Now showing items 1-20 of 113

    • Water/Wastewater Evaluation for an Arctic Alaskan Industrial Camp

      Tilsworth, Timothy (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-04)
      Discovery of a huge oil field at Prudhoe Bay in the late 1960's resulted in a great deal of industrial activity on the North Slope of arctic Alaska. This flurry of industrial activity was accompanied by environmental concern across the nation. The fact that Alaska was "the last frontier” placed it high on the list for ecological scrutiny.
    • Report of the Joint U.S.-Canadian Northern Civil Engineering Research Workshop

      Carlson, Robert F.; Morgenstern, N. R. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-03-20)
      The Joint Canadian-United States Northern Civil Engineering Research Workshop was held at the University of Alberta campus, Edmonton, Alberta on March 20 through 22, 1978. Over 40 participants from government, universities, and private practice from both the U.S. and Canada discussed northern civil engineering research for 2 1/2 days. The results of their effort are presented in this report. The nature of a report coming from spontaneous conversation will be somewhat uneven in coverage, language, and tone. However, we feel obligated to preserve the initial intent and language of the various workshop groups and each report should represent the original conclusion as nearly as possible. We acted as the principal instigators of the workshop and were ably assisted by an excellent group of workshop chairmen: Jack Clark, Lorne Gold, Charles Neill, Daniel Rogness, James Rooney, and Daniel Smith. We particularly want to acknowledge the assistance of the Boreal Institute for organizing and providing much of the administrative and secretarial support for the workshop, and the staff of the Institute of Water Resources for assisting with the organizing and publication processes. The workshop was sponsored by the National Science Foundation of the United States, the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs of Canada, the Boreal Institute and Department of Civil Engineering of the University of Alberta, and the Institute of Water Resources of the University of Alaska. R. F. Carlson N. R. Morgenstern
    • Clearing Alaskan Water Supply Impoundments : Data

      Smith, Daniel W.; Justice, Stanley R. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1976-04)
      The data contained in IWR-67 (Clearing Alaskan Supply Impoundments: Management and Laboratory Study) was collected to determine the effect on water quality of five proposed Alaskan reservoirs as a function of the extent of clearing in site preparation. The study developed a methodology for such analysis and made recommendations as to the best clearing alternatives for each reservoir site. For graphic presentation and evaluation of the data, refer to IWR-67 and IWR-67-A (Literature Review), published by the Institute of Water Resources, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska.
    • Clearing Alaskan Water Supply Impoundments : Literature Review

      Justice, Stanley R.; Smith, Daniel W. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1976-04)
      This literature review was prepared in conjunction with a research project evaluating the effect on water quality of five proposed Alaskan Reservoirs and recommending clearing alternatives. For the results of the laboratory study and discussion of impoundment management in northern regions refer to "Clearing Alaskan Water Supply Impoundments, Management and Laboratory Study" (IWR-67). The data developed in the laboratory portion of the study is contained in IWR-67-B. Contact the Institute of Water Resources if access to this material is desired. Much of the material in this review was derived from the paper "The Effect of Reservoirs on Water Quality" which was prepared by Stan Justice in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Environmental Quality Engineering.
    • The Characteristics and Ultimate Disposal of Waste Septic Tank Sludge

      Tilsworth, Timothy (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-11)
    • Application of the Finite-Element Method for Simulation of Surface Water Transport Problems

      Guymon, Gary L. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972-06)
    • The Effects of Extreme Floods and Placer Mining on the Basic Productivity of Sub Arctic Streams : A Completion Report

      Morrow, James E. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1971)
      The original proposal for this project was submitted to OWRR in the fall of 1967 and envisioned a two year investigation involving the principal investigator and three graduate student assistants, with a first year budget of nearly $25,000.00. However, the project was approved for only one year, with a total budget of $5,757.00. In addition, even these funds did not become available until August 1968. Because of the lateness of availability and the sharp curtailment of the total amount, it was not possible to purchase any equipment. Hence, measurements of rainfall, current velocity, basic productivity, etc., had to be abondoned. All that could be done was to acquire data on the bottom fauna and some physico-chemical characteristics of the water.
    • Evaluation of Water Research Needs in Alaska : Project Completion Report

      Behlke, Charles E. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1968)
      The water resource research requirements for Alaska revolve around the needs of a rapidly expanding population and industrial growth in an unpopulated country. It appears that many of the problems which have been researched elsewhere must be restudied in Alaska because of the extremes of climate which Alaska exhibits . Most of the southern coastal areas of the State exhibit from 70 to 350 inches of runoff per year and in much of the northern part of the State permafrost to great depths and seasonal frost lock virtually all of the water in the solid state for a major part of the year. Alaska Is proving to be an area with vast petroleum reserves. These reserves are being brought into production and are resulting in the development of previously unpopulated areas. The proper management of previously untouched waters requires knowledge of the nature of the existing resources and then an evaluation of the probable effects of alternative water uses in order to optimize the desirable use of Alaskan water resources. This evaluation of present conditions and the analysis of future possible uses provide vast amounts of required research.
    • Inherent and Maximum Microbiological Activity in Smith Lake : Project Completion Report

      Burton, S. (University of Alaska; Institute of Water Resources, 1968)
      POPULAR ABSTRACT: Bacterial populations were examined in a sub-Arctic lake to augment the understanding of the flow of organic material and other nutrients through these waters. Several micro-organisms were isolated, capable of converting atmospheric nitrogen into biologically available forms. Also organisms capable of removing organic materials at very low temperatures, psychrophiles, were isolated. Enzymes from these unusual organisms were examined to determine what allows these unusual activity at low temperatures. The activities of these enzymes were not found to be unusual.
    • Land Application of Domestic Sludge in Cold Climates

      Johnson, Ronald A. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1979)
      Aerobically digested sludge from the Fairbanks sewage treatment plant was worked into the soil on several plots at the University of Alaska in the summer of 1978. Some of the sludge had been air dried for up to six months prior to application while some was taken directly from the thickener. Applications varied from 12 to 100 tons of solids/acre. For sludge applied in July and August, the fecal coliform count decayed by several orders of magnitude by the middle of September.. There was no significant movement of fecal coliform bacteria either vertically or laterally. Lime was used to raise the pH of one plot to 12, completely killing the fecal coliform bacteria within several days. The nutrient distribution demonstrated the potential for enriching soils by sludge addition. The main purpose of the study was to investigate the feasibility of this concept for remote military sites. Air drying followed by land application may represent a viable means of sludge disposal.
    • Analysis of Alaska's water use act and its interaction with federal reserved water rights

      Curran, Harold J.; Dwight, Linda Perry (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1979-02)
      Since the passage of Alaska's Water Use Act in 1966, the amount of water required by Alaska's growing population and resource development has increased very rapidly. The need to review the adequacy of existing water use laws and their administration has been expressed both by those trying to comply with regulations and by those attempting to enforce standards and permit requirements. This report summarizes the historical development of the doctrine of prior appropriation in Alaska. The statutory authority, regulations, and administration of Alaska's Water Use Act by the Alaska Department of Natural Resources are presented. Overlapping state agency authorities are discussed, and existing and proposed regulations are analyzed. The application of federal reserved water rights to Alaska and the status of quantification of these rights is explained. The report presents options for the State of Alaska to manage water use on federal lands, and for preserving minimum stream flows for maintenance of fish and wildlife habitats.
    • Snowmelt -frozen soil characteristics for a subarctic setting

      Kane, Douglas L.; Seifert, Richard D.; Fox, John D.; Taylor, George S. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-01)
      The pathways of soil water in cold climates are influenced, in addition to the normal forces, by the presence of permafrost and the temperature gradients in the soil system, whereas the infiltration of surface water into the soil system is a function of moisture levels, soil type and condition of the soil (whether it is frozen or not). Snowfall, with subsequent surface storage over a period of several months, typifies Alaskan winters. This snowfall often accounts for 50 per cent or more of the annual precipitation, with ablation occurring over a time span of 2 to 3 weeks in the spring. The melt period represents an event when large quantities of water may enter the soil system; the possibilities exist for recharging the groundwater system, or else generating surface runoff. The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of potential groundwater recharge from snowmelt. Instrumentation was installed and monitored over two winter seasons to quantify the accumulation and ablation of the snowpack. Thermal and moisture data were collected to characterize the snow pack and soil conditions prior to, during, and following the ablation. Lysimeters were installed at various depths to intercept soil water. The volume of potential areal recharge for 1976 was 3.5 cm and for 1977 was 3.0 cm, which represented about 35 per cent of the maximum snowpack content. It is concluded that permafrost-free areas can contribute significantly to groundwater recharge during snowmelt ablation.
    • Treatment of Low Quality Water by Foam Fractionation

      Murphy, R. Sage (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1968)
      The removal of iron from Alaskan groundwaters by a foam fractionation technique has been shown to very effective. Finished waters with less than 0.2 mg/l iron have been produced from raw waters containing in excess of 25 mg/l. Ethylhexadecyldimethylammonium bromide was used as the principal foaming agent. Low temperature oxidation of the ferrous iron tended to interfere with the removal rates, but high temperature oxidation followed by low temperature fractionation did not exhibit the same adverse influence. All experiments were performed in four-liter laboratory batch columns. For the Alaskan environment batch processing is thought to have advantages over continuous processes because of the need for uncomplicated equipment.
    • The Biochemical Bases of Psychrophily in Microorganisms: A Review

      Miller, Ann P. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1967)
    • Saline Conversion and Ice Structures from Artificially Grown Sea Ice

      Peyton, H. R.; Johnson, P. R.; Behlke, C. E. (University of Alaska, Arctic Environmental Engineering Laboratory and University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1967-09)
      The environment of cold regions is generally viewed as inhospitable, primarily due to application of ideal processes and techniques suitable to temperate zones. The work herein is a step toward solving two environmental problems. The first involves the supply of inexpensive, potable water in Arctic regions, the lack of which is a severe detriment to development. Although water does exist in the Arctic, it is neither available in potable form during many months of the year nor does it occur in sufficient quantity near the point of use. Principally, this lack is caused by the aridness of the Arctic and the shallowness of fresh water sources which, for all practical purposes, do not exist but freeze completely each winter season. The remaining liquid water source is the sea. Arctic problems are then similar to other arid regions where the conversion of sea water to potable water or the transmission of potable water to desired locations is necessary. Cold temperatures generally preclude transmission except over very short distances. Desalination by freezing sea water is a much reported process and has been included among the desalination processes under study worldwide. The advantage of this method in the Arctic is the cold winter-time temperature for freezing and the existence of adequate solar energy in the summer for melting self purified ice. Power requirements are greatly reduced using these natural phenomena. The second aspect of this study concerns the use of artificially grown sea ice as a structural material, thinking primarily in terms of coastal facilities such as docks, jetties, islands, platforms, etc. At sufficiently high latitudes, the summer ablation can be controlled to the point where major structures can be maintained intact during the summer. The unit cost of material is quite low because of low energy requirements. The results of this study show that each of these sea water uses have considerable promise. Desalination to potable level was accomplished. Ice growth rates were obtained which indicate that ice structures of substantial size can be built.
    • Effect of Waste Discharges into a Silt-laden Estuary: A Case Study of Cook Inlet, Alaska

      Murphy, R. Sage; Carlson, Robert F.; Nyquist, David; Britch, Robert (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972-11)
      Cook Inlet is not well known. Although its thirty-foot tidal range is widely appreciated, its other characteristics, such as turbulence, horizontal velocities of flow, suspended sediment loads, natural biological productivity, the effects of fresh water inflows, temperature, and wind stresses, are seldom acknowledged. The fact that the Inlet has not been used for recreation nor for significant commercial activity explains why the average person is not more aware of these characteristics. Because of the gray cast created by the suspended sediments in the summer and the ice floes in the winter, the Inlet does not have the aura of a beautiful bay or fjord. The shoreline is inhospitable for parks and development, the currents too strong for recreational activities, and, because of the high silt concentration, there is little fishing. Yet, Cook Inlet, for all its negative attributes, can in no way be considered an unlimited dumping ground for the wastes of man. It may be better suited for this purpose than many bays in North America, but it does have a finite capacity for receiving wastes without unduly disturbing natural conditions. This report was written for the interested layman by engineers and scientists who tried to present some highly technical information in such a manner that it could be understood by environmentalists, concerned citizens, students, decision makers, and lawmakers alike. In attempting to address such a diverse audience, we risked failing to be completely understood by any one group. However, all too often research results are written solely for other researchers, a practice which leads to the advancement of knowledge but not necessarily to its immediate use by practicing engineers nor to its inclusion in social, economic, and political decision-making processes. We hope this report will shorten the usual time lag between the acquisition of new information and its use. Several additional reports will be available for a limited distribution. These will be directed to technicians who wish to know the mathematical derivations, assumptions, and other scientific details used in the study. Technical papers by the individual authors, published in national and international scientific and engineering journals, are also anticipated.
    • Annotated Keys to the Genera of the Tribe Diamesini (Diptera: Chironomidae), Descriptions of the Female and Immatures of Potthastia iberica Tosio, and Keys to the Known Species of Potthastia

      Doughman, Jan S. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources and Engineering Experiment Station, 1985-08)
      A review of available information on the tribe Diamesini led to the construction of generic keys to most life stages. Serra-Tosio (1971b) first described Potthastia iberica from an adult male from the Spanish Pyrenees. Evaluation of specimens collected in the Nearctic, from Idaho (in 1967) and Georgia (in 1981 and 1983), indicate that this species is extant in eastern and western highland streams that appear to be typical trout streams. This new group of specimens contained a mature male and female pupa and immatures, and associations made it possible to describe the female and the immatures for the first time. Adult specimens conform very closely to the holotype. The known species of Potthastia are keyed.
    • Alaska's Water: A Critical Resource

      Bredthauer, Stephen R. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1984-11)
    • Managing Water Resources for Alaska's Development: Proceedings

      Aldrich, James W. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1983-11)