• Suprapermafrost Water: Completion Report

      Guymon, G. L. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-06)
    • Surface Erosion and Sedimentation Associated with Forest Land Use in Interior Alaska

      Aldrich, James W.; Johnson, Ronald A. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1979-05)
      The magnitude of sheet-rill erosion associated with various landscape manipulations is presented. The Universal Soil Loss Equation's usefulness for predicting annual sheet-rill erosion within interior Alaska is confirmed. Investigations of sheet-rill erosion indicate that removing the trees from forested areas with only minor ground cover disturbance did not increase erosion. Removing the ground cover, however, increased erosion 18 times above that on forested areas. Erosion is substantially reduced when disturbed areas are covered with straw mulch and fertilizer. Comparison of the actual erosion and the quantity of erosion predicted with the Universal Soil Loss Equation indicates that the equation overestimates annual erosion by an average of 21 percent. It overestimates individual storm erosion by an average of 174 percent. Data are also presented concerning sheet-rill erosion in a permafrost trail, distribution of the rainfall erosion index, and suggested cover and management factor values.
    • A Survey of Lentic Waters with Respect to Dissolved and Particulate Lead

      Nyquist, David; Casper, L. A.; LaPerriere, Jacqueline D. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972-11)
      Some of the strongest temperature inversions in the world occur at Fairbanks, Alaska. Benson (1970) has reported that a temperature gradient of 10 to 30C/1OO m is common in the winter inversions that form at Fairbanks. Air pollution is especially severe during these inversions when it is accompanied by the formation of ice crystals in the air, a condition known as ice fog. This phenomenon occurs when the temperature drops below -20F (-35C) (Benson, 1970), and it intensifies with time if the inversion is not broken. The ice crystals in this fog have been found to adsorb dust and gasses, including the lead halides which are present in the air as a result of the combustion of tetraethyl lead and/or other lead-hydrocarbon compounds used as anti-knock additives in automotive gasoline. Lazrus et al. (1970) have found lead concentrations in precipitation to be highly significantly correlated with the amount of gasoline used in the area sampled. There are two factors that bring the concentration of lead to high levels in ice fogs. Evaporation of the ice crystals tends to concentrate pollutants in the air mass, especially over the core area of the city where precipitation is retarded by the heating effect of the city. Also, during the extreme cold weather accompanying this phenomenon, many people allow their cars to idle when they are parked to increase performance and for reasons of personal comfort. Eventually, much of the pollutants suspended in the ice fog is precipitated and causes unnaturally high levels of lead in the snow. (Winchester et al., 1967). It is suspected that some of this particulate lead collected in the snow may be carried along with the associated surface runoff into 1entic (standing) surface waters during thawing. The objectives of this project were: 1. to measure the amount of dissolved and particulate lead in a number of selected 1entic waters in the Fairbanks area, and 2. to measure the amount of lead that has been incorporated into net plankton organisms located in the selected lentic waters.
    • Thermal Tolerances of Interior Alaskan Arctic Grayling (Thymallus arcticus)

      LaPerriere, Jacqueline D.; Carlson, Robert F. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-12)
    • Thermogravimetric and distillation studies on mercury, antimony and arsenic sulfides

      Town, J.W.; Rao, P.D. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1975)
      Thermogravimetric studies were made on naturally occurring sulfides of mercury, antimony and arsenic to determine activation energies and Arrhenius rates of reaction in vacuum and in atmospheres of air and nitrogen. Of the three sulfides only antimony showed an appreciable change in rate of reaction for the different test conditions. Distillation results on three flotation concentrates from Alaska mining operations showed that cinnabar (mercury sulfide) could be distilled in a closed system, with over 99 percent recovery of the mercury as metal when the sulfur was reacted with iron. Over 98 percent mercury recovery was obtained from a cinnabar-stibnite (antimony sulfide) concentrate, with less than 1 percent of the antimony distilled from the furnace charge. Cinnabarrealgar-orpiment (arsenic sulfides) could not be separated by distillation and large quantities of soot (condenser residue) formed with the metallic mercury in the condenser.
    • Third annual conference on Alaskan placer mining

      Campbell, B.W. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1981)
      This Conference has been designed to present pertinent information on the foregoing facets of Placer Mining for the benefit of the industry; to allow discussion with fellow miners, and to permit sharing experience so that each may benefit i n conducting his own operation.
    • Thirty Summers and a Winter: U.S. Geological Survey Illustrations

      ; Mertie, Evelyn (Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, School of Mineral Engineering, University of Alaska, 1982)
    • A Town Meeting on Energy : Prepared for Interior Alaskans

      Seifert, Richard; Murray, Mayo (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1977-10)
      On March 26, 1977, an all-day Town Meeting on Energy was held at the Hutchison Career Development Center on Geist Road in Fairbanks, Alaska. This event was sponsored by the Alaska Humanities Forum in cooperation with the Fairbanks North Star Borough School District; the Institute of Water Resources at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; and the Fairbanks Town and Village Association. This publication reports the activities during and the information resulting from this town meeting.
    • Trace element copper distribution and areal geology in a portion of the Clearwater Mountains, Alaska

      Glavinovich, P.S. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1967)
      The study concerns that portion of the Clearwater Mountains defined by north latitudes 63' 03' and 63' 08' and west longitudes 147' 09' and 147' 30'. Outcrop within the area consists predominantly of a sequence of intercalated andesitic and basaltic flows. Sedimentary rocks are present but comprise a very small percentage of the total section. Dikes and a small pluton are also present. The prevailing attitude of the volcanic and sedimentary rocks is east-northeast with a consistent north dip. A Triassic age is accepted for the volcanic and sedimentary rocks. Areal and local sampling indicates that all rock types are abnormally high in trace copper content, and average background is 1000 ppm. Copper distribution suggests a syngenetic origin. Frequent small copper deposits crop out along the north side of the area. The deposits are epigcnctic and are structurally controlled. The origin of these deposits may have potential exploration significance.
    • Transportation economics of coal resources of northern slope coal fields, Alaska

      Clark, P.R. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1973)
      This paper describes the Northern coal fields, the environment in which they are situated, and various routes and systems for transporting metallurgical qua1ity coal from these deposits to a potential market in Japan. Each transportation mode is discussed with respect to northern Alaska conditions. Capitol and operating costs were developed for each system. If the coal must support the entire transportation system cost, the transportation of coal from the North Slope of Alaska to Japan appears to be economically feasible only from easily mined areas which are close to an ocean shipping port. In the case of transportation cost sharing by other users, or by government subsidization, the prospects of northern coal exploitation would be enhanced. The final feasibility of developing any of this coal deposit cannot be determined until the mining costs and the factors which influence these costs are known.
    • Treatment of Low Quality Water by Foam Fractionation

      Murphy, R. Sage (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1968)
      The removal of iron from Alaskan groundwaters by a foam fractionation technique has been shown to very effective. Finished waters with less than 0.2 mg/l iron have been produced from raw waters containing in excess of 25 mg/l. Ethylhexadecyldimethylammonium bromide was used as the principal foaming agent. Low temperature oxidation of the ferrous iron tended to interfere with the removal rates, but high temperature oxidation followed by low temperature fractionation did not exhibit the same adverse influence. All experiments were performed in four-liter laboratory batch columns. For the Alaskan environment batch processing is thought to have advantages over continuous processes because of the need for uncomplicated equipment.
    • Tunnel lining studies II

      Johansen, N.I. and Chalich, P. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1980-03)
      In the CRREL tunnel (Fig. B1, B2), sublimation is extremely apparent, but because of the tunnels limited usage it poses no significant problems. However, in an operating mine with forced air ventilation and continuously operating machinery, the problems associated with sublimation may no longer be insignificant. The dust released by the evaporating ice poses not only the obvious respiratory threat, but an additional safety threat, as fine silt suspended in the air reduces visibility, and removal or suppression of the dust will be of importance.
    • Uranium exploration methodology in cold climates

      Sims, J.M. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1980-03)
      The uranium prospecting boom of the past decade had, as a major consequence, the rapid development and proliferation of exploration methods for source materials. Numerous established methods were developed and refined whilst new techniques were introduced proving, in some instances, to be highly successful. To the explorationist the proliferation of instrumental hardware and detection systems was something of a headache with the result that in uranium exploration, more so than in other types of prospecting, the choice of exploration method at the appropriate stage of prospecting was frequently ill founded. The situation also spawned ‘black box’ purveyors who made extravagant claims for their equipment. Money was wasted through over kill applications of exploration method accompanied in many instances by deficiencies in the interpretation of results. This project was originally conceived as a means of evaluating, reviewing and filtering from a burgeoning array of systems the most appropriate exploration techniques applicable to cold climate environments. This goal has been trimmed somewhat since it had been hoped to incorporate site investigation data assembled in the field by the writer as appropriate case history material. This was not possible and as a consequence this report is a 'state of the art review' of the applicability of currently available techniques in Arctic and Subarctic environments. Reference is made to published case history data, where appropriate, supportive of the techniques or methods reviewed.
    • The use of flocculants to control turbidity in placer mining effluents

      Shen, Yun-Hwei (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1987)
      In this study, two placer mine discharge waters of different characteristics were tested in order to determine the applicability of organic polymer flocculants to achieve reduced levels of turbidity. The water samples from both mines were characterized both as to their chemical and physical properties. The jar test was employed to establish the optimum operation conditions of the flocculation process. The best results were obtained employing a cationic polymer Superfloc 340 produced by American Cyanamid Company. The optimum dosage for water samples from both mines were 15 ppm and 40 ppm respectively. Optimum agitation time was within the range of 3 to 9 minutes depending on the agitation rate and the pulp density of water sample. The utilization of settling ponds, in conjunction with flocculation is believed to be a practical method to control the turbidity level of placer mine discharge water.
    • User's guide for atmospheric carbon monoxide transport model

      Norton, William R.; Carlson, Robert F. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1976-06)
      In the winter months of Fairbanks, Alaska, a highly stable air temperature inversion creates high levels of carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations. As an aid to understanding this problem, a CO transport computer model has been created which provides a useful tool when used in conjunction with other measurement and analytic studies of traffic, meteorology, emissions control, zoning, and parking management. The model is completely documented and illustrated with several examples. Named ACOSP (Atmospheric CO Simulation Program), it predicts expected CO concentrations within a specific geographic area for a defined set of CO sources. At the present time, the model is programmed to consider automobile emissions as the major CO source and may include estimates of stationary sources. The model is coded for computer solution in the FORTRAN programming language and uses the finite-element method of numerical solution of the basic convective-diffusion equations. Although it has a potential for real-time analysis and control, at the present time the model will be most valuable for investigating and understanding the physical processes which are responsible for high CO levels and for testing remedial control measures at high speed and low cost.
    • Using polyethylene as a coagulant for reducing turbidity from placer mining discharge

      Fan, Ray-Her (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1987)
      Placer gold mining locations on Gilmore and Crooked Creeks in the Fairbanks and Central/Circle, Alaska areas, respectively, were chosen as study sites for evaluation of a unique water treatment process. The physical and chemical impacts on water quality by placer mining were investigated by measuring the pH value, turbidity, and solids content of the slurry samples. Sedimentation tests, zeta potential measurements, and particle size distribution analyses were conducted as well. Also analyzed were mineralogical and chemical composition of the suspended ultrafine particles. Flocculation tests using polyethylene oxide (PEO) with adjunct additives were conducted in the laboratory. Variable parameters such as mixing speed and time, reagent dosages, pH values, as well as synergistic factors were studied. Economic factors and chemical consumption were evaluated and a field treatment plant was designed and proposed.
    • Washability characteristics of low-volatile bituminous coal from the Bering River field, Alaska

      Rao, P.D. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1969)
      Two samples of low-volatile bituminous coal from Bering River Coal Field were sized to 0.525" x 3, 3 x 6, 6 x 10, 10 x 20, and 20 x 35 mesh and their washability characteristics studied at specific gravities ranging from 1.29 to 1.55. The results showed that the coals can be up-graded to an ash content as low as 2% with conventional cyclone heavy media process. A product containing less than 1% ash can be obtained from these coals with surprisingly high yields, ranging from 50 to 95% depending on the ash content desired in the washed coal, and the characteristics of the raw coal. The experimental work proves the technical feasibility of preparation of the coal form metallurgical use and as low ash carbon raw material. Further Pilot Plant testing would be required in the fields of preparation and utilization in order to design the final plant for ascertaining the economic feasibility.
    • Water Balance of a Small Lake in a Permafrost Region

      Hartman, Charles W.; Carlson, Robert F. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-09)
    • A Water Distribution System for Cold Regions: The Single Main Recirculation Method: An Historical Review, Field Evaluation, and Suggested Design Procedures

      Murphy, R. Sage; Hartman, Charles W. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1969-03)
      Students and residents of the Arctic are familiar with the many problems peculiar to the geographical area. This monograph will consider an adequate, safe, and reliable water distribution system. Water supply, together with housing, transportation, and waste disposal, are demanded when a remote area becomes established as a permanent settlement. As long as the population of the North was widely distributed in small mining camps, villages, and individual cabins, water distribution systems were not necessary, as shallow wells and nearby streams adequately served most needs. With the rapidly increasing settlement of the vast lands of the North, the population is being centered in communities rather than distributed over large areas. The world population explosion will undoubtedly contribute to increasing immigration into Arctic and sub-Arctic areas. These changes have already created a need for modern water distribution systems, a need which will become more critical with time.