• Energetics of arctic Alaskan fishes: carbon isotope evidence

      Ziemann, Paul J. (1986-12)
      The natural abundance of carbon isotopes were used to investigate the energy requirements of arctic aquatic consumer organisms. A mathematical model was developed that describes the relationship between the rate of consumer isotope turnover rates of growth and metabolism, and the utility of the model for calculating energy requirements from seasonal changes in consumer isotopic composition was demonstrated in laboratory experiments and with field data. The energy requirements of anadromous fishes, which were the major consumers studied, could not be determined using the isotopic data. Instead, the requirements were calculated using biochemical data and rates of growth and oxygen consumption, and were about 2.6-6.0 kcal day⁻¹ in the summer and 0.4-1.2 kcal day⁻¹ in the winter. Seasonal changes in lipid and protein contents indicate that anadromous fishes cannot find enough food during the winter to supply their energy requirements, and that about 50% of the energy needed comes from the metabolism of tissues accumulated during the summer. The relative importances of marine and freshwater food webs in supplying the energy requirements were determined by comparing the seasonal isotopic components of anadromous fishes to the isotopic compositions of fish that are permanent residents in each environment. It appears that anadromous fishes that overwinter in the Coleville River (the largest river on the Alaska North Slope) depend almost entirely on the marine environment for their energy, whereas those that overwinter in Canada's Mackenzie River rely on both marine and freshwater habitats.
    • Intertidal community development along a distance/age gradient in a tidewater glacial fjord

      Sharman, Lewis Crook (1987-12)
      Glacier Bay has recently undergone rapid deglaciation, exposing new substrates to colonization and biological development. There is a clearly defined increase in marine intertidal community development with substrate age (0-200 y) and distance (0-90 km) from present-day locations of tidewater glacier termini. The objectives of this research were (1) to describe length-of-fjord patterns of intertidal community composition and corresponding gradients of the near-surface marine physical environment and (2) to use this approach to evaluate the relative contributions of substrate age and physical factors to determining the degree of community development. Distance and age were almost perfectly correlated. Intertidal species richness increased linearly with distance/age. Environmental factors can be grouped into those that also varied linearly along this gradient, and those that varied exponentially. Distance from the glaciers and the other linearly correlated marine environmental factors of water temperature, salinity, and suspended particulate nitrogen factors are probably the most important determinants of intertidal community development.
    • The carbon cycle in an anoxic marine sediment: Concentrations, rates, isotope ratios, and diagenetic models

      Alperin, Marc Jon; Reeburgh, W. S. (1988)
      The carbon cycle in the anoxic sediments of Skan Bay, Alaska, was investigated in order to better understand the processes that control biogeochemical transformations in an organic-rich sediment environment. Depth distributions of concentration and $\delta\sp{13}$C were determined for five major carbon reservoirs: methane (CH$\sb4$), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), and particulate organic carbon (POC). In addition, methane oxidation and sulfate reduction rates were measured under quasi-in situ conditions using radio-tracer techniques. Diagenetic models were applied to concentration, reaction rate, and isotope ratio depth distributions and the results were integrated into a comprehensive, depth-dependent model of the Skan Bay carbon cycle that considered advective, diffusive, and biological and chemical reactive fluxes for the five major carbon reservoirs. The Skan Bay carbon cycle is fuelled by POC, which is deposited at the sediment surface at a rate of 2290 $\pm$ 480 umol $\cdot$ cm$\sp{-2}$ $\cdot$ yr$\sp{-1}$. Isotope mass-balance calculations indicate that about 60% of this material is derived from kelp while the remainder originates as phytoplankton. About 60% of the organic matter is consumed in the upper 40 cm of the sediment column. The $\delta\sp{13}$C-POC and $\delta\sp{13}$C-DOC depth distributions suggest that the material derived from kelp is more labile, accounting for greater than 60% of the total POC consumption. The products of anaerobic metabolism of POC accumulate in the DOC reservoir creating a large DOC concentration gradient at the sediment-water interface. Flux and stable carbon isotope mass-balance calculations suggest that a sizable portion (30 to 80%) of the DOC produced by degradation of POC diffuses from the sediment prior to oxidation to dissolved inorganic carbon. Methane production appears to occur primarily at depths greater than 40 cm. The CH$\sb4$ diffuses upward and is almost quantitatively oxidized to DIC in a narrow subsurface zone. Methane oxidation accounts for only 20% of the DIC production, but exerts a profound influence on the $\delta\sp{13}$C-DIC profile, contributing to the distinct mid-depth minimum. Pore waters are supersaturated with respect to calcite at depths greater than 10 cm, but isotope mass-balance considerations indicate that carbonate mineral formation is not occurring in these sediments.
    • The influence of rookery terrain on population structure, territorial behavior, and breeding success of Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska

      Smith, Louise N. (1988-05)
      The effect of rookery terrain on population structure, territorial behavior and breeding success of Steller sea lions was assessed at two rookeries, in the northern Gulf of Alaska. The sea lions using Sugar loaf and Marmot Islands differed in age structure, juveniles being absent from Sugar loaf but present on Marmot during the breeding season. Territory boundaries of breeding bulls on Sugarloaf were stable, and were unaffected by tides. Territory boundaries on Marmot were unstable, shifting with the tide. Territorial bulls occupied two types of territories on Sugarloaf Island (landlocked and water-access) and three types on Marmot (landlocked, tidal and semiaquatic). The behavior of territorial bulls on Marmot was influenced by tides and presence of juvenile animals. These factors were not important on Sugarloaf. The breeding success of territorial bulls was unaffected by location of territory on Sugarloaf. Territory location was important in the breeding success of Marmot Island bulls.
    • Effects of elevated sediment levels from placer mining on survival and behavior of immature arctic grayling

      Scannell, Patrick O. (1988-12)
      The effect of placer mining effluents on Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) fingerling and egg survival was tested in mined and unmined streams in interior Alaska. Also the influence of turbidity on Arctic grayling reactive distance and avoidance behavior was tested in a laboratory choice chamber. Arctic grayling fingerlings suffered less than 1% mortality during a 96-hr toxicity test in both clear (mean NTU = 1.4) and mined (mean NTU = 445) streams. Arctic grayling eggs did not show significantly (p > 0.1) higher mortality in mined streams than in unmined streams. In a laboratory choice chamber test, Arctic grayling avoided water with a turbidity above 20 NTU (nephelometric turbidity units). Arctic grayling reactive distance diminished proportional to the natural logarithm of turbidity.
    • Thyroid hormone binding to brain nuclear extracts during smoltification in coho salmon

      Cheek, L. Michael (1991)
      Salmon complete a metamorphosis called smoltification prior to entering salt water. Increased thyroid activity, olfactory imprinting, and chemical and structural changes in the brain are known to occur at this time. This study was undertaken to determine if triiodothyronine (T$\sb3$) binding to brain nuclear extracts changes during smoltification. During this investigation serum thyroxine (T$\sb4$) concentrations increased three fold during smoltification coincident with changes in coloration and morphology and surged again during downstream migration to six times presmolt concentrations. Using ultrafiltration assays, homologous displacement experiments of KCl extracts of recovered brain cell nuclei indicated that maximal binding capacity increased during smoltification and down-stream migration. The increase in receptor concentration lagged the increase in serum thyroxine by one week. Dissociation constants increased during smolt transformation but declined abruptly during down-stream migration. However, dissociation constants did not change during smoltification if nuclear extracts had been previously incubated at room temperature to remove endogenous ligand. Dissociation rate increased significantly, coincident with the increase in receptor concentration measured by homologous displacement. The maximal probable percent occupancy of available receptors increased from 60% before to greater than 95% during the smolt transformation climax. These results provide evidence that thyroid hormone receptors participate in brain development and olfactory imprinting in smolting salmon.
    • Seabirds at sea in relation to oceanography

      Day, Robert Hugh (1992)
      This study investigated the macroscale distribution of seabirds in relation to oceanography in a neritic environment characterized by well-defined water masses (the northern Bering Sea) and an oceanic environment characterized by weaker differences between water masses (the northern North Pacific Ocean). In the northern Bering Sea, the total density (birds/km$\sp2)$ of all seabirds combined and densities and/or frequencies of occurrence of seven of nine species of seabirds that exhibited significant differences among water masses showed the strongest attraction to Anadyr Water. In general, attractions were second highest in Bering Shelf Water, third highest in Two-layered Water (Alaska Coastal Water overlying Bering Shelf Water), and lowest in Alaska Coastal Water. This pattern of seabird distributions reflected distributions of zooplankton biomass, which were highest in Anadyr Water and consisted of species that were large enough to be eaten directly by seabirds. Further, whereas copepods in Bering Shelf Water also are large, they are much smaller in Alaska Coastal Water and, thus, must pass through more trophic levels to fishes before the energy is directly accessible to seabirds. Consequently, zooplankton-based food webs dominated in Anadyr and Bering Shelf waters and fish-based food webs dominated in Two-layered and Alaska Coastal waters. In addition, seabirds concentrated near a strong, mesoscale thermal front between Bering Shelf and Alaska Coastal waters. In the northern North Pacific, assemblages of seabirds exhibited three main groupings, a "subarctic assemblage," a "transitional assemblage," and a "'subtropical/tropical assemblage." These assemblages matched those for zooplankton, squids, and fishes in the same vicinity, suggesting that there are geographically- and temporally-stable biological communities in the North Pacific that are associated with well-defined, persistent physical environments. The total density of all seabirds combined and densities and/or frequencies of occurrence of 13 of 16 species of seabirds that exhibited significant two-way ANOVAs exhibited primarily a water mass effect; only one species exhibited primarily a year effect, and two exhibited primarily an interaction (i.e., a change in habitat use between years).
    • Natural abundance of nitrogen(15) in a subarctic lake and biogeochemical implications to nitrogen cycling

      Gu, Binhe (1993)
      Stable isotope ratios of nitrogen ($\delta\sp{15}$N) were employed to track the origin and fate of nitrogen in a subarctic lake, Alaska. The annual planktonic nitrogen cycle was dominated by N$\sb2$ fixation in spring and NH$\sb4\sp+$ assimilation in summer. In winter, microbial nitrification was the major sink for NH$\sb4\sp+$ and denitrification was accounted for most of the loss of NO$\sb3\sp-.$ The small isotope fractionation in nitrification is proposed as a result of substrate (NH$\sb4\sp+)$ limitation. The temporal and spatial homogeneity of the $\delta\sp{15}$N of dissolved organic nitrogen may be related to its large pool size and refractory nature. A stable isotope mass balance suggests that the winter phytoplankton was only composed of 10 to 20% of the suspended organic matter in water column due to low primary productivity during the ice cover period. A close correlation between $\delta\sp{15}$N of phytoplankton and $\delta\sp{15}$N of dissolved pools indicates that NH$\sb4\sp+$ was the predominant nitrogen source for non-N$\sb2$-fixing algae. The similarity of $\delta\sp{15}$N between a spring blue-green bloom and N$\sb2$ suggests an atmospheric origin for nitrogen. A mixing model estimated that the blue-green algal bloom derived approximately 70% of its nitrogen from molecular nitrogen. This fixed nitrogen was further transferred to higher trophic levels via the food chain and to other primary producers following mineralization. The $\delta\sp{15}$N of aquatic macrophytes indicates that non-rooted species obtained their nitrogen from the water column while rooted species obtained their nitrogen largely from the sediment. Evidence from dual isotope tracers ($\delta\sp{15}$N and $\delta\sp{13}$C) suggests that the zooplankton were supported by phytoplankton throughout the growing season despite an apparent abundance of detritus in the water column. Benthic fauna relied on either phytoplankton detritus or other organic matter in the sediment. The $\delta\sp{15}$N data exhibit only two to three trophic levels in both planktonic and the benthic communities in Smith Lake.
    • The ecology of a high-latitude rocky intertidal community: Processes driving population dynamics in Kachemak Bay, Alaska

      Carroll, Michael Leslie (1994)
      The population dynamics and interactions of selected key species relative to community structure were investigated in the rocky intertidal of Kachemak Bay, southcentral Alaska (59$\sp\circ$35$\sp\prime$N, 151$\sp\circ$30$\sp\prime$W). The roles of recruitment processes and predation in regulating intertidal populations were emphasized in this investigation. Species cover was distinctly seasonal. Total cover typically exceeded 80% during the summer, especially in lower intertidal. Winter cover averaged 40-60%, with macroalgal cover varying up to six-fold between summer and winter. Barnacle recruitment varied both inter-annually and with respect to species. From 1991-1993, mean recruitment densities varied from 0.85-8.71 cm$\sp{-2}$ (range = 0-71 cm$\sp{-2}).$ In the upper intertidal, time-integrated summer recruit density of Semibalanus balanoides and Balanus glandula was 0.13 cm$\sp{-2}.$ Recruit density of S. cariosus in the low intertidal was 4.32 cm$\sp{-2}.$ In the low intertidal, recruits often saturated the surface, resulting in density-dependent mortality in two out of three years, a phenomenon which did not occur in the upper intertidal where space was never limiting. Predation was a significant source of mortality for barnacle recruits only in 1991, a poor recruitment year. However, predation by Nucella lima limited mussel (Mytilus trossulus) populations at some sites. Where N. lima density exceeded 100 m$\sp{-2},$ mussel cover was less than half that where Nucella was rare (31% vs. 72%). High densities of N. lima were estimated to remove 60-90% of mussels per season. Recruitment of the macroalga Fucus gardneri was almost 50 times greater in the presence of live barnacles than on bare rock surfaces or barnacle shells killed by heating. Recruitment in quadrats with tests of mechanically killed barnacles was intermediate. The results indicate that F. gardneri propagules are stimulated to attach by a chemical cue, probably a polypeptide, produced by barnacles. Based on population dynamics and species interactions investigated in Kachemak Bay, the mid- to low intertidal community appears to function similarly to the classical paradigm of regulation by competition and predation. The major exception is high inter-annual variability in predation relative to recruitment and competition.
    • Decomposition and adsorption of peptides in Alaskan coastal marine sediments

      Luo, Honghong (1994)
      In organic-rich coastal sediments, hydrolyzable amino acids make up a substantial fraction of the sedimentary content of organic nitrogen. How this organic nitrogen resists decomposition and is preserved in sediments is poorly understood. In order to investigate the factors controlling mineralization and preservation of hydrolyzable amino acids, decomposition and adsorption of peptides were studied in suboxic and anoxic pore water and sediments from Resurrection Bay (RB) and Skan Bay (SB), Alaska. Five tritium-labeled peptides, basic di-lysine, acidic di-glutamic acid, and neutral di-alanine, tri-alanine and hexa-alanine, were used as tracers. In filtered pore water, the hydrolysis rates were usually low. The exception was that the initial enzymatic hydrolysis of di-alanine and di-glutamic acid was rapid in SB pore water. The hydrolysis rates of both peptides increased with concentration. In sediments, hydrolysis was found to be the rate-limiting step of peptide decomposition. Alanyl and glutamyl peptides were hydrolyzed faster than lysyl peptide, and the hydrolysis rates among alanyl peptides decreased with increasing molecular weight. Peptide hydrolysis was affected more by molecular structure than by oxic or anoxic conditions. Adsorption of lysyl peptide to sediments was greater than that of other peptides. Basicity enhanced peptide adsorption more than increased molecular weight. Sedimentary organic matter was mainly responsible for peptide adsorption. The different patterns of peptide adsorption in RB and SB sediments were related to the greater total organic carbon concentration in SB sediment. Some of the peptide adsorption was irreversible. Adsorbed peptides were more resistant to biological decomposition than dissolved peptides. Adsorption may be an important step in the process of peptide preservation in sediments, and thus the preservation of sediment organic matter during early diagenesis.
    • Effects of jet boats on salmonid reproduction in Alaskan streams

      Horton, Gregg E.; Reynolds, James; Kane, Douglas; Barry, Ronald; Kavanagh, Ross (1994-09)
      Freshwater angling has increased dramatically in recent years in southwestern Alaska, and jet boat operators serve some of these anglers. Resources agencies are under pressure to regulate use of jet boats in waters that support spawning populations of salmonids, but they need more information regarding these potential effects. This thesis describes the methods and results of experiments to determine the effects of water turbulence from passing boats on embryo mortality and behavior of spawning adults. Field experiments on sockeye salmon were conducted in American Creek (in the Naknek drainage in Katmai National Park and Preserve) in 1992 and 1993. Laboratory experiments on rainbow trout were conducted at Fort Richardson Hatchery. These two species were viewed as surrogates for all species of genus Onorhynchus.
    • Application of decision analysis in the evaluation of recreational fishery management problems

      Merritt, Margaret Faye; Reynolds, James B.; Criddle, Keith R. (1995)
      Fisheries management is a decision-making process, yet typically formal decision analysis techniques are not used in structuring problems, quantifying interactions, or arriving at a prioritized solution. Decision analysis tools are applied in the decision-making process for Alaska's recreational fisheries management as a means to reduce risk in management at the policy (Chapter 2) and field (Chapter 3) levels. In Chapter 2 the analytic hierarchy process is applied to the recreational fishery for chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Kenai River. Model structure is developed through an iterative interview process involving individuals asked to represent the perspectives of 15 different stakeholders. Individual stakeholder judgments are combined using a geometric mean, and maximax and maximin criteria. The sensitivity of the results to under-representation is explored through various models. Despise the contentious differences of perspective represented among stakeholders, the analytic hierarchy process identifies management options that enjoy broad support and limited opposition. In Chapter 3 decision analysis is applied to the recreational spear fishery for humpback whitefish (Coregonus pidschian) in the Chatanika River. A modified form of catch-age analysis is used to combine information derived from creel surveys and run age composition with auxiliary information in the form of mark-recapture estimates of abundance. Four systems are used in weighting annual observations: prior beliefs regarding their reliability, by the inverses of their variances, through a combination of these two weighting schemes, and equal (no) weights. The perception-weighted model generates the most reasonable estimates of abundance, which are relatively precise and associated with small bias. Forecasts of mature exploitable abundance are calculated based on various recruitment scenarios, maturity schedules, and exploitation rates. From these outcomes, the odds of stock abundance occurring below a threshold level are presented. By applying decision analysis methodologies which incorporate judgments and perceptions into decision-making affecting fisheries, sensitivity to uncertain information is made explicit, components of the problem are structured, interactions among components of the problem are quantified, and options are prioritized, thus increasing the chances of finding an optimal solution.
    • Dynamics of a migratory fish population with applications to the management of sablefish in the Northeast Pacific Ocean

      Heifetz, Jonathan; Quinn, Terrance J. II (1996)
      Quantitative models are developed to describe the dynamics of an age-structured migratory fish population subject to exploitation. Migration rates are quantified, alternative ways of apportioning harvest among areas are examined, and the dynamics of a migratory population is described within the general theoretical framework of a projection matrix model. Application of these modeling efforts is within the context of the sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) fishery in the North Pacific Ocean. A Markov model that includes natural and fishing mortality, tag reporting and shedding rates, and migration is used to quantify migration rates of tagged sablefish among fishery regulatory areas. Estimates of annual migration rates out of an area are in the range 19-69% for small (<57 cm fork length (FL)), 25-72% for medium (57-66 cm FL), and 27-71% for large (>66 cm FL) sablefish. The predominant direction of migration along the continental slope is eastward for large sablefish and westward for small sablefish. Most estimates of migration are precise, unconfounded, and robust to perturbations of input constants. An age-structured model that includes migration is constructed to examine harvest policies for sablefish. Areal estimates of yield-per-recruit depends on the geographic distribution of recruitment. In general, when evaluated under the current annual exploitation rate of 10%, apportioning harvest among areas based on areal estimates of biomass and apportionment based on the steady-state distribution of biomass give similar results. A policy of apportionment based on a weighted moving average of areal estimates of available biomass is preferred to others. This policy adapts to current information about geographic distribution of biomass, reduces the effects of measurement error, and does not require estimates of migration probabilities for implementation. The reproduction, mortality and migration of an age-structured fish population are incorporated into a projection matrix model. The model is parameterized to include areal specificity in the stock-recruitment relationship and events such as larval dispersion that is decoupled from local reproduction. For the sablefish fishery where direction of movement is age dependent, fishing at a common rate among areas may be detrimental to the population in a given area. Area-specific fishing strategies can be devised to meet management objectives such as maintenance of areal spawning potential.
    • Effects of oil-laden sediments on behavior and growth of juvenile flatfishes

      Moles, Adam D.; Norcross, Brenda L. (1996)
      Three species of juvenile Pacific flatfishes: yellowfin sole (Pleuronectes asper), rock sole (P. bilineatus), and Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) were exposed to sediments contaminated with Alaska North Slope crude oil to determine the behavior and growth of juveniles in polluted nursery grounds. Responses were correlated with known biomarkers of toxicant exposure. In the behavior experiments, fish exhibited a strong preference for fine grained sediments ($<$500 microns) when presented with eight different sediment types ranging from mud to pebble. Juvenile yellowfin sole showed a preference for mud and mixed mud substrate, rock sole preferred sand substrates and halibut chose both mud and sand sediments. Flatfishes were able to detect and avoid heavily oiled (1400 $\mu$g/g total petroleum hydrocarbons-TPH) sediments but did not avoid sediments at oil concentrations of 400 $\mu$g/g TPH. Among yellowfin sole and rock sole, sediment preference altered behavioral response to oil whereas halibut did or did not avoid oil irrespective of sediment type. If flatfish do not avoid oil concentrations of 1600 $\mu$g/g and higher on preferred sediment, growth reductions occur. Fish reared on oiled sediment grew slower than controls on non-oiled sediments. Growth reductions in all three species were significant following 30 days of exposure to 1600-1800 $\mu$g/g TPH and became more pronounced over time. As the toxicant concentration or the length of exposure increased, growth per day decreased. By 90 days of exposure, fish exposed to 1600-1800 $\mu$g/g TPH grew 38-57% slower than controls. Halibut had the greatest change in growth rate following oil exposure. Exposure of halibut to sand laden with 4700 $\mu$g/g total hydrocarbons resulted in an 93% reduction in growth in 30 days. Condition factor was also most reduced in halibut. Changes in tissues and parasites indicated a reduction in fish health for all three species. There was an increase in fin erosion, liver lipidosis, gill hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and gill ciliate infestation combined with a decline in macrophage aggregates and gut parasites. Chronic marine oil pollution that results in hydrocarbon concentrations of 1600 $\mu$g/g in nursery sediments has the potential to reduce growth and health of juvenile flatfishes. Recruitment of juveniles to the fishery would be reduced due to increased susceptibility to predation and slower growth to maturity.
    • Underwater bioacoustic analysis of bearded seal behavior off Barrow, Alaska

      Ajmi, Amal Romona; Castellini, Michael; Kelley, John; Murphy, Edward (1996-12)
      Bearded seal vocalizations were collected incidentally during the 1993 bowhead whale census. Analysis of seal locations, calculated by triangulation of the vocalizations, provided information on seal swim velocity, distribution, and movement. Swim speeds fell within previously documented values. Seal positions, when correlated with satellite images, suggested that seal distribution was directly associated with ice topography. Individually tracked seals exhibited different types of movements including: maintenance of position, rapid increase in speed and slower, prolonged directional travel. Swim speeds, distributions, and movements suggest distinct behaviors which may include foraging, territorial or female defense, or display. Movement and behaviors may alter as ice conditions change throughout the breeding season. Bioacoustics, when coupled with other research methods, is a useful tool in the study of the behavior of less accessible animals.
    • Assessment of the benthic environment following offshore placer gold mining in Norton Sound, northeastern Bering Sea

      Jewett, Stephen Carl; Smith, Ronald L. (1997)
      The effects of placer gold mining on the benthic environment of Norton Sound in the northeastern Bering Sea were assessed. Research focused on red king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus, a species with commercial and subsistence importance in the Sound and seasonal occurrence in the mining area. The study addressed mining effects on: (1) benthic macroinvertebrates, many serving as food for this crab, (2) crab relative abundance, distribution, and food, and (3) heavy metal concentrations in crabs. Mining on variable substrates in $<$20 m water depths occurred between 1986-90 during ice-free months when crabs were further offshore. Sampling nearly a year subsequent to mining revealed moderate substrate alteration. Benthic community parameters and abundance of numerically predominant families (e.g., owenid, spionid, and capitellid polychaetes and echinarachniid sand dollars) were reduced in mined areas. Many reduced taxa are known crab prey. Although young individuals of opportunistic taxa predominated, taxa were generally smaller at mined areas. Multi-year surveys of a once-mined area showed continued smoothing of bottom relief. Ordination of taxon abundance from mined (1 yr after mining), recolonizing (2-7 yrs after mining), and unmined stations reflected decreasing station disturbance. At least four years were required for benthos to recover from mining. Mining had a negligible effect on crabs. Crab catches, size, sex, and most prey groups in stomachs were similar between mined and unmined areas. Concentrations of eight heavy metals in muscle and hepatopancreas tissues were generally not different in mined areas. Furthermore, these metals were not different in sediments upcurrent and downcurrent of mining. Concentrations of most metals in tissues showed no temporal trend. Elemental concentrations in muscle tissues were below or within the range of concentrations in red king crabs from other North Pacific locations. Most metals from Norton Sound crabs were well below federal guidance levels for human consumption. Effects from mining were apparent for benthic macrofauna with virtually no effects observed for king crabs. Absence of any demonstrable effects of mining on this crab is primarily a result of the high natural dynamics of the Sound and opportunistic feeding behavior and high mobility of the crab.
    • Estimation of abundance and mortality of emigrating chum salmon and chinook salmon in the Chena River, Alaska

      Peterson, Brent David (1997-05)
      During May-June, 1995 and 1996, the outmigration of juvenile chum salmon (Oncorkynchus keta) and chinook salmon (O. tschazvytscha) was sampled with floating traps in the area of the Chena River Lakes Flood Control Project, Chena River, Alaska. Catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) was higher at night than day for chinook juveniles, but not for chum juveniles. CPUE of both species decreased as the season progressed, but usually increased during higher-discharge events. CPUE is standardized by time; discharge was monitored as a covariate but was not included in CPUE calculations. The Jolly-Seber family of models was used on recapture data of fin-dipped fish to obtain estimates of abundance and survival in 1996. Abundance estimates were 266,104 chum salmon (95% Cl 128,031 - 404,177) and 171,952 chinook salmon (95% Cl 146,342 - 197,561) during the May-June outmigration period. These abundance estimates are probably underestimates of the entire Chena River population. Survival estimates were 0.135 (95% Cl 0.042 - 0.228) for chum salmon and 0.713 (95% Cl 0.492 - 0.935) for chinook salmon over the same period.