• Ocean Wilderness In Theory And Practice

      Barr, Bradley W.; Kruse, Gordon; Kliskey, Andrew; Alessa, Lilian; Koester, David (2012)
      Wilderness preservation has been an important focus of resource conservation since the dwindling number of wild places was perceived by some as losing a valued part of our collective natural and cultural heritage. While wilderness preservation efforts have been almost entirely focused on the land, recently there has been growing interest in "ocean wilderness." However, implementation has been constrained by the lack of a common vision of how "wilderness" is applied to the ocean, and how such areas should be managed and preserved. The purpose of this work was to identify and evaluate potential definitions of ocean wilderness and the values and qualities such areas possess, and to determine how they might be effectively identified and managed to preserve their wilderness character. This research focused on articulating a robust definition for "wilderness waters," within the context of how wilderness is currently conceived and articulated in law and policy, as well as evaluating how such areas might be most appropriately identified and managed. Extensive inventories were conducted of existing ocean wilderness areas, focused on North America, to determine what currently exists, how these areas are managed, and how future ocean wilderness designations should be prioritized. A survey was conducted, targeting resource managers and scientists, to identify preferences and perceptions of ocean wilderness and its potential stewardship. The survey results suggested that coastal waters possessed considerable values and qualities of wilderness, particularly areas adjacent to existing designated wilderness, that certain human uses might be appropriately permitted, and that there was much support for expanding the area of coastal waters designated as wilderness. The research also suggested that the North American Arctic might offer many opportunities for preserving ocean wilderness, in close collaboration with the Indigenous communities in this region. A number of recommendations were offered including that priority should be given to evaluating and designating areas adjacent to designated coastal wilderness areas, that the existing legal and policy framework in North America can be effectively used to expand the "wilderness waters" system, and that more work needs to be done to build the constituencies of support essential to accomplish this task.
    • Policy And Market Analysis Of World Dogfish Fisheries And An Evaluation Of The Feasibility Of A Dogfish Fishery In Waters Of Alaska, Usa

      Gasper, Jason R.; Kruse, Gordon; Greenberg, Joshua; Fong, Quentin; Miller, Marc (2011)
      Spiny dogfish is a valuable commodity on the world market and has a global capture distribution. There are three chapters evaluating dogfish markets and fisheries in this dissertation; Chapter 2 evaluates the spatial distribution of dogfish in the Gulf of Alaska; Chapter 3 provides an overview of world markets and evaluates conditions that have led to a decline in dogfish product demand in Europe; and Chapter 4 uses the information from the previous 2 chapters to provide and policy and market overview of dogfish fisheries in Alaska. Results from this study provide a comprehensive world overview of the modern dogfish fisheries and market segmentation using an evaluation of trade and price statistics. These results indicate that the dogfish market is adulterated, supplied by both sustainable and non-sustainable dogfish sources. Media attention resulting from overfishing has reduced demand for dogfish products in Europe due to the adulterated market. Overcoming the loss of market share will require eco-labeling to inform consumers about sustainable dogfish stocks. The impact of eco-labeling in Asian countries is less clear due to unknown inter-Asian market channels for fins and meat and little information on consumer attitudes towards labels. Alaska products could leverage either Asian or European consumers, but a profitable fishery will likely require regulatory changes and improved stock assessment to allow a directed fishery. In addition, pending regulatory changes, establishing robust market channels between Alaska and Europe will likely require some form of eco-labeling; especially given current eco-labeling efforts in Canada and the Atlantic US.
    • The Influence Of Estuarine Habitats On Expression On Life History Characteristics Of Coho Salmon Smolts In South-Central Alaska

      Hoem Neher, Tammy D.; Rosenberger, Amanda; McPhee, Megan; Mueter, Franz; Zimmerman, Christian (2012)
      Expression of traits that lead to life history diversity in salmonids may provide population-level resilience and stability in dynamic environments. I examined habitat use and variability in life history trait expression in juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch occupying two contrasting estuary environments in south-central Alaska. My goal was two-fold: first, to determine if salmon were using estuaries as rearing environments and were therefore potentially vulnerable to selection pressures within; and second, to compare traits of salmon that reared in contrasting estuary environments to explore the potential for differential trait expression related to estuary size and habitat complexity differences. Juvenile coho salmon reared in estuaries for extended periods of time and patterns of use corresponded to environmental conditions within the estuaries. Populations using adjacent but contrasting estuary environments exhibited differential trait expression and were genetically distinct. My work highlights how pristine, functioning estuary habitats contribute to resilience of salmon populations to environmental changes in two ways: first, by providing habitats for individuals to increase in size and condition prior to ocean entry; and second, by providing for alternative life history tactics (providing quality habitat to delay marine entry times and increase body size). Management approaches for resilient salmon runs must therefore maintain both watershed and estuary function.