• Agricultural limestone demand requirements and supply production in Alaska, a thesis

      Sanusi, A.C. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1983)
      The need for agricultural limestone to neutralize acidic soils and enhance plant growth in the Agricultural Project Areas of the state has prompted this research project on limestone demand requirements and production in Alaska. Based on the possible maximum agricultural lands (500,000 acres) available for production within the next 10 years <1983-1992) and the average agricultural limestone requirements of 2 tons per acre, the maximum requirements of 1,000,000 tons or an average of 100,000 tons per year over the period have been determined. This study identifies limestone deposits in the State of Alaska and suggests three suitable outcrops for use as agricultural limestone. It further describes economic methods of mining, crushing and transporting the finished product from anyone of the selected outcrops to the agricultural areas and thereby arriving at the delivered cost per ton for each of three alternatives of $77.68, $78.00 and $91.24 respectively and $81.26 per ton when production is from one outcrop supplying all three agricultural areas. A simulation of cost benefit to Alaskan farmers under various scenarios is also presented. The evaluation of agricultural limestone production from native Alaskan limestone has shown that locally produced limestone is more economic for and attractive to Alaskan farmers than imported limestone costing $200 per ton.
    • Alaska coal-a bibliography

      Triplehorn, J. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1982)
      Coal has been mined and used in Alaska for more than a century, and still is the principal source of energy for power generation for the interior Alaska region. Recent events that have caused increases in the cost of energy have spurred new world-wide interest in greater use of lower cost coal in place of oil. In the past few years, there has been increased interest in Alaska coal by private investors, evidenced by stepped-up exploration activity. Interest from the Pacific Rim nations is shown by the signing of contracts between Korean buyers and the Usibelli Coal Mine; and the entrance of Korean capital into exploring the Bering River Field. Japan is continuing pilot plant testing of Beluga coal. All of this indicates a rapidly growing interest in Alaska's coal and it seemed appropriate to have a comprehensive bibliography of Alaskan coals available to help the emerging coal mining industry in Alaska. Since a literature search is the first task of every company that wants to enter the Alaskan coal. mining industry, the time seemed appropriate to compile a comprehensive bibliography of Alaskan coal to eliminate duplication of effort and guarantee the industry the most comprehensive source of information. Julia Triplehorn is uniquely qualified for this task. She is a reference librarian by profession, with background in both geology and library science, and long experience in bibliographic searches on numerous other subjects. She has done an admirable job in searching all available sources, and has added an inclusive index that took time, dedication, and patience--a job well done. The School of Mineral Industry, Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, is pleased to make this bibliography available to industry and all those involved in research working toward the development of Alaskan resources.
    • Annual report of research progress

      MIRL (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1969)
      The great importance of minerals to a state's sound economy can be no better illustrated than by the discovery of oil and gas in Alaska in 1957 in the Kenai Peninsula. This event has led to the establishment of local basic and secondary industries which in turn will enrich the coffers of the state. In a parallel manner, the discovery of oil and gas on the North Slope in 1968 will not only produce basic and allied industries but will also be a catalyst assisting the development of other mineral resources to provide a diversification of industry--so important to the long range economic strength of a state. Also, further economic development of mineral resources is, to a large degree, dependent on mineral science research in the same way that research and development were necessary to develop the jet engine and hence, give a break-through in air transportation; thus, without geological and mineral processing research, mines cannot continue to be found and developed. The following pages will provide evidence of a significant contribution toward the shortening of the knowledge gap in mineral search instrumentation, gold size distribution, coal processing, prospector education, resource evaluation, and exploration oriented computer techniques. The demand by the Alaskan public, industry, and governmental agencies for this information has justified the reprinting of several of this year's research reports. This response by industry and the public has given increased impetus to the goal of MIRL: to aid in the expansion of Alaska's mineral economy through a program of applied and basic research--to seek knowledge today for use tomorrow. Earl H. Beistline, Dean, CESMI
    • Annual report of research progress

      MIRL (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1966)
      The mineral and human resources of a state and/or nation are to a large extent the basis of a strong and flourishing economy. In Alaska this is currently illustrated by the activities of the oil and gas industry and the resulting large sums of money that have gone into the state Treasury to help give a sound financial basis to Alaska. The Mineral Industry Research Laboratory has concentrated its efforts on research that will help in the more complete utilization of Alaska's mineral resources for work in the state's mineral industry. This report describes in moderate detail the projects that have been undertaken. These are in the areas of mineral economics, exploration, mining, mineral benefication, beach and ocean mining, utilization of nonmetallics, use of coal resources, and the solving of numerous' specific problems posed by mining people of the state. Training of young men and women for the mineral industry is stimulated by their having the opportunity to work on projects as a part of their graduate program under the supervision of the staff of MIRL. Theses completed offer a considerable amount of information to the public. Recent completed theses are listed in this report. The laboratory has been supported financially by the state of Alaska and various grants and work in kind from individuals and agencies. Private industry has helped in purchasing equipment and cooperative projects are underway with government agencies. Personnel and facilities of the College of Earth Sciences and Mineral Industry supplemented by other professional personnel are involved in teaching and research as set forth in enabling legislation for the Laboratory. The Staff MIRL
    • Annual report of research progress

      MIRL (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1965)
      Continuous research is the key to problem solutions and also to new developments in winning minerals from any environment, be it the land, the air, or the sea. Strong research programs yield both present and future benefits and are part of any vigorous, dynamic development. In Alaska, new mineral deposits must be searched for; marginal and submarginal deposits must be reviewed in terms of sophisticated methods of mining, benefication and extraction; and greater utilization must be developed for Alaska's industrial minerals, fuels, and off-shore mineral deposits. Continuous research, directed toward solving problems of present mineral production and uses, yields a technology which will solve future problems, and is essential if a vigorous mineral industry is to continue to play its basic role in Alaska's growing economy. Since mineral resources are of limited value without human resources, the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory is also dedicated to the development of Alaska's young men and women for careers in the mineral industry. The Staff MIRL
    • Annual report of research progress

      MIRL (1967)
      This year the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory has concentrated its efforts on projects relating to the more complete utilization of Alaska's mineral resources. This report briefly describes the projects that have been undertaken. These are broad in scope including topics such as mineral economics, exploration, mining, mineral beneficiation, beach and ocean mining, use of coal resources, resource evaluation, and market research analysis. Studies have been undertaken which investigate problems or topics in nearly all areas of the state, including Southeastern Alaska, Anchorage area, Northern Alaska and the Fairbanks area. In the future the MIRL Annual Report will be presented on a fiscal basis. To bridge the gap this year, an addendum to this report will be prepared in the Spring. Staff of the MIRL University of Alaska
    • Annual report of research progress

      MIRL (1964)
      Research that will lead to the utilization of Alaska's mineral resources and hence create new wealth must be 1::ontinued at an increased rate in the future if a strong mineral industry is to be developed and maintained. Current investment in minerals research is a judicious practice that will pay dividends to the State in the future. The Engineering Council for Professional Development, in their 1964 report which continued the accreditation of the engineering curri1:: ula at the University of Alaska, emphasized this concept when they stated: ''Regardless of the mining industry's present size, the State clearly needs a mining center in its State University not only for teachi} 1g but also for research and for service to prDspectors and mine operators." The Mineral Industry Research Laboratory is dedicated to those objectives of research, instruction and service which will help build the mineral economy of Alaska. Staff of the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory University of Alaska
    • Annual report of research progress

      MIRL (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1970)
    • Applicability of siberian placer mining technology to Alaska

      Skudrzyk, F.J.; Barker, J.C.; Walsh, D.E.; MacDonald, Rocky (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1991)
      The result of Perestroyka and Glasnost has been an awakening of potential for cooperation between East and West. Nowhere has that been better demonstrated than between Alaska and Magadan Province, USSR. This report summarizes a one year effort financed by ASTF, with participation from several technical organizations, to establish contacts with the Siberian placer mining industry. The purpose of the project was to provide initial assessment of the Soviet technology for placer mining in permafrost. A ten day trip to Magadan province by an ASTF team and a similar length visit to Alaska by the Soviet mining group representing the All Union Scientific and Research Institute of Gold and Rare Metals, (VNII-I), Magadan are described. The report also reviews translated data on mining in permafrost and describes surface and underground placer mining technology developed by the Soviets. The report also lists relevant publications on Soviet mining research and state of the art Soviet mining technology and expertise.
    • Application of hydrocyclones for recovery of fine gold from placer material

      Rao, P.D.; Wolff, E.N.; Maneval, D.R. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1982)
      Alaska and other gold areas have seen a sharp resurgence of placer mining in the last few years. Mines using sluice boxes usually recover gold down to 100 mesh, but recovery of gold finer than this size is a function of particle shape factor, sluice box design and operating parameters. It is felt that a concentrating device is needed to recover gold finer than 100 mesh that may not be recoverable in a sluice box. The device should be capable of processing a large volume of water and solids discharged from the sluice-box. Compound water cyclones, successfully used in the coal processing industry, seem to offer solutions. A system using these devices could recover a concentrate which would be one twenty fifth the size of the original solids in a two stage process. It is not intended to produce a finished product with cyclones, but to reduce bulk so that the reduced concentrate, free of slimes, could further be treated by flotation, gravity methods, or cyanidation to isolate the gold. This report addresses only the application of hydrocyclones for concentrating gold from placer material.
    • Application of hydrocyclones for the treatment of wastewater in gold placer mining

      Lin, H.K. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1980)
      This is a report on experimental application of hydrocyclones for the wastewater treatment in placer mining, with emphasis on their use in combination with a kind of large molecular weight flocculant. The simultaneous flocculating and clarifying of placer mining effluents was tested and evaluated.
    • Applications of trend surface analysis and geologic model building to mineralized districts in Alaska

      Heiner, L.E.; Wolff, E.N. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1967)
      The Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, University of Alaska, has investigated the application of computers and statistics to mineral deposits in Alaska. Existing programs have been adapted and new ones written for the computers available at the University. The methods tested are trend surface analysis and geologic model making. An existing coeffecient of association program was converted to Fortran IV , but was not applied to an Alaskan problem. A trend surface is a mathematically describable surface that most closely approximates a surface representing observed data. In geologic model making, regression analysis is used to determine what geologic features are significant as ore controls. Coefficient of association compares samples to each other on the basis of a variable being present or absent. Trend surfaces were computed for dips and s t r i k e s of geologic features ( v e i n s , f a u l t s , bedrock) for Southeastern Alaska, the Chichagof district , and the Hyder district . Results for the f i r s t two are presented as maps. Trend surfaces and residual maps were prepared for geochemical data from the Slana district, Alaska. A mineral occurrence model was made for a portion of the Craig Quadrangle, and potential values were computed for c e l l s in the area. Appraisals of potential values by five geologists are compared with those of the model. An IBM 1620 multiple regression program is included.
    • Characteristics and utilization of fly ash

      Lu, F.C.; Rao, P.D. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1971)
      Fly ash produced by four power plants in Fairbanks and vicinity was collected and analyzed. Current fly ash specification and potential users of fly ash in general and in the Fairbanks area in particular were evaluated. A detailed bibliography on utilization of fly ash is appended for reference by producers and potential users of fly ash.
    • Characterization and evaluation of washability of Alaskan coals

      Rao, P.D.; Wolff, E.N. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1980)
      This report is a result of the second part of a continuing study to obtain washability data for Alaskan coals to supplement the efforts of the U.S. Department of Energy in their ongoing studies on washability of U.S. coals.
    • Characterization and evaluation of washability of Alaskan coals - fifty selected seams from various coal fields

      Rao, P.D. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1986)
      FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT: September 30,1976 to February 28,1986
    • Characterization and evaluation of washability of Alaskan coals - phase i - selected seams from Nenana, Jarvis Creek and Matanuska coal fields

      Rao, P.D.; Wolff, E.N. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1979)
      This report covers the results of a study conducted to obtain washability data for Alaskan coals to supplement the efforts of the U.S. Department of Energy (formerly U.S. Bureau of Mines) in its ongoing studies on washability of U.S. coals.
    • Characterization and evaluation of washability of Alaskan coals - phase iii, selected seams from the northern Alaska, Nulato, Eagle, Nenana, Broad Pass, Kenai, Beluga, and Chignik coal fields

      Rao, P.D.; Wolff, E.N. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1982)
      This report is a result of the third part of a continuing study to obtain washability date for Alaskan coals, to supplement the efforts of the U.S. Department of Energy in their ongoing studies on washability of U.S. coals. Washability characteristics were determined for fifteen coal samples from the Northern Alaska, Nulato, Eagle, Nenana, Broad Pass, Kenai, Beluga and Chignik coal fields. The raw coals were crushed to 1-1/2 inches, 2/8 inch and 14 mesh topsizes, and float-sink separations were made at 1.30, 1.40 and 1.70 specific gravities.
    • Characterization and evaluation of washability of Alaskan Coals - phase iv, selected seams from the northern Alaska, Chicago Creek, Unalakleet, Nenana, Matanuska, Beluga, Yentna, and Herendeen Bay coal fields

      Rao, P.D.; Wolff, E.N. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1982)
      This report is a result of the fourth and final part of a study to obtain washability data for Alaskan coals, to supplement the efforts of the U.S. Department of Energy in their ongoing studies on washability of U.S. coals. Washability characteristics were determined for fifteen coal samples from the Northern Alaska, Chicago Creek, Unalakleet, Nenana, Matanuska, Beluga, Yentna and Herendeen Bay coal fields. The raw coal was crushed to 1 1/2 inches, 3/8 inch and 14 mesh top sizes, and float-sink separations were made at 1.30, 1.40 and 1.60 specific gravities.
    • Characterization and washability studies of raw coal from the Little Tonzona Field, Alaska

      Rao, P.D.; Walsh, D.E.; Phillips, N.; Charlie, K.G. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1991)
      Coal occurs in an isolated exposure of Tertiary, non-marine sedimentary rocks along the southwest bank of the Little Tonzona River, near Farewell, Alaska. The Little Tonzona River coal field is located approximately 150 air miles northwest of Anchorage, Alaska, and 210 air miles southwest of Fairbanks, Alaska; near the boundaries of Denali National Park. The Alaska Railroad and the Parks Highway are approximately 100 air miles from the coal field at their nearest point. The village of McGrath, on the Kuskokwim River, is located approximately 90 miles to the west (1). An impressive outcrop of coal-bearing Tertiary sediments is exposed for a distance of more than 275 feet on the west bank of the Little Tonzona River (Figure 1). More than seven coal beds, ranging in thickness from 3 feet ta 30 feet, with a cumulative thickness of over 134 feet, are interbedded with clay beds up to 40 feet thick. The clays are fine textured, extremely plastic, light grey to nearly white bentonites andlor tonsteins. Doyon Ltd., an ANSCA Native Corporation, holds land selections covering the inferred limits of the coal field. During 1980 and 1981, Doyon entered into exploration agreements with McIntyre Mines Inc. of Nevada. The two season exploration program took place from June 1,1980 through August 22,1980 and from May 27,1981 through August 22, 1981. During the 1980 field season, geologic mapping, prospecting, stratigraphy, trenching and bulk sampling of all coal outcrops were performed. This produced a total of 34 samples, which were taken for analysis. In 1981, six diamond drill holes with a cumulative length of 2,935 feet were completed. Core recovery was close to 90%, and a total of 147 coal samples, which represented 802.8 cumulative feet of coal, were taken for analysis. The exploration program confirmed a strike length of over 3 miles to the southwest from the main river bank exposure. Northward extension is unknown at this time. Although outcrop exposure is poor away from the river banks, burnout zones resulting from past coal bed fires form a resistant, recognizable on strike feature in the relatively unindurated Tertialy sequence. The appearance of these burnout zones along strike is often the only surface indication of the buried coal-bearing strata. Well preserved plant fossil impressions in the baked clays date the deposit as probable Miocene (2). Coal characterization and washability studies were performed on all coal samples by the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory of the University of Alaska Fairbanks. This work was conducted under the direction of Dr. P.D. Rao, Professor of Coal Technology.
    • Characterization of coal products from high temperature processing of Usibelli low-rank coals

      Rao, P.D.; Walsh, D.E.; Wilson, W.; Li, YuFu (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1991)
      This research project was conducted in association with Gilbert/Commonwealth Inc. as part of an overall techno-economic assessment of high temperature drying of low-rank coals. This report discusses the characteristics of the dried/pyrolyzed products of two high temperature, evaporative processes and the dried product from a hydrothermal process. The long term goal of this and other coal drying studies conducted at MIRL, was to define drying technologies that have significant and real potential to competitively move Alaska's, low-rank coals (LRCs) into the export, steam coal market of the Pacific Rim. In 1990, Japan imported 33 million metric tons (mt) of steam coal with an additional 39 million mt imported by other Far East nations(2). Australia dominates the export steam coal market to these Pacific Rim countries and exported 48 million mt in 1990 and an additional 61 million mt of metallurgical coal(2). The worldwide steam coal export market has been expanding rapidly, from 20 million mt in 1973 to 150 million mt in 1989, and is expected to double to nearly 300 million mt by the end of the century(3). Could Alaska capture only 3% of the projected new world steam coal market, which is not an unreasonable expectation, the value of the state's coal exports would soar from nominally $28 million per year to over $100 million per year. However, without development of economical methods for drying/stabilizing Alaskan LRCs, the only increase in export of Alaskan coals may be from the few "higher rank" coals within a "reasonable" transport range of the existing Alaska rail system or tidewater. Presently the coal from the Usibelli Coal Mine is the only low-rank coal exported internationally as a steam coal; primarily for its blending properties with other coal to improve combustion. But for Alaskan low-rank coals to truly stand on their own merits, economical drying processes must be developed that produce a physically and chemically stable dried product. The technologies that have the most potential for increasing the use of Alaskan coals are those that can reduce the moisture content of these coals economically, and produce a fuel that is accepted in the international market place. Drying technologies will no doubt differ, depending on the end use of the fuel; be it dried lump coal, briquettes or pellets for pulverized coal or stoker applications, or concentrated coal-water fuels made from hot water dried LRCs. There are a number of developing processes that may work with Alaskan coals. Some drying processes, however, have been plagued by the production of excessive amounts of coal fines, Since the demand for Alaskan coal is currently limited to lump size coal, large quantities of fines are a definite liability. In this study, two high temperature drying/pyrolysis processes and one hydrothermal process were investigated. The high temperature drying/pyrolysis processes were conducted at (1) the Western Research Institute, (WRI) an affiliate of the University of Wyoming Research Corporation, Laramie, WY, and (2) Coal Technology Corporation (CTC) of Brisol, VA. Hydrothermal processing was conducted at MIRL, University of Alaska Fairbanks. A summary of these processes and the products they produced follows.