• Economic and Organizational Issues in Alaska Water Quality Management

      Erickson, Gregg K.; Tussing, Arlon R. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1971-09)
    • Effect of Waste Discharges into a Silt-laden Estuary: A Case Study of Cook Inlet, Alaska

      Murphy, R. Sage; Carlson, Robert F.; Nyquist, David; Britch, Robert (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972-11)
      Cook Inlet is not well known. Although its thirty-foot tidal range is widely appreciated, its other characteristics, such as turbulence, horizontal velocities of flow, suspended sediment loads, natural biological productivity, the effects of fresh water inflows, temperature, and wind stresses, are seldom acknowledged. The fact that the Inlet has not been used for recreation nor for significant commercial activity explains why the average person is not more aware of these characteristics. Because of the gray cast created by the suspended sediments in the summer and the ice floes in the winter, the Inlet does not have the aura of a beautiful bay or fjord. The shoreline is inhospitable for parks and development, the currents too strong for recreational activities, and, because of the high silt concentration, there is little fishing. Yet, Cook Inlet, for all its negative attributes, can in no way be considered an unlimited dumping ground for the wastes of man. It may be better suited for this purpose than many bays in North America, but it does have a finite capacity for receiving wastes without unduly disturbing natural conditions. This report was written for the interested layman by engineers and scientists who tried to present some highly technical information in such a manner that it could be understood by environmentalists, concerned citizens, students, decision makers, and lawmakers alike. In attempting to address such a diverse audience, we risked failing to be completely understood by any one group. However, all too often research results are written solely for other researchers, a practice which leads to the advancement of knowledge but not necessarily to its immediate use by practicing engineers nor to its inclusion in social, economic, and political decision-making processes. We hope this report will shorten the usual time lag between the acquisition of new information and its use. Several additional reports will be available for a limited distribution. These will be directed to technicians who wish to know the mathematical derivations, assumptions, and other scientific details used in the study. Technical papers by the individual authors, published in national and international scientific and engineering journals, are also anticipated.
    • The Effectiveness of a Contact Filter for the Removal of Iron from Ground Water

      Kim, Steve W. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1971-01)
      Various types of modified filters were investigated to replace greensand filters which clogged when removing ground water. A properly designed uniform-grain sized filter can increase the filtration time more than ten times that of ordinary sand or greensand filters. The filter medium was obtained by passing commercial filter material between two standard sieves of a close size range, so that the resulting medium was of a uniform size. The head loss rate on such a medium was independent of the filter depth and was inversely proportional to the almost 3/2 power of the grain size. On the other hand, the filter depth was almost linearly proportional to the time of protective action. The effects of the grain size, filter depth, and filter material on the filter run were evaluated with a synthetic iron water; and optimum filter depths for each unisized material were determined. At identical filtration conditions, anthracite had a 70 to 110% longer filter run than the sand medium, and it was attributed to the greater porosity of the former. Expectedly, the time to reach initial leakage of the iron floc was greater with the coarse and more porous medium. but was reduced to an insignificant amount when the filter depth was increased to three to six feet. The performance of unisized filters on permanganate-treated ground water was much better than that of fine-grained greensand. Applicability of experimental data on an existing filtration theory was investigated
    • The Effects of Extreme Floods and Placer Mining on the Basic Productivity of Sub Arctic Streams : A Completion Report

      Morrow, James E. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1971)
      The original proposal for this project was submitted to OWRR in the fall of 1967 and envisioned a two year investigation involving the principal investigator and three graduate student assistants, with a first year budget of nearly $25,000.00. However, the project was approved for only one year, with a total budget of $5,757.00. In addition, even these funds did not become available until August 1968. Because of the lateness of availability and the sharp curtailment of the total amount, it was not possible to purchase any equipment. Hence, measurements of rainfall, current velocity, basic productivity, etc., had to be abondoned. All that could be done was to acquire data on the bottom fauna and some physico-chemical characteristics of the water.
    • Effects of Reservoir Clearing on Water Quality in the Arctic and Subarctic: Completion Report

      Smith, Daniel W.; Justice, Stanley R. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1975-01)
    • Effects of seasonability and variability of streamflow on nearshore coastal areas: final report

      Carlson, Robert F.; Seifert, Richard D.; Kane, Douglas L. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1977-01)
      General nature and scope of the study: This study examines the variability of streamflow in all gaged Alaskan rivers and streams which terminate in the ocean. Forty-one such streams have been gaged for varying periods of time by the U. S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division. Attempts have been made to characterize streamflow statistically using standard hydrological methods. The analysis scheme which was employed is shown in the flow chart which follows. In addition to the statistical characterization, the following will be described for each stream when possible: 1. average period of break-up initiation (10-day period) 2. average period of freeze-up (10-day period) 3. miscellaneous break-up and freeze-up data. 4. relative hypsometric curve for each basin 5. observations on past ice-jam flooding 6. verbal description of annual flow variation 7. original indices developed in this study to relate streamflow variability to basin characteristics and regional climate.
    • The Effects of Surface Disturbances on the Leaching of Heavy Metals

      Dixson, David P.; Brown, Edward J. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1987-10)
      The harmful effects of heavy metal contamination of surface waters impacted by gold mining activity are well documented. An examination was conducted on the effects of surface disturbances in Wade Creek on the concentrations of heavy metals in solution, and whether Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, a bacteria found in heavy metal contaminated drainages from placer mines, is found in the drainage. Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was not detected in this particular setting. The effects of mining activity and relandscaping of stockpiled tailings showed in a short distance, a net increase of dissolved arsenic, copper, zinc, and iron. However, the long distance impact of dissolved metals was minimal. Generally, it seems that the dampening of the total suspended solids had a direct effect on the removal of metals dissolved in solution.
    • The Effects of Suspended Silts and Clays on Self-purification in Natural Waters: Protein Adsorption

      Murray, Ann P. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972-04)
      The effects of the suspended sediments found in many natural waters on the microbial processes involved in the self-purification of those waters are not known. Clays and silts with their large surface area per unit weight have an immense capacity for adsorbing nutrient molecules from solution, but the extent to which such adsorption takes place is largely unknown. Adsorption of a major portion of a biodegradable substance from solution onto a solid surface would significantly alter its susceptibility to bacterial attack and, hence, also the rate at which it is decomposed. In this paper are reported the results of adsorption experiments with soil materials found in some Alaskan waters which are typically heavily sediment-laden. The affinities of these soils for the protein bovine serum albumin were measured as a function of pH, temperature, and protein concentration. An empirical relationship was discovered, for a given soil material, between the equilibrium protein concentration and the initial protein-to-soil ratio. Temperature variations from 5 to 25°C had no detectable effect on adsorption, whereas variations in pH between 2 and 10 had dramatic effects on the extent of adsorption. The amount of protein adsorbed at the pH of the natural water system was so small as to lead one to predict that adsorption of this protein onto suspended sediments would have a negligible effect on the rate at which the protein would be decomposed by bacteria in the aqueous environment.
    • Effects of Thermal Discharge Upon a Subarctic Stream: Completion Report

      Carlson, Robert F.; Tilsworth, Timothy; Hok, Charlotte (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-06)
    • The Effects of Water Quality and Quantity on the Fauna of a Non-Glacial Alaskan River

      Morrow, James E. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1971)
    • Envirnonmental Standards for Northern Regions: A Symposium

      Smith, Daniel W.; Tilsworth, Timothy (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1975-03)
      The environmental standards for water, air, and land are of prime importance to all members of the northern community. Many of the ecological systems are easily disrupted. Some of the systems are extremely stable. Although the volume of scientific and engineering research on various aspects of the total environment is expanding rapidly it appears that those studying the conditions that exist and those setting the standards for these areas seldom, if ever, communicate. Due to the increased attention being paid to the meaning and impact of regulations, the sponsors of this symposium proposed an opportunity for open discussion of the issues. The program was designed to address the full range of environmental situations. The principal objectives of this symposium were: 1. to review environmental standards and regulations 2. to identify environmental problem areas 3. to examine the adequacy, pertinence, enforcement, and effectiveness of environmental control in the North. While these objectives could not be completely satisfied by this meeting, doors were opened; participants discussed issues brought forth; and progress was made toward a better understanding of needed environmental standards for northern regions.
    • Environmental path of arsenic in groundwater: Completion report

      Hawkins, D.B. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1976-10)
      This is the final completion report for a project begun in July, 1974, for the purpose of determining the concentration of arsenic in the Pedro Dome-Cleary Summit area of the Fairbanks Mining District, Alaska. Because arsenic contamination of the waters of the area was detected during the first year, the study was extended for another year to examine for arsenic the waters of the Ester Dome area, a more populated part of the district. This study was undertaken because it was known that arsenic as arsenopyrite and arseniferous pyrite accompanies the gold mineralization in the Fairbanks District. It was not known if such arsenic was liberated to the waters of the area by weathering processes. The Pedro Dome-Cleary Summit area was chosen for the initial study because arsenopyrite- bearing rocks are abundant and mining activities which might accelerate release of arsenic had long been carried out in the region. The area also had a few wells thus permitting a limited number of groundwater samples to be taken. The subsequently studied Ester Dome area permitted extensive sampling of the groundwater there. From a health standpoint, 70 mg arsenic has proven to be toxic to humans, while arsenic in low concentrations appears to be a carcinogen. In view of these facts, the United States Public Health Service (USPHS) recommended guide limit for arsenic in potable waters is 10 parts per billion (ppb) with 50 ppb a level which, if exceeded, constitutes grounds for rejection of the water as a public water supply. Because of the rapid population growth in the Fairbanks area and the growing reliance upon domestic wells as a source of water by much of the population, it is important that the arsenic content of the surface and ground water be determined.
    • Environmental Planning for an Alaskan Water-Oriented Recreation Area

      Smith, Daniel W. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1975-06)
      The principal objective of this study was to detail the procedures, methods, alternatives, and considerations necessary for the development of environmental management programs for Alaskan water-oriented recreational areas. Major emphasis was to be placed on the Nancy Lake area. As procedures for evaluation were to be used at the Nancy Lake State Recreation Area as they were developed, it was hoped that a valuable data base could be established for the area. Such information could be extremely valuable in making management decision, in monitoring changes that may occur, and in modifying plans for the area.
    • Environmental planning for an Alaskan water-oriented recreational area

      LaPerriere, Jacqueline Doyle (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-06)
      This research focused initially on delineation of the proper procedures to be applied when the state of Alaska, through the appropriate agencies, selects and develops water-based recreation areas. The Nancy Lakes recreational area was selected as a case study for testing these procedures. This area is located approximately 106 km (66 road miles) northwest of Anchorage along the Parks Highway (61°N,150°W). When the research was begun in July of 1973, this area was determined to be important to the future recreational needs of the residents of the growing municipality of Anchorage as well as to travelers between Fairbanks and Anchorage along the newly opened highway. Today, this area is even more important as the new capital of the state of Alaska will be located approximately 6 km (4 miles) east of Nancy Lakes. In the summer of 1974, difficulties arose concerning the objectives of the project and the reports to be generated. Therefore, a decision was made to terminate the research at Nancy Lakes. A partial completion report was compiled concerning the work completed to September 1, 1974. This report was distributed to cooperators at the State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Parks; the Sport Fish Division of Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Palmer; and to the Office of Water Resources Research, the predecessor of the Office of Water Research and Technology. The research has continued, focusing on the Tanana Lakes near Fairbanks, Alaska, (64°N,146°N) with the cooperation of the Sport Fish Division of the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fairbanks. These lakes, located within 160 km (100 miles) of Fairbanks, are important to the residents of Fairbanks, as well as to tourists driving to Fairbanks from the 48 continguous states. Many Fairbanks residents have cottages at one of the three largest of these, Harding, Birch, and Quartz Lakes. Several youth groups have summer camps on these lakes; the U. S. Army and the U. S. Air Force are currently sharing an extensive recreation facility at Birch Lake; and the state park at Harding Lake is one of the state's most utilized campgrounds. The research on this lake group has focused on the variation in productivity between these lakes due to differences in lake morphometry and watershed characteristics, with some attempt to assess recreational impacts on their water quality.
    • Environmental quality conditions in Fairbanks, Alaska, 1972

      Pearson, Roger W.; Smith, Daniel W. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972)
      This study represents a starting point for investigating the nature and interconnectivity of environmental quality problems in Fairbanks in the 1970's. Since the Fairbanks flood of 1967, no detailed survey of environmental quality conditions has been conducted despite the impact of the flood, the considerable expansion of the city limits, and the population expansion (anticipated and actual) associated with the oil pipeline. The study focuses on selective aspects of environmental quality of continuing and increasing concern to Fairbanks area residents and also to the city and borough governments. Specifically, the issues analyzed are (1) the environmental setting of the area, (2) structures, especially housing conditions, (3) premise conditions, and (4) waste control. Much of the data was derived from a program called NEEDS, an acronym for Neighborhood Environmental Evaluation and Decision System. NEEDS was developed by the Bureau of Community Environmental Management of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare for rapid gathering of environmental, health, and social information in urban areas.1 The NEEDS survey design consists of two separate stages. Stage I is concerned with collecting general environmental quality information to determine geographically where the most pronounced environmental health problems exist in a given urban area. Stage II consists of detailed interviews with residents of the identified "problem areas" to determine the exact nature of existing health and environmental problems, e.g., housing, health, availability of services, and attitudes regarding existing government (local, state, and federal) programs. With this information, local officials could begin to reorganize existing programs and/or develop new programs to solve some of the interrelated environmental quality problems in the disadvantaged sections of their cities.
    • Evaluation of the trophic types of several Alaskan lakes by assessment of the benthic fauna

      LaPerriere, Jacqueline D. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1975-03)
      Public Law 92-500 (1972) which amends the Federal Water Pollution Control Act contains Section No. 314 entitled Clean Lakes which gives each state a mandate to "... prepare or establish ... an identification and classification according to eutrophic condition of all publicly owned fresh water lakes in such state . . . ." This mandate presents an awesome task to the State of Alaska which contains millions of lakes which must be evaluated according to the interpretation of this law. It was the intent of this project to examine the application of a biological index of eutrophy to several Alaskan lakes by comparing benthic macroinvertebrate faunal distribution to selected chemical and physical indices of trophic state. The investigator chose to consider "indicator organisms" as the focus of the study and found this concept to be interestingly difficult to apply.
    • Evaluation of Water Research Needs in Alaska : Project Completion Report

      Behlke, Charles E. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1968)
      The water resource research requirements for Alaska revolve around the needs of a rapidly expanding population and industrial growth in an unpopulated country. It appears that many of the problems which have been researched elsewhere must be restudied in Alaska because of the extremes of climate which Alaska exhibits . Most of the southern coastal areas of the State exhibit from 70 to 350 inches of runoff per year and in much of the northern part of the State permafrost to great depths and seasonal frost lock virtually all of the water in the solid state for a major part of the year. Alaska Is proving to be an area with vast petroleum reserves. These reserves are being brought into production and are resulting in the development of previously unpopulated areas. The proper management of previously untouched waters requires knowledge of the nature of the existing resources and then an evaluation of the probable effects of alternative water uses in order to optimize the desirable use of Alaskan water resources. This evaluation of present conditions and the analysis of future possible uses provide vast amounts of required research.
    • Factors Affecting Water Management on the North Slope of Alaska

      Greenwood, Julian K.; Murphy, R. Sage (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972-02)
      The North Slope of Alaska is undergoing sudden development following the recent discovery of large oil and gas reserves in the area. The water resources of the region should be carefully managed both to ensure adequate supplies of usable water at reasonable cost, and to guard against excessive deterioration of water quality. The likely effects on the environment of man's activities are investigated and found to be poorly understood at the present time. Research priorities are suggested to supply rapid answers to questions of immediate importance. The applicability of a regional management concept to the North Slope waters is considered and the concept is recommended as part of a broad land and water planning philosophy which would emphasize regional control over state and federal control. The use of economic incentives rather than standards for the control of water quality is not recommended at the present time.
    • Flood Frequency Design in Sparse-data Regions

      Carlson, Robert F.; Fox, Patricia M. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-06)
      This report summarizes work conducted with funds received from the Office of Water Research and Technology (OWRT), Project B-030-ALAS, Flood Frequency in Sparse-Data Regions. The study was conducted from July 1, 1974, to June 30, 1976, plus a one-year extension to June 30, 1977. The technical results are given in a number of publications which are referenced and abstracted here along with a presentation of the overall philosophy of the project and a coherent summary of the work. Alaska may be characterized, as can most northern areas, by a very sparse data collection network of hydrologic variables. In combination with several physical characteristics of northern hydrology, the sparse data network leads to a very difficult design circumstance. The most well known physical aspect of northern hydrology is permafrost. Other factors of importance are large elevation differences, regional inhomogeneity, high latitude, low temperatures, and the very dynamic nature of the spring breakup. These factors, in combination with the short data base in northern regions, cause hydrologic design to have a large degree of uncertainty.
    • Flood Frequency Estimation in Northern Sparse Data Regions: Completion Report

      Carlson, Robert F.; Fox, Patricia (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-07)
      The primary objective of this project was to complete development of an arctic hydrologic model and to evaluate its usefulness in generating information useful for a design tool in estimation of peak flow discharges. The peak flow discharges studied were those generally analyzed and evaluated in the design of facilities for stream crossings.