• Annotated Keys to the Genera of the Tribe Diamesini (Diptera: Chironomidae), Descriptions of the Female and Immatures of Potthastia iberica Tosio, and Keys to the Known Species of Potthastia

      Doughman, Jan S. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources and Engineering Experiment Station, 1985-08)
      A review of available information on the tribe Diamesini led to the construction of generic keys to most life stages. Serra-Tosio (1971b) first described Potthastia iberica from an adult male from the Spanish Pyrenees. Evaluation of specimens collected in the Nearctic, from Idaho (in 1967) and Georgia (in 1981 and 1983), indicate that this species is extant in eastern and western highland streams that appear to be typical trout streams. This new group of specimens contained a mature male and female pupa and immatures, and associations made it possible to describe the female and the immatures for the first time. Adult specimens conform very closely to the holotype. The known species of Potthastia are keyed.
    • Application of Artificial Recharge Technology for Managing the Water Resources - Anchorage, Alaska

      Guymon, Gary L. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972-06)
      The purpose of this report is to explore the usefulness of artificial recharge in Alaska where there are significant known water supply problems, specifically Anchorage, Alaska. More importantly, however, this report is intended as a vehicle for updating what is known about artificial recharge and for making this information available to water resources agencies and water supply planners in Alaska. The report is not intended to be an original scientific research but is a synthesis of new knowledge developed by the writer and others within the last half-decade. This report concentrates primarily on artificial recharge by off-stream basins in an effort to narrow what is a rather broad field. The concepts discussed under this restricted heading, however, are generally applicable to other recharge methods such as on-stream artificial recharge. Artificial recharge by basins is defined for purposes of this report as the practice of ponding water in constructed off-stream ponds with the explicit intention of allowing water to infiltrate into the underlying aquifer.
    • Application of the Finite-Element Method for Simulation of Surface Water Transport Problems

      Guymon, Gary L. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972-06)
    • Arsenic in the Water, Soil Bedrock, and Plants of the Ester Dome Area of Alaska

      Hawkins, Daniel B.; Forbes, Robert B.; Hok, Charlotte I.; Dinkel, Donald (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1982-06)
      Concentrations of arsenic as large as 10 ppm (200 times the safe limit for drinking water) occur in the groundwater of a mineralized residential area near Fairbanks. Bedrock of the area contains 750 ppm As, primarily as arsenopyrite and scorodite. The oxygen-poor groundwater is enriched in As(III) and ferrous iron while the surface waters are iron free and contain less than 50 ppb As(V). Arsenic is removed from the water by coprecipitation with ferric hydroxide. Some iron-rich stream sediments contain as much as 1,400 ppm arsenic. The distribution of arsenic in the groundwater is controlled by the distribution of arsenic in the bedrock. The arsenic content of the B soil horizon over mineralized veins is about 150 ppm, while that over barren rock is 30 ppm. The vegetation over the veins is not significantly enriched in arsenic. Lettuce, radishes and tomatoes grown with arsenic-rich water (5 ppm) contain 16, 8 and 1 ppm As, respectively; these amounts are significantly greater than plants not treated with arsenic. Preliminary studies by state and federal health agencies show no detrimental effects on the health of persons drinking these arsenic-rich waters.
    • An Atmospheric carbon monoxide transport model for Fairbanks, Alaska

      Carlson, Robert F.; Fox, John (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1976-06)
      A comprehensive computer model of atmospheric carbon monoxide transport has been developed for Fairbanks, Alaska. The model, based on a finite element method computational scheme, accents input from specified vehicle traffic parameters inc1uding miles per day, number of cold starts, and total idle time. The carbon monoxide concentrations are calculated for specified time intervals at numerous points throughout the urban area. A test of the model against the data of January 22, 1975, indicates a good correspondence. Extremely high carbon monoxide concentration were calculated at an unmeasured point down wind of the business district. The model should prove useful for a number of community needs including parking management, planning and zoning, episode strategy planning, and carbon monoxide forecasting.
    • Bibliography of Arctic Water Resources

      Hartman, Charles W.; Carlson, Robert F. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1970-11)
      In July, 1969, the Institute of Water Resources began a study of Alaska's Arctic water resources in response to the impending resource development of Arctic regions. The intent of the study was to provide a literature review of existing information, a model study of the water system in an Arctic region, and a limited field program. It became quite apparent early in the study that a great amount of literature pertaining to the Arctic water cycle was available and would need extensive organization to be useful. It also became apparent that if the literature were organized, the list would be useful to investigators other than ourselves. The result is this Bibliography of Arctic Water Resources.
    • Bio-Processes of the Oxidation Ditch When Subjected to a Sub-Arctic Climate

      Ranganathan, K. R.; Murphy, R. Sage (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972-05)
      Alaska's far northern area is sparsely populated primarily because of a severe climate which varies from northern temperate to Arctic. Construction and power costs are high. Skilled operating personnel are scarce and expensive, if available. Receiving streams are said to be delicate, particularily in the winter, when little possibility for reaeration exists due to a total ice cover. The oxidation ditch modification of the extended aeration activated sludge process appears to be well suited for the treatment of wastes in this environment. Past operating data on a plant of this type located in Interior Alaska (near Fairbanks) indicated it may be well suited to treat small volumes of domestic waste economically, with low sludge production, and minimal sensitivity to low temperatures.
    • The Biochemical Bases of Psychrophily in Microorganisms: A Review

      Miller, Ann P. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1967)
    • The Biodegradation of Organic Substrates Under Arctic and Subarctic Conditions

      Murray, Ann P.; Murphy, R. Sage (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972-03)
      The objective of this research was to obtain data on the metabolic reaction rates of the microorganisms indigenous to the cold environments of the arctic and sub-arctic in order to evaluate the natural abilities of the freshwater streams and lakes of Alaska to assimilate the wastes discharged into them. Microorganisms capable of growth even at subzero temperatures have long been known; however, most have consistently fared better at higher temperatures, usually above 20° C. Much of the work done with the biological oxidation of wastes at low temperatures has been with organisms of this type : mesophilic organisms which are able to survive at low temperatures but which are metabolically much more active in the temperature range from 20 to 45° C. Such organisms might be labeled "cold-tolerant," but they are probably biochemically quite different from the truly "cold-loving," or psychrophilic, microorganisms which are able not only to survive but also to thrive at temperatures below 20° C and which, in fact, find temperatures much higher than 25° C intolerable.
    • Biogeochemistry of deep lakes in the central Alaskan Range: Completion report

      LaPerriere, Jacqueline; Casper, Lawrence (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1976-02)
      Casper, one of the investigators, was a guest of the National Park Service as a weekend camper at the Wonder Lake Campground within Mount McKinley National Park. On the next visit to this campground for the same purpose, Mr. Casper took along several pieces of equipment for making simple limnological measurements. On this trip, he was accompanied by Frederick Payne, a graduate student from Michigan State University, who was in Alaska working with aquatic plant community structure. Following this visit to the lake, a research project proposal was drawn up for the purpose of obtaining funds in order to study several limnological aspects of this lake and others related to it. The relative high importance of vascular aquatic plant production in the Arctic had been noticed by John Hobbie (1973). In an intensive study of a deep subarctic lake, Harding Lake, being conducted by the Institute of Water Resources, University of Alaska, the relative high importance of rooted aquatic plants had also been noted. Thus, a question arose as to whether or not the primary production of vascular aquatic plants is higher than that of phytoplankton in subarctic lakes as is the case in arctic lakes which usually have higher biomass concentrations of algae than subarctic lakes (Hobbie, 1973). The stated objectives of this project were: 1) To conduct a biogeochemical reconnaissance of selected deep subarctic lakes in the central Alaska Range. 2) To develop hypotheses concerning the regional limnology. 3) To collect biological specimens to extend knowledge of taxonomic distributions, especially of aquatic plants and phytoplankton. 4) To estimate the seasonal nutrient budget for these lakes.
    • A Builder's Guide to Water and Energy

      Seifert, Richard D.; Dwight, Linda Perry (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1980-08)
    • Carbon Monoxide Exposure and Human Health

      Joy, Richard W.; Tilsworth, Timothy; Williams, Darrell D. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1975-02)
    • A Catalog of Hydroclimatological Data for Alaska's Coastal Zone

      Carlson, Robert F.; Weller, Gunter (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972-05)
      In order to perceive a better understanding of the interrelationships of the coastal zone water we proposed a research project which was to sort out many of the complex variables. The project was not begun due to the lack of sufficient funds. We did, however, begin a limited literature search and listing of hydroclimatological data sources of Alaska's coastal zone. We felt this would be a modest but useful start towards the larger study. It should also have some practical usefulness to others. This data catalog is a result of this initial study. Because of the wide variety of types of agency which collect data and the literally hundreds of sources through which they are reported, it is often quite bewildering for even experienced investigators to sort out what can be found and where. Although we are sure that the catalog is far from complete, we feel that it is a useful beginning towards an attempt to better understand the hydroclimatological processes in Alaska's coastal zone. We wish to invite contributions and criticisms which could lead to an improved and more comprehensive version at some future date.
    • The Characteristics and Ultimate Disposal of Waste Septic Tank Sludge

      Tilsworth, Timothy (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-11)
    • Clearing Alaskan Water Supply Impoundments : Data

      Smith, Daniel W.; Justice, Stanley R. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1976-04)
      The data contained in IWR-67 (Clearing Alaskan Supply Impoundments: Management and Laboratory Study) was collected to determine the effect on water quality of five proposed Alaskan reservoirs as a function of the extent of clearing in site preparation. The study developed a methodology for such analysis and made recommendations as to the best clearing alternatives for each reservoir site. For graphic presentation and evaluation of the data, refer to IWR-67 and IWR-67-A (Literature Review), published by the Institute of Water Resources, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska.
    • Clearing Alaskan Water Supply Impoundments : Literature Review

      Justice, Stanley R.; Smith, Daniel W. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1976-04)
      This literature review was prepared in conjunction with a research project evaluating the effect on water quality of five proposed Alaskan Reservoirs and recommending clearing alternatives. For the results of the laboratory study and discussion of impoundment management in northern regions refer to "Clearing Alaskan Water Supply Impoundments, Management and Laboratory Study" (IWR-67). The data developed in the laboratory portion of the study is contained in IWR-67-B. Contact the Institute of Water Resources if access to this material is desired. Much of the material in this review was derived from the paper "The Effect of Reservoirs on Water Quality" which was prepared by Stan Justice in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Environmental Quality Engineering.
    • Clearing Alaskan water supply impoundments: management, laboratory study, and literature review

      Smith, Daniel W.; Justice, Stanley R. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1976-04)
      Water supply impoundments in northern regions have seen only limited application. Reasons for the lack of use of such impoundments include the following: 1) little demand for water due to the low population densities and rustic life styles; 2) a lack of conventional distribution systems in many communities; 3) poorly developed technology for construction of dams on permafrost; 4) adequacy of existing river, lake, ice, and lagoon water supplies; 5) shortage of capital to finance the high cost of construction in remote regions.
    • Cold climate water/wastewater transportation and treatment - a bibliography: completion report

      Tilsworth, Timothy; Smith, Daniel M.; Zemansky, G. M.; Justice, Stanley R. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1977-12)
      This bibliography contains 1,400 citations, including published and unpublished papers, on cold-climate water and wastewater transportation and treatment systems. Sources listed include state and federal agency files which contain information on systems in Alaskan communities and the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company camps. References to systems in other northern countries are also included. The objectives of this study were to identify causes of the failure of Alaskan water and wastewater treatment and transportation facilities and to seek methods for design improvements. Originally, the investigators contemplated an evaluation of systems performance in remote areas in relation to the original conception, planning, design, and construction. Because of the tremendous amount of literature examined, the evaluation was undertaken in a subsequent study, "Alaska Wastewater Treatment Technology" (A-058-ALAS) by Dr. Ronald A. Johnson.
    • Community Response Strategies for Environmental Problems of Water Supply and Wastewater Disposal in Fairbanks, Alaska

      Smith, Daniel W.; Pearson, Roger W. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1975-06)
      This report examines the history of the response strategies of the Fairbanks, Alaska, community to problems of water supply and wastewater disposal. Fairbanks is significant since it is the largest settlement in the northern subarctic and arctic regions of North America. Today, the City of Fairbanks and the surrounding urban area have a combined population of over 40,000.
    • A Computer Model of the Tidal Phenomena in Cook Inlet, Alaska

      Carlson, Robert F.; Behlke, Charles E. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972-03)