• Improvement of the Fairbanks Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide Transport Model -- A Program for Calibration, Verification and Implementation

      Carlson, Robert F.; Hok, Charlotte (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1980-10)
      In the early 70s, state, local and federal officials in Fairbanks, Alaska, became concerned with the rising incidence of high carbon monoxide episodes. Because of that concern, the Alaska Department of Highways (forerunner of the Department of Transportation and Public Facilities) and the Fairbanks North Star Borough requested that the Institute of Water Resources undertake a study to develop a computer model capability for understanding the transport of carbon monoxide and other pollutants within the Fairbanks airshed. The work was completed in June of 1976. Two publications (Carlson and Fox, 1976; Norton and Carlson, 1976) describe the initial development, documentation and implementation of the computer model. The model, ACOSP (Atmospheric Carbon monOxide Simulation Program), describes the two-dimensional behavior of pollutants in the atmosphere via solution of the convection-diffusion equation using the finite element method of numerical analysis.
    • The influence of decomposing salmon on water chemistry

      Brickell, David C.; Goering, John J. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1971)
      To increase our knowledge of the biological and chemical effects of the decomposition of seafood material, we have initiated a study of the decomposition of salmon carcasses in a natural system in southeastern Alaska (i.e. Little Port Walter estuary). The Pacific salmon migrates through this estuary when returning to its natal stream to spawn. Following spawning the fish die and the carcasses are eventually carried to the estuary where they sink to the bottom. During periods of low stream flow, the dead carcasses may remain in the stream itself until higher stream flows transport them to the estuary. In years of large escapements, the density of fish in the spawning stream can be very high. In the system chosen for our work, spawning densities greater than six fish per m2 have been recorded although at the time the current study was conducted the spawning density was slightly more than two fish per m2. Since our system involves primarily pink salmon (O. gorbuscha), the average weight of the fish can be assumed to be 2-3 kilograms. Thus, our study is concerned with the fate and distribution of some 75 metric tons of organic matter in the form of salmon carcasses in one small estuary in Southeastern Alaska. We are particularly interested in determining: (1) the effects of the salmon carcass decomposition on the nitrogen chemistry of the water in which the decomposition occurs; (2) the form and distribution of the organic matter which is returned to the marine system; and (3) the rate at which remineralization occurs. This paper presents the results of our initial investigations.
    • Inherent and Maximum Microbiological Activity in Smith Lake : Project Completion Report

      Burton, S. (University of Alaska; Institute of Water Resources, 1968)
      POPULAR ABSTRACT: Bacterial populations were examined in a sub-Arctic lake to augment the understanding of the flow of organic material and other nutrients through these waters. Several micro-organisms were isolated, capable of converting atmospheric nitrogen into biologically available forms. Also organisms capable of removing organic materials at very low temperatures, psychrophiles, were isolated. Enzymes from these unusual organisms were examined to determine what allows these unusual activity at low temperatures. The activities of these enzymes were not found to be unusual.
    • Investigation of an ozone-filter system for color and iron removal at low temperatures

      Smith, Daniel W.; Hargesheimer, John M. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1975-10)
      The application of ozonation as a disinfectant and as a treatment process for both water and wastewater has been increasing in recent years. The study of ozone application to Arctic and subarctic waters, which are normally at low temperatures, has been limited. Many portions of the Alaskan Arctic and subarctic are plagued with waters which exceed the 1962 Drinking Water Standards for one or more parameters. The iron content and color of the water are among the most common offenders. This project was directed toward the examination of a method for water treatment utilizing ozone to meet the iron and color limits for drinking water. The three principle objectives of the project were: (1) to examine the effect of ozone on several known qualities of water, (2) to examine the effect of ozone on representative samples of surface and ground water, and (3) to develop a laboratory scale system for iron and color removal utilizing ozone followed by sand filtration.
    • Iron in Surface and Subsurface Waters, Grizzly Bar, Southeastern Alaska

      Hoskin, Charles M.; Slatt, Roger M. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972-08)
      Atomic absorption spectrophotometric measurements for total iron were made on 69 samples of water from 8 different environments in an outwash fan built by meltwater streams from the retreating Norris Glacier on granodiorite bedrock. Norris Glacier ice contained no iron (3 samples), a subglacial stream contained 5.5 ppm Fe (1 sample), and a meltwater lake fronting Norris Glacier contained 0.7 ppm Fe (3 samples). Iron content of ground water from outwash ranged between 0.0 and 17.0 ppm (6 samples); surface streams fed by emergent ground water on the fan periphery contained 0.0 to 0.2 ppm Fe (13 samples). Taku Inlet waters contained 6.4 ppm Fe (3 samples). Subsurface water from an intertidal mud flat contained between 0.0 and 27.0, X 5.9, ppm Fe (31 samples). Surface and subsurface water from a bog and associated stream contained 1 ppm Fe (12 samples). Little exchangeable Fe was found. In situ measurements in water for Eh showed large positive values (+0.30 to +0.50 volts) and pH was slightly alkaline. The single most important source of iron was vermiculitized biotite. Iron was transported in water in the particulate state, except in outwash ground water where particulate Fe+3 was reduced to dissolved Fe+2. Iron deposits of Fe(OH)3 were found near the top of the outwash water table.
    • Laboratory Rearing Experiments on Artificially Propagated Inconnu (Stenodus leucichthys)

      LaPerriere, Jacqueline D. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-06)
    • Land Application of Domestic Sludge in Cold Climates

      Johnson, Ronald A. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1979)
      Aerobically digested sludge from the Fairbanks sewage treatment plant was worked into the soil on several plots at the University of Alaska in the summer of 1978. Some of the sludge had been air dried for up to six months prior to application while some was taken directly from the thickener. Applications varied from 12 to 100 tons of solids/acre. For sludge applied in July and August, the fecal coliform count decayed by several orders of magnitude by the middle of September.. There was no significant movement of fecal coliform bacteria either vertically or laterally. Lime was used to raise the pH of one plot to 12, completely killing the fecal coliform bacteria within several days. The nutrient distribution demonstrated the potential for enriching soils by sludge addition. The main purpose of the study was to investigate the feasibility of this concept for remote military sites. Air drying followed by land application may represent a viable means of sludge disposal.
    • Land Disposal of Secondary Lagoon Effluents (Pilot Project)

      Smith, Daniel W. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1975-01)
      The principle objective of this effort was to assist the US Army, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, in conducting a pilot land disposal project in the interior region of Alaska. This project was a preliminary investigation of the feasibility of land disposal of secondary effluent from an aerated lagoon during the summer months. The hope was to examine the possible use of this technique to meet 1977 standards for the quality of secondary effluents.
    • The Limnology of Two Dissimilar Subarctic Streams and Implications of Resource Development

      LaPerriere, Jacqueline D.; Nyquist, David (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-03)
      Because of the relatively undeveloped condition of arctic and subarctic Alaska, an opportunity is presented to draw up water quality management plans before extensive perturbation. These plans cannot, unfortunately , be based upon those drawn up for more temperate regions where much is known about natural stream conditions, for in these Alaskan areas, little is known about the natural physical, chemical, and biological cycles of streams or about their ability to handle the stresses that will be exerted on them should development take place. The Chena River, in subarctic, interior Alaska, near the city of Fairbanks, has been studied to evaluate the impact of pending construction and operation of flood control structures (Frey, Mueller and Berry, 1970). This river however has already been developed, especially along its lower reaches where the city of Fairbanks is situated. The watersheds of the two streams chosen for this study roughly parallel each other, although the Chatanika River watershed is about twice as long as that of Goldstream Creek. In addition to the dissimilarity in size, these two streams also differ in regard to terrain, at least along the respective stretches that were studied. The Goldstream Creek study area runs through a bog and extensive muskeg. The Chatanika River, however, was for the most part sampled in the area of mountainous terrain. The intent of this study was to obtain comprehensive physical and chemical data, to survey the resident invertebrates, and to evaluate the assimilative capabilities of both streams.
    • Managing Water Resources for Alaska's Development: Proceedings

      Aldrich, James W. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1983-11)
    • Methods of Flood Flow Determination in Sparse Data Regions

      Carlson, Robert F.; Fox, Patricia M.; Shrader, Stephen D. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-06)
    • Microbial ecology of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

      Brown, Edward J.; Rasley, Brian T.; Dixon, David P.; Hong, Seongho; Luong, Huan V.; Braddock, Joan F. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1990-03)
    • Modeling snowmelt runoff in an arctic coastal plain

      Carlson, Robert F.; Norton, William; McDougall, James (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-01)
      Present and impending oil exploration and development activity on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain has created a need to better understand the region's water resources. The remoteness of the area and an almost complete lack of hydrologic data preclude the use of usual hydrologic analysis techniques. Attempts by the Institute of Water Resources to synthesize this data led to the development of snowmelt runoff models which simulate the spring runoff, an important part of the hydrologic system. The snowmelt model produces a snowmelt hydrograph which is converted by the runoff model into a runoff hydrograph. The snowmelt model subdivides the snowpack into two layers. Daily climatological parameters govern the heat transfer between snowpack and atmosphere. Once the heat flux received or emitted by the snowpack has been computed, the melting processes within the snowpack are considered. Computed parameters of the snowpack are density, depth, water equivalent, water content, temperature, and thermal quality. The runoff model uses a three-parameter linear storage model to transform the snowmelt hydrograph into a runoff hydrograph. The parameters represent the amount of storage, the rate of runoff, and the lag between snowmelt and runoff. Using Prudhoe Bay weather data as input, and comparing the output to runoff data from the Kuparuk, Putuligayuk, and Sagavanirktok Rivers for the years 1970 and 1971, produced results which indicate that the models perform satisfactorily.
    • North Slope Borough water study: a background for planning

      Johnson, Ronald A.; Dreyer, Linda Dwight (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1977-06-15)
      The Planning and Research Section of Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources initiated this pilot water study with the North Slope Borough and the University of Alaska's Arctic Environmental Information and Data Center and Institute of Water Resources. Traditional and present water uses in the eight North Slope Borough villages are examined to assist in evaluating and planning for present and future water use, treatment, and disposal requirements.
    • A Northern Snowmelt Model

      McDougall, James; Carlson, Robert F. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-08)
      In early 1968, a large petroleum discovery was made in the Prudhoe Bay area of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain. This discovery has led Alaska into a period of development of unprecedented speed and magnitude. This development will require the construction of many engineering facilities which are affected by the water resources. The design of each of these requires an understanding of the hydrologic system, a system which is dominated in Alaska by low temperatures, high latitudes, large elevation differences and sparse data. The latter factor is unique to Alaska and makes application of common design techniques virtually impossible.
    • Nutrient chemistry of a large, deep lake in subarctic Alaska

      LaPerriere, J. D.; Tilsworth, T.; Casper, L. A. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1977-08)
      The primary objective of this project was to assess the state of the water quality of Harding Lake, and to attempt to predict the effects of future development within its watershed. Since the major effect of degradation of water quality due to human activity is the promotion of nuisance growths of plants, the major emphasis was placed on measurements of plant growth and concentrations of the major nutrients they require. Planktonic algal growth was found to be low, below 95.6 gm/m2/year, and the growth of submerged rooted plants was found to be relatively less important at approximately 1.35 gm/m2/year. Measurements of the growth of attached algae were not conducted, therefore the relative importance of their growth is currently unknown. A model for predicting the effect of future real estate development in the watershed was modified and applied to this lake. This model adequately describes current water quality conditions, and is assumed to have some predictive ability, but several cautions concerning application of this model to Harding Lake are discussed. A secondary objective was to study the thermal regime of a deep subarctic lake. Intensive water temperature measurements were made throughout one year and less intensive measurements were conducted during two additional years. The possibility that this lake may occasionally stratify thermally under the ice and not mix completely in the spring was discovered. The implications of this possibility are discussed for management of subarctic lakes. Hydrologic and energy budgets of this lake are attempted; the annual heat budget is estimated at 1.96 x 104 ± 1.7 x 103 cal/cm2. The results of a study of domestic water supply and waste disposal alternatives in the watershed, and the potential for enteric bacterial contamination of the lake water are presented. Limited work on the zooplankton, fishes, and benthic macroinvertebrates of this lake is also presented.
    • Organic and Color Removal from Water Supplies by Synthetic Resinous Adsorbents: Completion Report

      Tilsworth, Timothy (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-01)
    • Photochemical Degradation of Malathion

      Schneider, Marlys; Smith, G. Warren (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-03)
      This is the final completion report for a two-year project which began 1 November 1975. The original completion date was extended to 30 September 1977 to allow collection of samples and data through the summer of 1977. Malathion is a thiophosphate insecticide, 0,0-dimethly-S-(l,2dicarbethoxyethyl) phosphorodithioate: It is less toxic than DDT and decomposes over a much shorter period of time. With the suspension of DDT in pest control programs in 1965, use of malathion has been increasingly widespread in Alaska's interior. In spite of its low toxicity to animals, malathion is poisonous at some level. Lethal doses for domestic sheep and cattle are 150 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg. of body weight, respectively. The fatal dose of malathion for a 70 kg man has been estimated to be 60 g, with some clinical exceptions (McKee and Wolfe, 1963; Hayes, 1964). Dietary levels (ppm) producing minimal or no effect after continuous feeding for 90 days to 2 years to rats and dogs have been reported as 100-1000 and 100, respectively (Lehman, 1965). On the other hand, malathion has been identified by gas chromatography in extracts of water associated with several fish kills (Garrison, Keith, and Alford, 1972). In a study of malathion persistence in the soil near Fairbanks, Alaska, during the summer of 1967, half of the sampling sites showed the presence of malathion and its oxidation product, malaoxon, prior to aerial spraying (Holty, 1970). Since there had been no ground spraying since the summer of 1966, this would indicate that malathion was not degrading in the environment as fast as anticipated. This is important since it is then possible for the spring runoff to carry significant quantities of the pesticide and its degradation products into streams and rivers in the area. Retention of the malathion appears to depend on the amount of rainfall, and the summer of 1966 had been very dry. During the wetter summer of 1967, the post-spray soil samples showed a rapid drop in the level of malathion except at sampling sites in "mucky" soils which also increased noticeably in moisture as the amount of rainfall accumulated (Figure 1). Very little has been known about the aqueous photodecomposition of malathion and nothing was known of its vapor phase stability under atmospheric conditions and exposure to sunlight prior to this study.
    • The Politics of Hydroelectric Power in Alaska: Rampart and Devil Canyon -- A Case Study

      Naske, Claus-M.; Hunt, William R. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-10)
      Hydroelectric power in Alaska has had a curious history--and an instructive one. This study focuses on three separate projects: Eklutna, Rampart, and Devil Canyon. The Eklutna project functions today; Rampart was not constructed; and the Devil Canyon project is still in the planning stage. Yet for all their differences in location, goals, and fate, the projects were related; and, taken together, their histories highlight all the essential political elements involved in hydroelectric power construction. There is still a fourth project which is functioning today--the Snettisham installation near Juneau which is not considered in this paper. A complex decision-making process determines the progress of such large projects. In following these three Alaskan projects, we can gain a better perspective on the roles of the several government agencies and the public; thus we can assess some of the inherent complexities. Such an assessment fully substantiates the conclusion that it takes more than moving dirt to build a dam.
    • Polyethylene Sheeting as a Water Surface Cover in Sub-zero Temperatures

      Behlke, Charles; McDougall, James (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-12)
      The occurrence of temperatures below -20°C in central Alaska produces a situation conducive to the formation of ice fog. By far the largest source of ice fog in the Fairbanks area is the evaporation of water in the cooling ponds of power plants. In an attempt to find methods to reduce this evaporation and subsequent fogging, a study was conducted during the winter of 1973 in order to examine the feasibility of using po1yethylene sheeting as a water surface cover. An uncovered insulated tank of water was placed on the roof of the Engineering Building of the University of Alaska. The water was circulated to prevent stratification and kept from freezing by a thermostatically controlled heater. From January 23 through February 2, the water surface was 1eft uncovered. Evaporation rates were measured daily by maintaining the water surface at a constant level. During the period of February 2 through 11, the water surface was covered with a sheet of clear polyethylene, thereby eliminating evaporation. Throughout the period of study, daily readings were made of the power consumption of the heater and pump. Temperatures within and above the tank were also frequently measured with copper-constantine thermocouples. From the data co11ected, a daily energy balance for the tank was calculated. Taken into consideration were the net short-wave and long-wave energy exchange, heat loss due to evaporation and sensible heat transfer, heat loss through the sides of the tank, change in stored energy, and energy input from heater and pump. Results indicate that polyethylene is an effective water surface cover that could be used to virtually eliminate evaporation from cooling ponds.