temperature, clay concentration in the fluid, and the clay mineralogy of the suspended clays. This design was analyzed using a fixed effects analysis of variance model. The analyses show that all three factors had a significant (p < 0.001) influence on the settling velocity of gold particles. The data suggest that the clay mineralogy (viscosifying properties) of suspensions is perhaps the most influential parameter with respect to settling velocity determination.
    • A Study of Sediment Transport in Norwegian Glacial Rivers, 1969

      Østrem, G.; Ziegler, T.; Ekman, S. R. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-02)
      Permission to translate this Norwegian report was kindly given by G. Østrem, and the translation by Helga Carstens, while she was in Alaska, is greatly appreciated. Unfortunately, Mrs. Carstens returned to her homeland, Norway, before final editing of the manuscript could be completed. Consequently, any errors in translation are due to the editor, and for these errors, the editor apologizes to the authors. Not included in this translation is an English summary contained in the original report. To keep printing costs down, the original figures and tables, which fortunately had English titles, are used in this translation. This report is the first of a series of reports being prepared for the Norwegian Water Resources and Electricity Board. The second report for 1970 has been published with an English summary and contains an extension of the data contained in the 1969 report. Because this work deals with problems very similar to those in Alaska, it was decided to translate the first report and circulate a limited number of copies to workers in the U. S. and Canada. Research very similar to the Norwegian work was initiated in Alaska under the editor's direction in cooperation with the U. S. Geological Survey. -- G. L. Guymon.
    • A Study of the Breakup Characteristics of the Chena River Basin Using ERTS Imagery: Completion Report

      Carlson, Robert F.; Wendler, Gerd (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-06)
      Snowmelt and rainfall floodinq is a major water resource problem in Alaska. At the present time, forecastinq of these floods is based on a sparse hydrological and climatological network. Numerous basins with drainage areas of 5,000 km2 and less remain completely ungaged. The lack of data causes uncertainty in the design of transportation schemes such as tile Trans-Alaska oil pipeline. This project studied the utility of using ERTS-l imagery as a source of additional data for the prediction of snowmelt runoff, the most dynamic hydroloqic event in arctic and subarctic basins. Snow distribution as determined from the satellite imagery was compared with values determined from the conventional snow course stations and with the results of a snowmelt energy model. The Chena River Basin was selected because of the availability of ground truth data for comparison. Very good agreement for snow distribution and rates of ablation was found between the ERTS-l imagery, the snowmelt model, and field measurements. Monitoring snowmelt rates for relatively small basins appears to be practical. The main limitation of the ERTS-l imagery is the interval of coverage. More frequent overflights providing coverage are needed for the study of transient hydrologic events. ERTS-l data is most useful when used in conjunction with snowmelt prediction models and existing snow course data. These results should prove very useful in preliminary assessment of hydrologic conditions in ungaged watersheds and will provide a tool for month-to-month volume forecasting.
    • A Study of the Freezing Cycle in an Alaskan Stream : A Completion Report

      Benson, Carl S. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-03)
    • Study of Trace Elements in Waters of Two Alaskan Reservoir Sites

      Smith, Daniel W.; Hayes, Margaret J. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1975-01)
    • Sulphur isotopic evidence for the genesis of the Au-Ag-Sb-W mineralization of the Fairbanks mining district, Alaska

      Metz, P.A. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1984-10)
      Sulphur dioxide from sulphides was extracted for analysis by oxidation with Cuprous oxide at 1070º C, using essentially the method described by Robinson and Kusakabe (1975). The isotopic analyses of the purified sulphur dioxide were made on a modified Micromass 602 mass spectrometer with heated inlet system. The results were corrected for isobaric interference assuming a constant oxygen isotopic content and instrumental crosstalk (Coleman, 1977; 1980) and expressed in conventional del notation with respect to the Canon Diablo meteoritic troilite standard.
    • A Summary of gold fineness values from Alaska placer deposits

      Metz, P.A.; Hawkins, D.B. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1981)
      This report is the first in a series of publications by the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys under a special appropriation by the Alaska State Legislature to the School of Mineral Industry to conduct a "Mineral Appraisal of Interior Alaska Mining Districts".