• Factors Affecting Water Management on the North Slope of Alaska

      Greenwood, Julian K.; Murphy, R. Sage (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972-02)
      The North Slope of Alaska is undergoing sudden development following the recent discovery of large oil and gas reserves in the area. The water resources of the region should be carefully managed both to ensure adequate supplies of usable water at reasonable cost, and to guard against excessive deterioration of water quality. The likely effects on the environment of man's activities are investigated and found to be poorly understood at the present time. Research priorities are suggested to supply rapid answers to questions of immediate importance. The applicability of a regional management concept to the North Slope waters is considered and the concept is recommended as part of a broad land and water planning philosophy which would emphasize regional control over state and federal control. The use of economic incentives rather than standards for the control of water quality is not recommended at the present time.
    • Flood Frequency Design in Sparse-data Regions

      Carlson, Robert F.; Fox, Patricia M. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-06)
      This report summarizes work conducted with funds received from the Office of Water Research and Technology (OWRT), Project B-030-ALAS, Flood Frequency in Sparse-Data Regions. The study was conducted from July 1, 1974, to June 30, 1976, plus a one-year extension to June 30, 1977. The technical results are given in a number of publications which are referenced and abstracted here along with a presentation of the overall philosophy of the project and a coherent summary of the work. Alaska may be characterized, as can most northern areas, by a very sparse data collection network of hydrologic variables. In combination with several physical characteristics of northern hydrology, the sparse data network leads to a very difficult design circumstance. The most well known physical aspect of northern hydrology is permafrost. Other factors of importance are large elevation differences, regional inhomogeneity, high latitude, low temperatures, and the very dynamic nature of the spring breakup. These factors, in combination with the short data base in northern regions, cause hydrologic design to have a large degree of uncertainty.
    • Flood Frequency Estimation in Northern Sparse Data Regions: Completion Report

      Carlson, Robert F.; Fox, Patricia (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-07)
      The primary objective of this project was to complete development of an arctic hydrologic model and to evaluate its usefulness in generating information useful for a design tool in estimation of peak flow discharges. The peak flow discharges studied were those generally analyzed and evaluated in the design of facilities for stream crossings.
    • Geology and Geochemistry of the Ship Creek and Monashka Creek reservoirs, Southcentral Alaska

      Hawkins, Daniel B.; Nelson, Gordon L. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1976-01)
      Graywacke from the Ship Creek watershed, dissolves incongruently in distilled water. The dissolution appears to follow a first-order rate law which in integrated form is: k = -2.303/t log No-Q/No where No is the concentration in ppm of Ca, Mg, Na or K in the graywacke, Q is the total quantity of these ions leached in time t(days), k is the rate constant in days-1. Experimentally derived rate constants for the dissolution of graywacke in distilled water at 5oC are log k+2CA, -4.128 day-1; log k+2Mg, -6.174 day-1; log k+Na, -5.800 day-1; and log k+K, -5.249 day-1. The above constants are for 40 to +100 mesh graywacke. A surface area correction term must be inserted in the above equation if it is applied to a different size fraction. Using the above equation and rate constants, the chemical composition of a water in contact with graywacke was calculated. With the exception of magnesium, the agreement between the calculated composition and that of Ship Creek water was good. Assuming that the groundwater in the Ship Creek watershed contacts about 1.5X104cm2 graywacke per liter, 120 to 360 days are required at 5oC to produce the concentration of ions observed in Ship Creek. Release of exchangeable H+ from the soil mat to the reservoir water will not significant1y lower the pH of the water. Leaching of heavy metals from sulfides contained in the bedrock of the two watersheds does not pose a water quality hazard. Lineaments in the bedrock at Monashka Creek may provide channels through which water may seep from the reservoir. These are not expected to pose a problem in retaining water in the reservoir, but they may result in small, new springs down grade from the reservoir.
    • Geophysical and Biological Reconnaissance of Rock Habitats in Western Camden Bay, Beaufort Sea, Alaska

      Dunton, K. H.; Schonberg, S. V.; Schell, Donald M. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1983-05)
      This report presents the results of a 10-day geophysical and biological survey in western Camden Bay, in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. The primary objective of this survey was to confirm the existence of boulders and cobbles on the seafloor as reported by Barnes (1981, 1982). The survey area extended from the eastern edge of the Canning River (mud flat area) to Kangigivik Point and seaward to the 14m contour line (Fig. 1). A solid boundary of pack ice prevented any survey work seaward of the 14m contour. We had proposed to examine the seabed to the 18m contour.
    • Glacial Processes and Their Relationship to Streamflow Flute Glacier, Alaska

      Long, William E. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972-01)
      Flute Glacier is located at the head of the South Fork of Eagle River, Alaska, about twenty air-miles east northeast of Anchorage. It is a small north-facing glacier, approximately two miles long and half a mile wide, situated in a deep glacial valley (see Figure 1). Elevations on the glacier range from 3,500 feet at the terminous to 5,800 feet at the top of the accumulation area. Water from Flute Glacier becomes the South Fork of Eagle River, draining about 32 square miles of area compared to a 192 square mile drainage basin for Eagle River. Limited discharge measurements made during October 1968 suggest that the South Fork contributes about 20% of the water flowing down Eagle River. Glacial meltwater forms an important percentage of the waters of the Eagle River system. Glaciers feeding the main Eagle River are large, complex and difficult to study. Flute Glacier, relatively small and of simple plan, was selected for study because of its small size and proximity to the metropolitan area of Anchorage. Water from the Eagle River system is presently included in the plans for future water supply for Anchorage. The Eagle River valley up to the 500 ft contour is a federal power reserve. The climate of the area surrounding Flute Glacier is alpine with cool temperatures and higher than average precipitation for the area. All the glacier is above treeline so no plant life is obvious. Mountain sheep inhabit the sharp alpine peaks surrounding the glacier.
    • Ground Water Quality Effects on Domestic Water Utilization

      Smith, Daniel W.; Casper, Lawrence A. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-03)
    • A Ground Water Quality Summary for Alaska: a Termination Report

      Kim, Steve W.; Johnson, Phillip R.; Murphy, R. Sage (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1969)
      The expanding economic activity throughout the State of Alaska has created an urgent demand for water resource data. Ground water quality information is of particular interest since this is the most used source for domestic and industrial supplies. Many agencies and individuals have accumulated large quantities of data but their value has been marginal due to a lack of distribution to potential users. It was the original intent of the work reported herein to gather, collate, and publish all ground water quality data available in the files of university, state, and federal laboratories. Soon after the inception of the project the major contributor, the U.S. Geological Survey, found it was administratively impossible to contribute either the monies or the data necessary to accomplish the ultimate goals of the project -- An Atlas on Alaskan Ground Water Qualities. At the time the above decision was made the Institute felt too much information was on hand to allow it to lay fallow. Therefore, this report was prepared, In a more limited scope than originally planned, to fill the need for a readily available source of information.
    • Ground Water: Alaska's Hidden Resource: Proceedings

      Ashton, William S. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1989-03)
      Surface water quality -- Surface/ground water interactions -- Ground water monitoring, modeling, and data management -- Transport and removal of contaminants in soil and ground water
    • Heat and Mass Transfer in Cold Regions Soils

      Kane, Douglas L.; Luthin, James N.; Taylor, George S. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1975-06)
    • A Historical Survey of Water Utilization in the Cook Inlet - Susitna Basin, Alaska

      Hunt, William R. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-06)
      The objectives of the study encompassed a scholarly investigation of the appropriate archival and published literature on the Cook-Inlet-Susitna Basin, and the publication of the articles and a book-length history of the utilization of water resources. There are many aspects of Alaskan history to which historians have not given serious attention. Certainly there has been no historical consideration of the importance of water resources in Alaska. Issues that have involved water use have either been treated journalistically or have been the subject of scientific monographs. The understanding of the public can sometimes be confused by the journalistic treatment of events while scientific reports are seldom read. There is a definite need for a well-researched, lively survey of an important spect of Alaska's history. Many years passed before systematic scientific work was carried out in the Cook Inlet-Susitna region but the uses of its water resources for sanitation, transport, food, and power were intensified as time passed. The region has had significance for well over 200 years to the western peoples who settled there and, of course, for much longer to its aboriginal inhabitants. There has never been a substantial history written of the region, although some aspects of its past have been surveyed in a few pub1ished works, and there has never been a historical survey of water utilization for any region of Alaska. Increasingly, the development of the region will involve political decision. The public scrutiny of the environmental impact of new dam and other construction is not likely to decline. Further petroleum leasing in the outer continental shelf areas will raise questions of the best uses which can be made of the water and other resources. The wisdom of these decisions depends upon our knowledge of all of the factors involved. An understanding of what has happened in the past as people have made use of the water resources could contribute to the effectiveness of judgments made in the future.
    • Hydrogeochemistry of the Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed

      Hawkins, Daniel B.; Glover, David M. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1982-03)
      Bedrock of the Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed dissolves incongruently with a first-order rate constant of about 5 x 10-6 day-1 at 5° C. The resulting solution is potassium-calcium-magnesium rich. The soil-plant environment acts on this solution through sorption of potassium and by evapotranspiration to yield a solution that is relatively depleted in potassium and enriched in calcium and magnesium, but with the same molar ratio of Ca:Mg as the fluid from the rock dissolution. This fluid from the soil-plant reservoir is the dominant contributor of ions to stream waters. Using the discriminant functions obtained by multiple discriminant analysis DPKR = 0.572Si02 + 0.240Ca + 2.89Mg - 0.384Na + 0.452N03 - 9.18 DCRB = 0.913Si02 + 0.042Ca + 1.28Mg + 1.17Na + 4.63N03 - 7.27, the waters of Caribou Creek and Poker Creek can be distinguished on the basis of chemical composition. In general, Poker Creek waters are slightly more concentrated than Caribou Creek waters. On the average, 1.4 x 10^13g H20/year leaves the watershed as surface water. At an average calcium concentration of 14 ppm for the water, 0.1% for the bedrock, and a watershed area of 46 mi^2, this flow corresponds to a maximum loss of about 17 metric tons of rock per hectare per year.
    • Hydrologic Properties of Subarctic Organic Soils

      Kane, Douglas L.; Seifert, Richard D.; Taylor, George S. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-01)
      The need for understanding the natural system and how it responds to various stresses is important; this is especially so in an environment where the climate not only sustains permafrost, but develops massive seasonal frost as well. Consequently, the role of the shallow surface organic layer is also quite important. Since a slight change in the soil thermal regime may bring about a phase change in the water or ice, therefore, the system response to surface alterations such as burning can be quite severe. The need for a better understanding of the behavior and properties of the organic layer is, therefore, accentuated. The central theme of this study was the examination of the hydrologic and hydraulic properties of subarctic organic soils. Summarized in this paper are the results of three aspects of subarctic organic soil examinations conducted during the duration of the project. First, a field site was set up in Washington Creek with the major emphasis on measuring numerous variables of that soil system during the summer. The greatest variations in moisture content occur in the thick organic soils that exist at this site. Our major emphasis was to study the soil moisture levels in these soils. This topic is covered in the first major section, including associated laboratory studies. Those laboratory studies include investigations of several hydraulic and hydrologic properties of taiga organic and mineral soils. Second, some field data on organic moisture levels was collected at the site of prescribed burns in Washington Creek to ascertain the sustainability of fires as a function of moisture levels. This portion of the study is described under the second major heading. The last element of this study was a continued application of the two-dimensional flow model that was developed in an earlier study funded by the U. S. Forest Service, Institute of Northern Forestry, and reported by Kane, Luthin, and Taylor (1975a). Many of the results and concepts gathered in the field work were integrated into the modeling effort, which is aimed at producing better estimates of the hydrologic effects of surface disturbances in the black spruce taiga subarctic ecosystem. This knowledge should also contribute to better fire management decisions of the same system.
    • Hydrological Interpretation of Basin Morphology

      Fox, John D. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-08)
      Hydrologic processes in a particular basin are governed by three groups of factors: input regimes of mass and energy, the nature of mass and energy transfer and transformation, and the biophysical characteristics of the basin. This third group provides the structural or morphological framework in which hydrologic processes are taking place and, as such, contributes significantly to the uniqueness of specific basin response.
    • Hydrology of the Central Arctic River Basins of Alaska

      Kane, Douglas L.; Carlson, Robert F. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-12)
    • Hydrometeorological Literature Review for the Delta-Clearwater Creek Area

      Fox, John D. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-06)
      Phase One of this study consists of a search for existing hydrometeorological data or other information relevant to environmental baseline studies of the Delta-Clearwater Creek agricultural development project. A general summary of this literature search is presented below; a detailed annotated bibliography immediately follows the summary. Phase Two consists initially of a preliminary analysis, based on existing information, of the local water budget, the groundwater regime, and the potential for transport of agricultural chemicals into the water system. Finally, evaluation and comments on the adequacy or sufficiency of existing data and recommendation for future work are made. Selected charts, diagrams, or tables of data have been included in the text where such information is relevant, but not voluminous.
    • Improvement of the Fairbanks Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide Transport Model -- A Program for Calibration, Verification and Implementation

      Carlson, Robert F.; Hok, Charlotte (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1980-10)
      In the early 70s, state, local and federal officials in Fairbanks, Alaska, became concerned with the rising incidence of high carbon monoxide episodes. Because of that concern, the Alaska Department of Highways (forerunner of the Department of Transportation and Public Facilities) and the Fairbanks North Star Borough requested that the Institute of Water Resources undertake a study to develop a computer model capability for understanding the transport of carbon monoxide and other pollutants within the Fairbanks airshed. The work was completed in June of 1976. Two publications (Carlson and Fox, 1976; Norton and Carlson, 1976) describe the initial development, documentation and implementation of the computer model. The model, ACOSP (Atmospheric Carbon monOxide Simulation Program), describes the two-dimensional behavior of pollutants in the atmosphere via solution of the convection-diffusion equation using the finite element method of numerical analysis.
    • The influence of decomposing salmon on water chemistry

      Brickell, David C.; Goering, John J. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1971)
      To increase our knowledge of the biological and chemical effects of the decomposition of seafood material, we have initiated a study of the decomposition of salmon carcasses in a natural system in southeastern Alaska (i.e. Little Port Walter estuary). The Pacific salmon migrates through this estuary when returning to its natal stream to spawn. Following spawning the fish die and the carcasses are eventually carried to the estuary where they sink to the bottom. During periods of low stream flow, the dead carcasses may remain in the stream itself until higher stream flows transport them to the estuary. In years of large escapements, the density of fish in the spawning stream can be very high. In the system chosen for our work, spawning densities greater than six fish per m2 have been recorded although at the time the current study was conducted the spawning density was slightly more than two fish per m2. Since our system involves primarily pink salmon (O. gorbuscha), the average weight of the fish can be assumed to be 2-3 kilograms. Thus, our study is concerned with the fate and distribution of some 75 metric tons of organic matter in the form of salmon carcasses in one small estuary in Southeastern Alaska. We are particularly interested in determining: (1) the effects of the salmon carcass decomposition on the nitrogen chemistry of the water in which the decomposition occurs; (2) the form and distribution of the organic matter which is returned to the marine system; and (3) the rate at which remineralization occurs. This paper presents the results of our initial investigations.
    • Inherent and Maximum Microbiological Activity in Smith Lake : Project Completion Report

      Burton, S. (University of Alaska; Institute of Water Resources, 1968)
      POPULAR ABSTRACT: Bacterial populations were examined in a sub-Arctic lake to augment the understanding of the flow of organic material and other nutrients through these waters. Several micro-organisms were isolated, capable of converting atmospheric nitrogen into biologically available forms. Also organisms capable of removing organic materials at very low temperatures, psychrophiles, were isolated. Enzymes from these unusual organisms were examined to determine what allows these unusual activity at low temperatures. The activities of these enzymes were not found to be unusual.
    • Investigation of an ozone-filter system for color and iron removal at low temperatures

      Smith, Daniel W.; Hargesheimer, John M. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1975-10)
      The application of ozonation as a disinfectant and as a treatment process for both water and wastewater has been increasing in recent years. The study of ozone application to Arctic and subarctic waters, which are normally at low temperatures, has been limited. Many portions of the Alaskan Arctic and subarctic are plagued with waters which exceed the 1962 Drinking Water Standards for one or more parameters. The iron content and color of the water are among the most common offenders. This project was directed toward the examination of a method for water treatment utilizing ozone to meet the iron and color limits for drinking water. The three principle objectives of the project were: (1) to examine the effect of ozone on several known qualities of water, (2) to examine the effect of ozone on representative samples of surface and ground water, and (3) to develop a laboratory scale system for iron and color removal utilizing ozone followed by sand filtration.