• Examination of saffron cod (Eleginus gracilis) population genetic structure

      Smé, Noël A.; Gharrett, Anthony; Mueter, Franz; Heifetz, Jonathan (2019-05)
      The Saffron Cod (Eleginus gracilis) is an abundant forage fish that inhabits the coastlines of the north Pacific and Arctic oceans. We examined Saffron Cod population genetic structure to provide a reference baseline in anticipation of human and climate-change alterations of the Arctic environment. Nine microsatellites were designed to describe the genetic compositions of and variation among 40 collections of Saffron Cod from four regions (northwestern Alaska, Gulf of Alaska, Sea of Okhotsk, and Gulf of Anadyr). The northwestern Alaska collections (Bering Sea, Norton Sound, and Chukchi Sea) exhibited little genetic divergence. The Gulf of Anadyr collection differed from other regions but was most similar to those of the northwestern Alaska region. The two collections within the Sea of Okhotsk (Sakhalin Island and Hokkaido Island) differed genetically, but not to the extent they did from other regions. The collections from the Gulf of Alaska (Kodiak Island and Prince William Sound) comprised a lineage that was distinct from all of the other collections, including the geographically adjacent northwestern Alaska collections. The absence of genetic structure among northwestern Alaska collections probably reflects their recent expansion into previously unavailable habitat that became available after the Last Glacial Maximum (~16,000 years ago). The divergence of the Gulf of Alaska lineage may have resulted from recurrent episodes of isolation from previous glaciations.
    • The seasonal dynamics of coastal Arctic lagoons in Northwest Alaska

      Tibbles, Marguerite; Seitz, Andrew C.; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Prakash, Anupma; Robards, Martin D. (2018-12)
      Lagoons are zones of habitat transitions between freshwater and marine ecosystems, providing safe and productive feeding habitats for whitefishes in Northwest Alaska, important to subsistence users in the region. However, many important lagoon processes are not understood. Therefore, the goal of this thesis was to gain a baseline understanding of two important seasonal processes of lagoons in Northwest Alaska. First, I attempted to identify environmental processes correlated with Arctic lagoon breaching for three indicator lagoons that represent a range of environmental characteristics using generalized linear models (GLM) in an information theoretic approach and model averaging. Second, I developed a habitat suitability (HS) model to identify the range of physical conditions that whitefishes may experience if overwintering under ice of these lagoons during the Arctic winter, for the same three lagoons. The GLM model suggested that lagoon breaching day of year was slightly negatively related to day of year of river break-up, but other unconditional confidence intervals for the covariate parameters overlapped zero indicating considerable uncertainty in these estimates. Further data collection and monitoring in the region is needed to improve and verify lagoon breaching modelling results. The HS model indicated that lagoons have reduced suitability as whitefish habitat in winter due to loss of habitat due to the presence of bottomfast ice and a reduction of liquid water quality due to cold temperatures, high salinities and low dissolved oxygen levels. Importantly, small lagoons without freshwater inputs were potential sinks for fish populations. The results from this research will help the National Park Service and the Native Village of Kotzebue in a joint effort to understand and manage these important habitats that are critical for subsistence fisheries as the Arctic faces an uncertain future with climate change, oil spill threats, and increased coastal development.