• Carbon and nitrogen assimilation in the Bering Sea clams Nuculana radiata and Macoma moesta

      Weems, Jared; Iken, Katrin; Gradinger, Rolf; Wooller, Matthew (Elsevier, 2012-06)
      We analyzed bulk carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values (delta C-13 and delta N-15) of the benthic clams Nuculana radiata and Macoma moesta from the Bering Sea during controlled feeding experiments (spring of 2009 and 2010) using isotopically labeled sea ice algae. The aim was to determine the ability of these clam species to assimilate carbon and nitrogen from sea ice algae. Specimens were collected in the Bering Sea and placed into jars without sediment (2009, N. radiata only) or into natural sediment cores (2010, both species). The clams were offered isotopically enriched (both C and N) or non-enriched algal feeds for time periods of 42 (2009) and 18 d (2010). Isotopic assimilation rates for carbon and nitrogen were calculated using the change in the isotope ratios of the clams over the experimental time. N. radiata in the jar experiments had slow isotopic assimilation rates (0.01 to 0.23 parts per thousand d(-1)), with solvent-extractable organic matter/lipids taking up both of the isotope markers fastest and muscle tissue the slowest. Lipids may thus be particularly suitable to track the immediate ingestion of sea ice algal production in benthic consumers. M. moesta showed 30% higher isotopic assimilation compared to N. radiata in sediment cores, likely reflecting the different feeding behaviors of these two species. Based on our results, N. radiata is likely better able to utilize food sources buried in the sediment and may be more competitive over the sediment surface feeding M. moesta under conditions of reduced ice algal production in the northern Bering Sea. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    • CARBON AND NITROGEN ASSIMILATION IN THE CLAMS NUCULANA RADIATA AND MACOMA MOESTA FROM THE BERING SEA

      Weems, Jared; Iken, Katrin; Gradinger, Rolf; Wooller, Matthew (University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2011-08)
      The predicted climate-induced reduction in sea ice presence in the Bering Sea could impact benthic trophic interactions; however, species-specific consumer dependence on ice algal production is largely unknown. My objective was to track feeding in the benthic clams, Nuculana radiata and Macoma moesta, using stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Nuculana radiata had slow isotopic assimilation rates, with lipids taking up isotope markers fastest and muscle tissue the slowest. Lipids may thus be particularly suitable to track the immediate ingestion of sea ice algal export in benthic consumers. When isotopically enriched food was added to natural sediment cores, N. radiata assimilated 60% less of the isotope markers than when feeding on algal food in isolation. Possibly, this difference is related to the ingestion of other, naturally present food sources in the sediment. Macoma moesta showed 30% higher isotopic assimilation compared to N. radiata in sediment cores. I suggest that differing feeding behaviors between the species provide differential access to the sedimented algal food. Based on these results, N. radiata is likely better able to utilize food sources buried in the sediment and may be more competitive over M. moesta under conditions of reduced ice algal production in the northern Bering Sea.
    • Carbon biogeochemistry of the eastern Bering Sea shelf

      Cross, Jessica; Mathis, Jeremy; Feely, Richard; Stockwell, Dean; Weingartner, Thomas; Whitledge, Terry (2013-12)
      The uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO₂) has caused perturbations to marine biogeochemistry in recent years, including decreasing ocean pH and carbonate mineral saturation states (Ω). Collectively termed ocean acidification (OA), these conditions hinder the growth of calcium carbonate shells and effectively reduce habitat for some marine calcifiers. Given that the Bering Sea is one of the world's most productive marine ecosystems and supports both commercial fishing industries and subsistence communities, it is integral to understand its susceptibility to OA. Here, new observations of the organic and inorganic carbon systems are used to identify mechanisms leading to CO₂ accumulation and sub-regional enhancement of vulnerability to OA processes. Chapter 1 describes the state of knowledge of OA in this area, highlighting two regions where low Ω conditions are consistently observed: near the coast, and over the northern shelf. Chapter 2 describes net heterotrophic processes near the coast, in conjunction with low bottom water Ω. Chapter 3 examines this heterotrophy in more detail, showing that focused deposition of organic matter and its subsequent respiration. Chapters 4 and 5 focus on very low Ω values observed over the northern shelf. In combination with natural respiration processes, anthropogenic CO₂ was shown to cause low Ω and seasonal dissolution of carbonate minerals in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 illustrates how sea ice cover inhibits the flux of CO₂ from the surface ocean to the atmosphere, which raises the inventory of CO₂ in the water column. These results are synthesized in Chapter 6. Low-Ω conditions and areas of carbonate mineral dissolution will continue to expand as anthropogenic CO₂ accumulates in shelf waters in the coming decades, further reducing viable habitat for key calcifiers. Model projections of future surface water conditions indicate that average Ω over the Bering Sea shelf will drop below the observed natural variability by 2100, with average conditions favoring carbonate mineral dissolution in surface waters by 2150. Presently, episodic events will cause regions of the Bering Sea to be undersaturated in Ω, which could have significant and cascading impacts throughout the Pacific-Arctic region.
    • Carbon flux and particle-associated microbial remineralization rates in the northern Bering and southern Chukchi seas

      O'Daly, Stephanie Hicks; McDonnell, Andrew M. P.; Hardy, Sarah M.; Johnson, Mark A. (2019-12)
      It has been hypothesized that climate change will reduce the strength and episodic nature of vernal phytoplankton blooms, increase heterotrophy of microbes and zooplankton, and weaken the tight coupling between pelagic and benthic production that is characteristic of Arctic continental shelves. As a part of the Arctic Shelf Growth, Advection, Respiration, and Deposition rates measurement (ASGARD) project, I quantified sinking particle fluxes and incubated sinking particles to measure the rate of microbial respiration associated with those particles. These measurements were used to characterize the strength of the pelagic-benthic connection. After a record-breaking year of warm temperatures and low-ice conditions in the northern Bering and southern Chukchi Seas, we observed massive vernal fluxes of sinking particulate organic carbon, ranking amongst the highest observed in the global oceans. Moreover, low rates of particle-associated microbial respiration indicate negligible recycling of sinking organic matter within the water column. These results suggest that the strength of the biological carbon pump may be maintained or enhanced in a warming Arctic, supporting strong benthic and upper trophic level productivity and carbon export.
    • Carbon isotopic composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their weathering in Kachemak Bay sediment

      Borland, Tara Ann (2004-05)
      Identification of sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in sediments is an important step in reducing anthropogenic contamination. Identifications based solely on the composition of PAH can be confounded by compositional changes during weathering and biodegradation. Stable isotopic composition of individual PAH offer a source marker that may be less susceptible to alteration. The [alpha]¹³C values of PAH in major potential sources to the Kachemak Bay area were analyzed. To determine the stability of the [alpha]¹³C values of PAH in crude and diesel oil, microbial degradation experiments using sediment from the Kachemak Bay, Alaska, area were conducted over a one-year period. The impact of weathering on the isotopic composition of North Slope crude oil and diesel oil was also examined over a five-week period in aquaria with Macoma balthica, an intertidal bivalve. For both degradation experiments, PAH concentrations decreased and their composition changed, but the [alpha]¹³C values of individual PAHs remained stable. Hence, [alpha]¹³C values of individual PAHs have excellent potential as a relatively stable indicator of their sources. Based on isotopic and compositional data, the PAH in Kachemak Bay sediments appear to have several sources.
    • Carbon sources and trophic connectivity in seafloor food webs in the Alaska Arctic and sub-Arctic

      Oxtoby, Laura Elizabeth; Wooller, Matthew; O'Brien, Diane; Iken, Katrin; Horstmann, Larissa; Budge, Suzanne (2016-05)
      Stable isotope analysis offers critical insight into organic matter pathways that sustain and link consumers in a food web. Indirect examination of organic matter sources and consumer diets using stable isotope analysis is especially valuable in the Alaska Arctic and sub-Arctic marine realm, where organisms of interest are difficult to observe given their remote habitat and elusive behavior. The research objective of this body of work was to use novel applications of stable isotope analysis to extend our understanding of organic matter sources, trophic pathways, and resource competition among benthic consumers. Microphytobenthos, a community of photosynthesizing unicellular microscopic algal cells on the seafloor sediment, has not been included in stable isotope food web models in the Alaska Arctic and sub-Arctic due to challenges associated with sample collection and analysis. I constrained the isotopic composition of this potential algal source by integrating field measurements, physiological relationships previously established by laboratory studies, and a range of algal growth rates specific to high latitude primary production. Relative to other sources of primary production in the Arctic, sub-Arctic, and lower latitude ecosystems, estimates for stable carbon isotope values of total organic carbon from microphytobenthos in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas were higher than those for Arctic riverine organic matter, but lower than ice algal sources and microphytobenthos measurements from lower latitudes. To further elucidate trophic pathways and resource partitioning among benthic invertebrate consumers, I combined compound-specific stable isotope analysis, a relatively new analytical tool, with fatty acid analysis to estimate proportional contributions of algal sources from ice, open ocean, and surface sediments to common polychaete and bivalve consumers in the Bering Sea. Benthic invertebrates were collected in 2009-2010 and represented a diverse range of feeding strategies, including the suspension/surface deposit-feeding bivalves Macoma calcarea and Ennucula tenuis, the subsurface deposit-feeding bivalve, Nuculana radiata, the head down deposit-feeding polychaete Leitoscoloplos pugettensis, and the predator/scavenger Nephtys spp. Differences in dominant algal sources to these invertebrate consumers corresponded, for the most part, to feeding strategy. Bivalves primarily obtained fatty acids from surface sediments, whereas L. pugettensis obtained fatty acids from a microbially altered phytodetrital fatty acid pool, and Nephtys spp. from ice algal fatty acids acquired indirectly through predation. This multi-proxy compound-specific stable isotope approach was then applied to examine dietary overlap between Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) in 2009-2011 who feed primarily on benthic invertebrate prey. Differences in the relative proportions of fatty acids produced exclusively by benthic prey (non-methylene interrupted fatty acids) indicated that walruses and bearded seals had divergent diets. Proportional contributions of algal sources from ice, open ocean, and surface sediments to the prey consumed by walruses and bearded seals also varied. Walruses consumed prey that relied primarily on benthic and pelagic carbon sources (i.e., suspension/surface and subsurface deposit-feeding bivalves). In contrast, bearded seals consumed prey that relied on benthic and ice algal carbon sources (i.e., omnivorous and predatory benthic invertebrates). In conclusion, this research revealed that, in the recent study years, benthic food webs in the Alaska Arctic and sub-Arctic contained several trophic pathways linking consumers to distinct organic matter sources. Consequently, projected changes in algal production with future climate warming may elicit species-specific responses among benthic organisms.
    • Changes in embryonic development, hatching, and zoeae of snow crab with variation in incubation temperature

      Webb, Joel Benjamin (2005-08)
      The effect of incubation temperature on duration of embryonic development and morphology, weight and energetic content of post-hatch zoeae was described for snow crab, Chionoecetes opilio, from the eastern Bering Sea held at -1, 0, 1, 3, and 6° C in the laboratory from collection to hatch. The mean incubation time increased with decreasing temperature by 32% (113 d) between 6 and -1° C. Extrusion success of females at 6° C was lower versus 0 or 3° C, but the duration of hatching did not vary significantly with incubation temperature. A one-year cycle of embryo incubation was observed, indicating that switching from one to two-year duration of embryo incubation may occur early in development. The energy content and individual weights of post-hatch zoeae were not significantly affected by temperature, indicating that longer incubation periods may not have an energetic cost. The rostro-dorsal length of zoeae incubated at 6° C was smaller than those from cooler temperatures. Conversely, the length of the 3rd abdominal somite increased significantly with decreasing temperature, perhaps serving as an indicator of incubation temperature in field collected zoeae. The consequences of varying incubation temperature appear on post-hatch zoeae appear to be limited between -1° and 6° C.
    • Changes in the spring sea ice concentration in the Bering Sea from 1972-2000 in relation to spotted seal (Phoca largha) pregnancy rates

      Picco, Candace M. (2005-08)
      Spotted seals are most dependent on the seasonal sea ice in the Bering Sea during the spring pupping and mating season. Changes in sea ice characteristics, as related to recent documented changes in climate, may have an effect on spotted seal reproduction. This study investigates the relation between changes in the spatial and temporal patterns of the spring sea ice concentration in the Bering Sea from 1972-2000 to changes in the pregnancy rates of the spotted seal (Phoca largha). Multinomial time-series regressions were used to determine the influence of different climatic variables on the sea ice concentration. Different statistical methods were used to compare the ice conditions of defined regions in the Bering Sea and spotted seal pregnancy rates among 20 years from 1964- 2003. The results showed no definitive patterns relating the monthly climatic variables and sea ice concentration averages; however, noticeable trends in sea ice were found. The variability of the seal pregnancy rates coincided with changes in the Bering Sea ecosystem and ice concentration. This study demonstrated that seal pregnancy rates and sea ice concentration varied temporally and spatially, the direct causality of these variations was uncertain.
    • Characteristics of the Sulukna River spawning population of inconnu, Yukon River drainage, Alaska

      Esse, David Andrews; Margraf, F. Joseph; Sutton, Trent M.; Brown, Randy J. (2011-12)
      Inconnu Stenodus leucichthys are large migratory whitefish harvested in subsistence and sport fisheries in Alaska. Research on the Sulukna River spawning population of inconnu was conducted in September and early October from 2007 to 2009. Samples were collected to verify maturity and spawning readiness, and to determine age distributions of mature males and females. Spawning abundance was estimated and post-spawning migration timing was identified. Otoliths were analyzed optically to determine age and chemically to determine amphidromy. Maturity sampling indicated that all sampled fish were in spawning condition or had recently spawned. Abundance estimates were 2,079 and 3,531 inconnu in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Post-spawning downstream migration timing was nearly identical between years, with the majority of fish moving downstream between September 30 and October 9. In both years, migrating inconnu displayed a nocturnal migration pattern, with 96% migrating between 10:00 pm and 9:00 am hours daily. Age estimates ranged between 6 and 26 years. Chemical analysis indicated that some Sulukna River inconnu were amphidromous, making migrations of over 1,300 km to the sea. This information indicates that the Sulukna River spawning population of inconnu has a large and variable abundance, in which amphidromy is facultative.
    • Characterizing glucocorticoid levels in five species of sea ducks occurring in Alaska

      Nilsson, Peter B. (2004-12)
      Stress hormone analysis, used in conjunction with other physiological parameters, may help identify factors affecting sea duck populations in their natural environment. Corticosterone, the primary 'stress hormone' in birds, is secreted in response to a stressor and enhances an individual's chance of survival by inducing physiological and behavioral changes. Establishing a valid method for evaluating stress hormone levels in sea ducks and gaining basic information on baseline concentrations and stress response in these birds are important first steps to identify factors that may negatively affect sea duck populations. This study validated a radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedure to measure corticosterone concentrations in harlequin duck serum and feces and in Steller's, spectacled, common, and king eider serum. Other objectives included characterization of baseline corticosterone concentrations, investigation of stress response, and the relationship between corticosterone and other variables in captive and wild sea ducks. The results indicate that fecal samples can be used to non-invasively measure corticosterone in harlequin ducks. Captive birds exhibited overall lower baseline levels of corticosterone than wild birds. The stress response observed in harlequin ducks was similar to other avian species. Rapid post-capture blood sampling is critical for evaluation of baseline corticosterone levels.
    • Characterizing the diet and population structure of lampreys Lethenteron spp. using molecular techniques

      Shink, Katie G.; López, Andrés; Murphy, James M. (2017-08)
      Lampreys contribute to the health of aquatic ecosystems and are targeted in both subsistence and commercial fisheries. Despite their ecological and commercial importance, the management and conservation of native lampreys have been largely overlooked. The goal of this study was to close current knowledge gaps of lamprey biology through the examination of Lethenteron spp. in Alaska. This study applied two molecular techniques, DNA metabarcoding and microsatellite genotyping, to (1) characterize the diet of marine-phase Arctic lamprey Lethenteron camtschaticum (N = 250) in the eastern Bering Sea and (2) investigate the population structure of larval lampreys Lethenteron spp. (N = 120) within and among three Yukon River tributaries. A combination of visual observations and DNA metabarcoding revealed the presence of diagnostic structures/tissues (i.e., eggs, fin[s], internal organs, otoliths, and vertebrae) and detected DNA sequences of ten ray-finned fishes in the diets of L. camtschaticum. The most frequent prey taxa were Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, Pacific herring Clupea pallasii, gadids, and capelin Mallotus villosus. Five of the ten taxa identified in this study were reported for the first time as prey for L. camtschaticum. To investigate the genetic diversity of larval lampreys, a recognized knowledge gap for populations in Alaska, a total of 81 larval lampreys were successfully genotyped at all loci. Global FST of larvae was 0.074 (95% CI: 0.042 - 0.110), while pairwise FST values among the three localities examined ranged from 0.066 - 0.081. Hierarchical model-based Bayesian clustering analyses detected three genetic clusters (K = 3) among all larval lampreys and two genetic clusters (K = 2) among Chena River larvae; no further genetic clustering was identified within the remaining two tributaries. Estimates of contemporary gene flow indicated reciprocal migration among sites. The diet analyses indicated anadromous L. camtschaticum function as flesh-feeding predators that prey upon pelagic fishes in the eastern Bering Sea, while genetic analyses suggested that larval lamprey aggregations within three Yukon River tributaries exhibited higher levels of genetic diversity than are typically found among broad-ranging populations of anadromous lamprey species. Ultimately, this study highlighted the value of molecular techniques to improve our understanding of the biology of a poorly studied fish species in Alaska.
    • Characterizing the fish community in turbid Alaskan rivers to assess potential interactions with hydrokinetic devices

      Bradley, Parker T.; Seitz, Andrew; Sutton, Trent; McPhee, Megan; Burr, John (2012-12)
      The Yukon and Tanana rivers are two large, glacially turbid rivers in Alaska, where hydrokinetic projects are being explored for feasibility of electricity production. Downstream migration behavior of fishes in these rivers is poorly understood; as a result, the potential impacts of hydrokinetic devices, which will be placed in the deepest and fastest part of the river, on fishes are unknown. Downstream migrating fishes were sampled during the ice-free season along the river margins of the Yukon River in 2010 and the river margins and mid-channel of the Tanana River in 2011. Results suggest that the river margins in the Yukon and Tanana rivers are primarily utilized by resident freshwater species, the mid-channel is utilized by Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) smolts, and only chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) smolts utilize both of these areas. Some species exhibited distinct peaks and trends in downstream migration timing including longnose suckers (Catostomus catostomus), whitefishes (Coregonine), Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus), lake chub (Couesius plumbeus), Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), and chum salmon. As a result of these fishes' downstream migration behavior, hydrokinetic devices installed in surface waters of the middle of the river channel will have the most potential interactions with Pacific salmon smolts during their downstream migration to the ocean from May through July.
    • Chemosensory responses and foraging behavior of Pycnopodia helianthoides: predator or scavenger?

      Brewer, Reid; Norcross, Brenda; Highsmith, Raymond; Iken, Katrin (2003-08)
      Chemical cues released by damaged or dead organisms can affect how and where benthic scavengers feed, whether damage or mortality is natural or fishery-related. These cues may also cause predators to act as facultative scavengers. Experiments were performed to determine the role that the seastar Pycnopodia helianthoides plays in the presence of scavengable prey. The results of these experiments suggest that P. helianthoides preferentially scavenge in lieu of its normal predatory role. When given a choice, P. helianthoides choose damaged or decaying food over live prey even when live prey is encountered en route to the damaged animal. The densities and activities of P. helianthoides were compared between areas where food was continually introduced and areas where food was not introduced. Adding scavengable food to areas with P. helianthoides caused a spatial redistribution of the seastar population, a change in the foraging dynamics of the seastars, and in some cases, a change in the densities of the prey that P. helianthoides normally consume. The effects of introducing food appeared to result in a change in the role that P. helianthoides plays in the benthic community. This change in modes could have significant effects on the equilibrium of the benthic community.
    • Circulation and dynamics on the Northeastern Chukchi Sea Shelf

      Fang, Ying-Chih; Weingartner, Thomas J.; Winsor, Peter; Kowalik, Zygmunt; McDonnell, Andrew; Williams, William J. (2017-12)
      The circulation on the northeastern Chukchi Sea shelf is controlled by the poleward pressure gradient between the Pacific and Arctic Oceans. Local winds modulate the upper ocean and can rapidly alter the flow field. Present understanding of the circulation is largely based on subsurface measurements, but the response of near-surface currents to the slowly-varying secular pressure gradient and rapidly-varying local winds has not been addressed. I analyzed surface current data, extending more ~150 km offshore in the northeastern Chukchi Sea, collected from shore-based high-frequency radar systems (HFR) during the open water season. I find three wind-induced circulation regimes. Two of these are related to strong northeasterly winds when wind speeds approach or exceed 6 m s⁻¹ and the third results from infrequent northwesterly winds at >~6 m s⁻¹ . I find two dynamically different regions separated along ~71.5°N associated with hydrographic changes. North of 71.5°N the water column is strongly stratified due to cold and dilute ice meltwaters, whereas the water column to the south is much less stratified. These differences are reflected in the current response to the winds. I also adapted and refined an HFR data processing technique and developed an economical way to assess HFR-derived data quality, which is beneficial when using HFR data collected from networks having suboptimal coverage. I investigated the poorly understood circulation around Hanna Shoal. North of the Shoal there is a zonal gradient in the thermohaline and flow fields. The eastern side of the Shoal is strongly stratified year-round and vertically sheared unlike the western side, where the flow is steadily northeastward over the water column. Dense bottom waters flow clockwise around Hanna Shoal, but zonal convergence is implied in the upper water column north of the Shoal. The circulation is influenced by the distribution of late summer sea ice and by clockwise-propagating topographic waves.
    • Climate, embryonic development, and potential for adaptation to warming water temperatures by Bristol Bay sockeye salmon

      Sparks, Morgan McKenzie; Falke, Jeffrey; Westley, Peter; Adkison, Milo; Quinn, Thomas (2016-08)
      Rapidly warming water temperatures associated with climate change represent a substantial disturbance to the habitat of aquatic ectothermic organisms. For salmonid fishes (family Salmonidae), early life history survival and timing of reproduction and development are closely tied to temperature, such that altered thermal regimes could alter patterns of survival or shift phenology into a mismatch with the environment. Because temperature is the dominant driver of developmental rates, empirical statistical models have been developed to predict the timing of hatching and fry emergence based on incubation temperature. In this thesis I explored how the timing of hatching and emergence may shift in response to warming temperatures and how spawning timing across an Alaskan landscape is shaped by incubation temperatures experienced by sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) embryos and alevin. Additionally, I quantified the relative roles of genetics and environmentally induced plasticity on the timing of hatching in two populations of sockeye salmon from the Iliamna Lake system, Alaska by rearing them in common garden conditions in the laboratory. To meet these goals I reformulated a widely cited developmental model to incorporate variability in natural regimes and use it to predict hatching timing over the course of the spawning duration for 25 populations of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon. Additionally, I hind- and forecasted lake temperature based off historical and predicted air temperatures to estimate and predict hatching for a single population. I found that predicted hatching timing for wild populations varied between 58 and 260 days, and was largely variable as a result of habitat thermal heterogeneity and parental spawn time. I also predicted a three-week decrease in hatching timing over the course of the next century for a single beach spawning population, which was just beyond historic variability. Counter to expectations, for a subset of populations hatching and emergence timing variability exceeded that of spawning timing, indicating the relationship between spawning timing and incubation temperature may be weaker than expected. The results of the common garden experiment revealed indistinguishable differences between populations in hatching timing across five temperature scenarios, but strong plasticity as timing differed between 74 and 189 days in the warmest to coolest treatment. Furthermore, I detected family-specific differences in hatching timing both within and among treatments consistent with heritable developmental rates and gene by environment interactions in days to hatch, where the interaction between treatment and family was as high as 10 days difference in hatching. Population or family-specific survival in this experiment did not differ in response to temperature suggesting a lack of thermal adaptation in this regard during this life stage in these populations. Alevin mass and length upon hatching varied little among treatments (<10%), but did significantly decrease with cooling temperatures. Taken as a whole this study indicates that the effects of climate change during the early life history stages may be buffered by phenotypic plasticity and variability in populations and habitats will be important for maintaining diversity in the face of climate change.
    • Commercial fishing livelihoods, permit loss, and the next generation in Bristol Bay, Alaska

      Coleman, Jesse M.; Carothers, Courtney; Donkersloot, Rachel; Adkison, Milo; Greenberg, Joshua (2019-08)
      Fishing people across the globe have experienced a fundamental restructuring of their livelihoods, communities, and economies as the result of shifts to rights-based fisheries management in the past halfcentury. The ideological underpinnings of this movement are based in neoliberalism, which is a belief system that values individualism, competition, private property, and governance by the free market. I examine some of the long-term and latent effects of this and other significant historical transitions in the fishery-dependent Bristol Bay region of Alaska. Relationships between humans and salmon in Bristol Bay evolved over thousands of years and inform the way that many fishing livelihoods are pursued today. In addition to these foundational relationships, many significant changes have occurred that have shocked and stressed the livelihood "fabric" woven many interlocking threads (i.e., the sociocultural, economic, knowledge/skill, political, natural, physical building blocks needed to construct a fishing livelihood in the region). Informed by literature review and ethnography, I describe in detail four such changes: colonization of Bristol Bay's Indigenous peoples, industrialization of the commercial fishery, implementation of a rights-based access regime (i.e., limited entry permit program), and the sockeye salmon price crash of the early 2000s. These effects linger today and raise questions for the future of the Bay and its fisheries, with respect to two particular issues: the uncertainty around the next generation of fishermen, and the severe loss of locally held permits in the Bay. To address the former, I conducted a survey of local students to measure their perceptions of the fishing industry and of community life. The results of this survey suggest that familial fishing ties, experience in the fishery, subsistence fishing activity, and household economic dependence on commercial fishing income are strong predictors of a student's desire to be engaged in commercial fishing as an adult. I examine the second issue--the loss of locally held fishing rights since the implementation of limited entry--through the combined analysis of qualitative ethnographic data and quantitative data on commercial fishery permit holdings, subsistence activity, permit holder age, and new entry trends by community and residence category. The immense loss of limited entry permits continues to challenge livelihoods because access to local fisheries is the foundation of not only the region's economy, but also of the shared identity, history, and culture of local people, family and social networks, and the mechanism by which fishing knowledge, skills, values, and ethics are transferred to the next generation. I suggest that policymakers and fishery managers dispense with neoliberal panaceas, and design fisheries policies that reflect the multiplicity of worldviews held by the policy's target populations by diversifying their own means and methods for understanding fishery systems.
    • Comparing the nutritional quality of Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) diets

      Bando, Monica Kaho Herkules (2002-12)
      Though the primary cause(s) of the Steller sea lion decline remains unknown, one hypothesis is nutritional stress, possibly the result of climatic regime shifts reducing prey availability and/or quality. Researchers at the Alaska SeaLife Center formulated three feeding regimes representative of Steller sea lion diets: prior to and during their population decline and from a stable population. The purpose of this project was to compare the nutritional quality of these diets using proximate composition and bomb calorimetry. The pre-decline and stable diets are composed of more high-fat prey, like herring, with resulting energy densities being significantly higher than the decline diet, comprising more low-fat prey, like octopus. Assumining the feeding regimes analyzed represent Steller sea lion diets prior to and during their population decline and in stable populations, results from this study are consistent with the possibility that nutritional stress is a cause of the Steller sea lion decline.
    • Comparing the Performance of Two Commercial Salmon Management Strategies Using Run Reconstruction and Model Simulations

      Carney, Justin Monroe; Adkison, Milo; Baker, Tim.; McPhee, Megan; Quinn, Terrance II (2013-05)
      Two commercial salmon management strategies currently being used in Alaska are management by emergency order opening ("active management") and, to the extent practical, a fixed fishing schedule. Active management is more expensive than a fixed fishing schedule. The objective of this thesis is to compare the performance of the two management strategies on the Egegik and Togiak fisheries in Bristol Bay, Alaska. To accomplish this, we reconstructed the sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) runs to Egegik and Togiak and then simulated the management strategies on each fishery. Active management resulted in higher yearly catches, a higher percentage of the run caught, less yearly variation in escapement, and less years of escapement below the goal range. A fixed fishing schedule resulted in less yearly variation in catch and a more even harvest rate. Potential benefits of active management are that maximum sustained yield is more likely to be achieved, under escapement is less likely, and the productive capacity of the fishery is better protected. Potential benefits of a fixed fishing schedule are lower management costs, better maintenance of the genetic and phenotypic diversity and sex ratio, and more predictability for fishermen and processors.
    • A comparison of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in two climate regimes in the north Pacific Ocean using stable carbon and nitrogren isotope ratios

      Satterfield, Franklin Robert (2000-12)
      This study explores how the climate shift in the late 1970's impacted sockeye salmon feeding. Stable isotope ratios (¹³C and ¹⁵N) of recent muscle and scale tissues from five mature salmon species are highly correlated (R²=0.96 and 0.91, respectively), validating the use of archived scales for retrospective analysis. These data suggest a trophic separation by species with chinook occupying the highest level, followed by coho with some degree of overlap among sockeye, pink and chum at the lowest level. Archived scales from four different sockeye stocks from Kodiak Island and Southeast region were analyzed over the last 34 years to investigate changes relative to the 1976-1977 Climate Regime Shift. Most stocks show no statistical differences before and after the regime shift in either isotope. Despite recorded differences in sockeye abundance and size between these two regimes, these data suggest only minor changes in prey items.