• North Slope Borough water study: a background for planning

      Johnson, Ronald A.; Dreyer, Linda Dwight (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1977-06-15)
      The Planning and Research Section of Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources initiated this pilot water study with the North Slope Borough and the University of Alaska's Arctic Environmental Information and Data Center and Institute of Water Resources. Traditional and present water uses in the eight North Slope Borough villages are examined to assist in evaluating and planning for present and future water use, treatment, and disposal requirements.
    • A Northern Snowmelt Model

      McDougall, James; Carlson, Robert F. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-08)
      In early 1968, a large petroleum discovery was made in the Prudhoe Bay area of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain. This discovery has led Alaska into a period of development of unprecedented speed and magnitude. This development will require the construction of many engineering facilities which are affected by the water resources. The design of each of these requires an understanding of the hydrologic system, a system which is dominated in Alaska by low temperatures, high latitudes, large elevation differences and sparse data. The latter factor is unique to Alaska and makes application of common design techniques virtually impossible.
    • Nutrient chemistry of a large, deep lake in subarctic Alaska

      LaPerriere, J. D.; Tilsworth, T.; Casper, L. A. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1977-08)
      The primary objective of this project was to assess the state of the water quality of Harding Lake, and to attempt to predict the effects of future development within its watershed. Since the major effect of degradation of water quality due to human activity is the promotion of nuisance growths of plants, the major emphasis was placed on measurements of plant growth and concentrations of the major nutrients they require. Planktonic algal growth was found to be low, below 95.6 gm/m2/year, and the growth of submerged rooted plants was found to be relatively less important at approximately 1.35 gm/m2/year. Measurements of the growth of attached algae were not conducted, therefore the relative importance of their growth is currently unknown. A model for predicting the effect of future real estate development in the watershed was modified and applied to this lake. This model adequately describes current water quality conditions, and is assumed to have some predictive ability, but several cautions concerning application of this model to Harding Lake are discussed. A secondary objective was to study the thermal regime of a deep subarctic lake. Intensive water temperature measurements were made throughout one year and less intensive measurements were conducted during two additional years. The possibility that this lake may occasionally stratify thermally under the ice and not mix completely in the spring was discovered. The implications of this possibility are discussed for management of subarctic lakes. Hydrologic and energy budgets of this lake are attempted; the annual heat budget is estimated at 1.96 x 104 ± 1.7 x 103 cal/cm2. The results of a study of domestic water supply and waste disposal alternatives in the watershed, and the potential for enteric bacterial contamination of the lake water are presented. Limited work on the zooplankton, fishes, and benthic macroinvertebrates of this lake is also presented.
    • Organic and Color Removal from Water Supplies by Synthetic Resinous Adsorbents: Completion Report

      Tilsworth, Timothy (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-01)
    • Photochemical Degradation of Malathion

      Schneider, Marlys; Smith, G. Warren (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-03)
      This is the final completion report for a two-year project which began 1 November 1975. The original completion date was extended to 30 September 1977 to allow collection of samples and data through the summer of 1977. Malathion is a thiophosphate insecticide, 0,0-dimethly-S-(l,2dicarbethoxyethyl) phosphorodithioate: It is less toxic than DDT and decomposes over a much shorter period of time. With the suspension of DDT in pest control programs in 1965, use of malathion has been increasingly widespread in Alaska's interior. In spite of its low toxicity to animals, malathion is poisonous at some level. Lethal doses for domestic sheep and cattle are 150 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg. of body weight, respectively. The fatal dose of malathion for a 70 kg man has been estimated to be 60 g, with some clinical exceptions (McKee and Wolfe, 1963; Hayes, 1964). Dietary levels (ppm) producing minimal or no effect after continuous feeding for 90 days to 2 years to rats and dogs have been reported as 100-1000 and 100, respectively (Lehman, 1965). On the other hand, malathion has been identified by gas chromatography in extracts of water associated with several fish kills (Garrison, Keith, and Alford, 1972). In a study of malathion persistence in the soil near Fairbanks, Alaska, during the summer of 1967, half of the sampling sites showed the presence of malathion and its oxidation product, malaoxon, prior to aerial spraying (Holty, 1970). Since there had been no ground spraying since the summer of 1966, this would indicate that malathion was not degrading in the environment as fast as anticipated. This is important since it is then possible for the spring runoff to carry significant quantities of the pesticide and its degradation products into streams and rivers in the area. Retention of the malathion appears to depend on the amount of rainfall, and the summer of 1966 had been very dry. During the wetter summer of 1967, the post-spray soil samples showed a rapid drop in the level of malathion except at sampling sites in "mucky" soils which also increased noticeably in moisture as the amount of rainfall accumulated (Figure 1). Very little has been known about the aqueous photodecomposition of malathion and nothing was known of its vapor phase stability under atmospheric conditions and exposure to sunlight prior to this study.
    • The Politics of Hydroelectric Power in Alaska: Rampart and Devil Canyon -- A Case Study

      Naske, Claus-M.; Hunt, William R. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-10)
      Hydroelectric power in Alaska has had a curious history--and an instructive one. This study focuses on three separate projects: Eklutna, Rampart, and Devil Canyon. The Eklutna project functions today; Rampart was not constructed; and the Devil Canyon project is still in the planning stage. Yet for all their differences in location, goals, and fate, the projects were related; and, taken together, their histories highlight all the essential political elements involved in hydroelectric power construction. There is still a fourth project which is functioning today--the Snettisham installation near Juneau which is not considered in this paper. A complex decision-making process determines the progress of such large projects. In following these three Alaskan projects, we can gain a better perspective on the roles of the several government agencies and the public; thus we can assess some of the inherent complexities. Such an assessment fully substantiates the conclusion that it takes more than moving dirt to build a dam.
    • Polyethylene Sheeting as a Water Surface Cover in Sub-zero Temperatures

      Behlke, Charles; McDougall, James (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-12)
      The occurrence of temperatures below -20°C in central Alaska produces a situation conducive to the formation of ice fog. By far the largest source of ice fog in the Fairbanks area is the evaporation of water in the cooling ponds of power plants. In an attempt to find methods to reduce this evaporation and subsequent fogging, a study was conducted during the winter of 1973 in order to examine the feasibility of using po1yethylene sheeting as a water surface cover. An uncovered insulated tank of water was placed on the roof of the Engineering Building of the University of Alaska. The water was circulated to prevent stratification and kept from freezing by a thermostatically controlled heater. From January 23 through February 2, the water surface was 1eft uncovered. Evaporation rates were measured daily by maintaining the water surface at a constant level. During the period of February 2 through 11, the water surface was covered with a sheet of clear polyethylene, thereby eliminating evaporation. Throughout the period of study, daily readings were made of the power consumption of the heater and pump. Temperatures within and above the tank were also frequently measured with copper-constantine thermocouples. From the data co11ected, a daily energy balance for the tank was calculated. Taken into consideration were the net short-wave and long-wave energy exchange, heat loss due to evaporation and sensible heat transfer, heat loss through the sides of the tank, change in stored energy, and energy input from heater and pump. Results indicate that polyethylene is an effective water surface cover that could be used to virtually eliminate evaporation from cooling ponds.
    • Practical Application of Foam Fractionation Treatment of Low Quality Water

      Murphy, R. Sage (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1969)
      The foaming technique has found extensive use for organic, ion, and colloid separations from liquid systems. When used to remove an ion or a colloid, a specific surface-active agent of opposite charge to the particle being removed is added to the solution and floated to the surface of the suspension by gas bubbles. The ion or colloid is adsorbed at the bubble interfaces and collected within the froth formed at the surface of the container. The froth, with the contaminant or concentrated material (depending upon the process and its use) is physically separated at this point and further processed or discharged to waste. The clarified bottom liquid is therefore suitable for other uses. In the water supply field, the bottom liquid is the important product that is to be recovered and used for consumptive purposes. Much research has been performed on the theory and applications of various adsorptive bubble separation methods. These studies are well documented in the literature for various industries and applications which might take advantage of the method. It was not the intent of this work to amplify the findings of other research. The project was undertaken in an attempt to scale-up laboratory experiments previously performed at this Institute. No extension of theory, new processes, or revolutionary findings were attempted.
    • Preliminary Results on the Structure and Functioning of a Taiga Watershed

      Lotspeich, Frederick B.; Slaughter, Charles W. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1981-11)
      Comprehensive research in ecosystem functioning may logically be undertaken in the conceptual and physical context of complete drainage basins (watersheds or catchments). The watershed forms a fundamental, cohesive landscape unit in terms of water movement following initial receipt of precipitation. Water itself is a fundamental agent in energy flux, nutrient transport, and in plant and animal life. The Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed is an interagency endeavor aimed at understanding hydrologic and, ultimately, ecological functioning in the subarctic taiga, the discontinuous permafrost uplands of central Alaska. Initial work includes acquisition and analysis of data on soils, vegetation, local climate, hydrology, and stream quality. Information acquired in the research watershed is summarized here, and implications for future data acquisition and research are considered.
    • A Program for the Collection, Storage, and Analysis of Baseline Environmental Data for Cook Inlet, Alaska

      Wagner, David G.; Murphy, R. Sage; Behlke, Charles E. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1968)
      The scope of this report is to provide a general, yet comprehensive, description of the Cook Inlet System which will serve as a basis for understanding the interrelated natural and man-made factors governing its future; to present a program of field research studies for the estuarine environment that will describe the existing state of the Inlet with respect to the water quality and biota; to provide a framework whereby the program of studies can be evaluated and redirected in light of the preliminary results; and, to provide a method of storing and analyzing the data from the investigations so that it can be made available to interested parties in the most efficient manner possible.
    • Reconnaissance of the Distribution and Abundance of Schistosomatium Douthitti, a Possible Human Disease Agent in Surface Waters in Alaska

      Swartz, L.G. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1968-02)
      Studies during the summer and early fall of 1967 show that Schistosomatium douthitti, a blood fluke which may pose a health hazard to man, is well established in the surface waters and surrounding terrestrial environments in the Fairbanks area. It is almost certain that this situation exists throughout Interior Alaska. Ecologically and geologically, the lakes and ponds in which it has been found are the most abundant types in the Interior and both the specific lakes and the types which they represent are abundantly used by man. The life cycle of the worm in this area is probably sustained mostly in small mammals, especially in Microtus pennsvlvanicus but also in Clethrionomys rutilus. The infection certainly over-winters in the mammal host but probably also survives in the snail host under the ice. Although the fluke was only found in two of the nine mammalian species examined, it is probable that it occurs in other than Microtus pennsvlvanicus and Clethrionomys rutilus.
    • Report of the Joint U.S.-Canadian Northern Civil Engineering Research Workshop

      Carlson, Robert F.; Morgenstern, N. R. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-03-20)
      The Joint Canadian-United States Northern Civil Engineering Research Workshop was held at the University of Alberta campus, Edmonton, Alberta on March 20 through 22, 1978. Over 40 participants from government, universities, and private practice from both the U.S. and Canada discussed northern civil engineering research for 2 1/2 days. The results of their effort are presented in this report. The nature of a report coming from spontaneous conversation will be somewhat uneven in coverage, language, and tone. However, we feel obligated to preserve the initial intent and language of the various workshop groups and each report should represent the original conclusion as nearly as possible. We acted as the principal instigators of the workshop and were ably assisted by an excellent group of workshop chairmen: Jack Clark, Lorne Gold, Charles Neill, Daniel Rogness, James Rooney, and Daniel Smith. We particularly want to acknowledge the assistance of the Boreal Institute for organizing and providing much of the administrative and secretarial support for the workshop, and the staff of the Institute of Water Resources for assisting with the organizing and publication processes. The workshop was sponsored by the National Science Foundation of the United States, the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs of Canada, the Boreal Institute and Department of Civil Engineering of the University of Alberta, and the Institute of Water Resources of the University of Alaska. R. F. Carlson N. R. Morgenstern
    • Resolving Alaska's Water Resources Conflicts: Proceedings

      Dwight, Linda Perry (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1985-11)
      Limnology -- Mining -- Hydroelectric Power Development -- Hydrology and Hydraulics -- Community and Regional Water Conflicts -- Appendix: Papers presented at the 1984 Annual Meeting
    • Saline Conversion and Ice Structures from Artificially Grown Sea Ice

      Peyton, H. R.; Johnson, P. R.; Behlke, C. E. (University of Alaska, Arctic Environmental Engineering Laboratory and University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1967-09)
      The environment of cold regions is generally viewed as inhospitable, primarily due to application of ideal processes and techniques suitable to temperate zones. The work herein is a step toward solving two environmental problems. The first involves the supply of inexpensive, potable water in Arctic regions, the lack of which is a severe detriment to development. Although water does exist in the Arctic, it is neither available in potable form during many months of the year nor does it occur in sufficient quantity near the point of use. Principally, this lack is caused by the aridness of the Arctic and the shallowness of fresh water sources which, for all practical purposes, do not exist but freeze completely each winter season. The remaining liquid water source is the sea. Arctic problems are then similar to other arid regions where the conversion of sea water to potable water or the transmission of potable water to desired locations is necessary. Cold temperatures generally preclude transmission except over very short distances. Desalination by freezing sea water is a much reported process and has been included among the desalination processes under study worldwide. The advantage of this method in the Arctic is the cold winter-time temperature for freezing and the existence of adequate solar energy in the summer for melting self purified ice. Power requirements are greatly reduced using these natural phenomena. The second aspect of this study concerns the use of artificially grown sea ice as a structural material, thinking primarily in terms of coastal facilities such as docks, jetties, islands, platforms, etc. At sufficiently high latitudes, the summer ablation can be controlled to the point where major structures can be maintained intact during the summer. The unit cost of material is quite low because of low energy requirements. The results of this study show that each of these sea water uses have considerable promise. Desalination to potable level was accomplished. Ice growth rates were obtained which indicate that ice structures of substantial size can be built.
    • Sediment Relations of Selected Alaskan Glacier-fed Streams: Completion Report

      Guymon, G. L. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-06)
    • Sludge Production and Disposal for Small Cold Climate Bio-Treatment Plants

      Tilsworth, Timothy (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972-12)
      Ultimate disposal of wastewater sludge has long been a problem which to a large degree has been ignored. Haney (1971) stated that: "Until process sludge can be handled with minimum environmental impact, we cannot claim to have a viable wastewater treatment process". The relationship of sludge disposal to total treatment processes is emphasized by the fact that sludge handling and disposal represents up to 50 percent of the total treatment capital and operating costs (Burd, 1968). Processing of wastewater sludge will, no doubt, receive increased attention in the future because of environmental concerns for our air, land and water. The present technology for processing wastewater treatment plant sludge is well established and includes conditioning, dewatering, and disposal. Many of these processes are highly sophisticated and relatively expensive. Most of the more advanced processes are unsuitable for small wastewater treatment facilities in Alaska.
    • Snowmelt -frozen soil characteristics for a subarctic setting

      Kane, Douglas L.; Seifert, Richard D.; Fox, John D.; Taylor, George S. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-01)
      The pathways of soil water in cold climates are influenced, in addition to the normal forces, by the presence of permafrost and the temperature gradients in the soil system, whereas the infiltration of surface water into the soil system is a function of moisture levels, soil type and condition of the soil (whether it is frozen or not). Snowfall, with subsequent surface storage over a period of several months, typifies Alaskan winters. This snowfall often accounts for 50 per cent or more of the annual precipitation, with ablation occurring over a time span of 2 to 3 weeks in the spring. The melt period represents an event when large quantities of water may enter the soil system; the possibilities exist for recharging the groundwater system, or else generating surface runoff. The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of potential groundwater recharge from snowmelt. Instrumentation was installed and monitored over two winter seasons to quantify the accumulation and ablation of the snowpack. Thermal and moisture data were collected to characterize the snow pack and soil conditions prior to, during, and following the ablation. Lysimeters were installed at various depths to intercept soil water. The volume of potential areal recharge for 1976 was 3.5 cm and for 1977 was 3.0 cm, which represented about 35 per cent of the maximum snowpack content. It is concluded that permafrost-free areas can contribute significantly to groundwater recharge during snowmelt ablation.
    • Solar Energy Resource Potential in Alaska

      Seifert, Richard D.; Zarling, John P. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-03)
      Solar energy applications are receiving attention in Alaska as in much of the rest of the country. Solar energy possibilities for Alaska include domestic water heating, hot-water or hot-air collection for space heating, and the use of passive solar heating in residential or commercial buildings. As a first analysis, this study concentrated on applying solar energy to domestic hot-water heating needs (not space heating) in Alaska, and an analysis of solar hot-water heating economics was performed using the F-CHART solar energy simulation computer program. Results indicate that solar energy cannot compete economically with oil-heated domestic hot water at any of the five study locations in Alaska, but that it may be economical in comparison with electrically heated hot water if solar collector systems can be purchased and installed for $20 to $25 per square foot.
    • A Study of Sediment Transport in Norwegian Glacial Rivers, 1969

      Østrem, G.; Ziegler, T.; Ekman, S. R. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-02)
      Permission to translate this Norwegian report was kindly given by G. Østrem, and the translation by Helga Carstens, while she was in Alaska, is greatly appreciated. Unfortunately, Mrs. Carstens returned to her homeland, Norway, before final editing of the manuscript could be completed. Consequently, any errors in translation are due to the editor, and for these errors, the editor apologizes to the authors. Not included in this translation is an English summary contained in the original report. To keep printing costs down, the original figures and tables, which fortunately had English titles, are used in this translation. This report is the first of a series of reports being prepared for the Norwegian Water Resources and Electricity Board. The second report for 1970 has been published with an English summary and contains an extension of the data contained in the 1969 report. Because this work deals with problems very similar to those in Alaska, it was decided to translate the first report and circulate a limited number of copies to workers in the U. S. and Canada. Research very similar to the Norwegian work was initiated in Alaska under the editor's direction in cooperation with the U. S. Geological Survey. -- G. L. Guymon.
    • A Study of the Breakup Characteristics of the Chena River Basin Using ERTS Imagery: Completion Report

      Carlson, Robert F.; Wendler, Gerd (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-06)
      Snowmelt and rainfall floodinq is a major water resource problem in Alaska. At the present time, forecastinq of these floods is based on a sparse hydrological and climatological network. Numerous basins with drainage areas of 5,000 km2 and less remain completely ungaged. The lack of data causes uncertainty in the design of transportation schemes such as tile Trans-Alaska oil pipeline. This project studied the utility of using ERTS-l imagery as a source of additional data for the prediction of snowmelt runoff, the most dynamic hydroloqic event in arctic and subarctic basins. Snow distribution as determined from the satellite imagery was compared with values determined from the conventional snow course stations and with the results of a snowmelt energy model. The Chena River Basin was selected because of the availability of ground truth data for comparison. Very good agreement for snow distribution and rates of ablation was found between the ERTS-l imagery, the snowmelt model, and field measurements. Monitoring snowmelt rates for relatively small basins appears to be practical. The main limitation of the ERTS-l imagery is the interval of coverage. More frequent overflights providing coverage are needed for the study of transient hydrologic events. ERTS-l data is most useful when used in conjunction with snowmelt prediction models and existing snow course data. These results should prove very useful in preliminary assessment of hydrologic conditions in ungaged watersheds and will provide a tool for month-to-month volume forecasting.