• Suggestions to Pioneer Farmers in Alaska

      Georgeson, C. C. (Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1902)
      A study of the agricultural resources and capabilities of Alaska was begun under authority of Congress in 1898. Results of the earlier preliminary surveys seemed to justify the continuation and extension of the work and its establishment on a more definite and permanent basis. This has been carried out by the organization of a system of stations for observation and experiment at different points in the Territory which seem best adapted to the purposes in view. Stations have now been established at Sitka (the headquarters), Kenai, and Rampart on the Yukon. Five reports giving the results of the agricultural investigations in Alaska have been issued as Congressional documents and bulletins of the Office of Experiment Stations, U. S. Department of Agriculture. Those who have received these reports and who have noted the letters which are published in them from settlers in nearly all parts of the territory south of the Arctic Circle can doubt no longer that Alaska has agricultural possibilities. These letters bear testimony that hardy vegetables have been grown with marked success almost everywhere in Alaska where they have been tried, and that, likewise, early maturing grains have been grown successfully in many places (Pls. I and II). Potatoes, cauliflower, cabbage, kale, peas, lettuce, turnips, ruta-bagas, and radishes have been grown at nearly every white settlement in the coast region and in many places in the interior (Pls. Ill and IV). Early maturing varieties of barley, oats, and spring wheat have yielded well at Dawson, in the Yukon territory, and at Eagle, Alaska, near the Canadian boundary. At Rampart, on the sixty-fifth parallel, a station was established by the Department of Agriculture in the summer of 1900. Winter rye seeded there in August of that year lived through the winter under a good covering of snow; although the temperature fell to 70 degrees below zero, it came out in the spring in perfect condition and matured grain by the 1st of August, 1901. Barley seeded at this station in May was ripe by the middle of August. At the headquarters station, at Sitka, spring wheat has matured with good results for three years past, and barley and oats have been grown there for four years. These grains have likewise been grown successfully at the experiment station at Kenai, on Kenai Peninsula. Barley, oats, and wheat have prospered well at Copper Center, in the Copper River country, and oats have been grown to maturity on Steele Creek, a tributary of the Fortymile, in latitude 64°. Oats and barley have been matured at Skagway; Killisnoo, on the coast, and at Selkirk, on the Upper Yukon. The reports referred to give data from many other parts of the Territory which are proof that it is possible to farm successfully in Alaska if one understands the conditions and proceeds in his methods of work in accordance with the teachings of experience in Alaska. The pioneer who comes to Alaska to farm often finds that it is not safe to follow the customs with which he is familiar in regions farther south. The season is shorter than it is in the States and he must, in order to insure success, select early maturing varieties of both vegetables and grains. In the coast region the climate is wet and the soil is often water-logged, making drainage necessary in many places; Again, the pioneer soon learns that new soil, which contains more or less vegetable matter, does not yield satisfactory crops until it has been cultivated for two or three years. When he sows good seed on what appears to be rich soil, and the crop makes only an indifferent growth, he is apt to blame the climate for the result, when, as a matter of fact, the partial failure is due, in most cases, to the condition of the soil and not to the climate. These peculiarities in Alaska should be well understood at the outset, and it is chiefly to point out the causes of failure to those who have had little or no experience in Alaska, and to call attention to practical methods of doing the work, that these suggestions are offered.
    • Vegetable growing in Alaska

      Georgeson, C. C. (Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1905)
      In this bulletin an attempt is made to present in an assimilated form what experiments and experience have taught as the best practice for vegetable growing in Alaska. It is of course understood that it is utterly impossible to give directions which can be followed in all places and under all circumstances. The Territory of Alaska is so extensive and the climatic conditions so variable that a practice which may be highly satisfactory in one section or in a given locality may result in total failure in others. Indeed, it is not infrequently the case that a practice which is successful in any given locality one year may result in failure the next year. This is the case, for instance, when the season is very wet one year and dry the next. In a wet season it is quite often desirable to raise the seed beds 4 to 6 inches by shoveling out the paths between them, but this practice is not a success in a dry season. It is therefore possible to give only general directions in a bulletin which is intended to be of use in the whole Territory. There are two factors which modify the practice in Alaska as compared with farming and gardening elsewhere; and these are (1) the climate, and (2) the soil. The Alaska climate has a reputation for rigor and inclemency on which it is not necessary to comment here. This fact is accepted as a matter of course. The fact that the soil differs in many respects from soil in more temperate latitudes is perhaps not so well understood. Such is, nevertheless, the case, and before one can work it successfully he must learn, either from his own experience or the experience of others, in what respects it differs from soil in lower latitudes.
    • Haymaking at Kenai Experiment Station

      Ross, P. H. (Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1907)
      During the haymaking season the weather along the Alaskan coast is generally so unfavorable, with prolonged intervals of rain, a sun whose beams are daily growing weaker, and shortening hours of work, that the statement has often been made that the curing of hay in Alaska is impossible. A study of the weather record seems to confirm this statement. There are three conditions, however, applicable to the Cook Inlet region (and it is believed the first two at least will apply to the whole coast region) that tend to simplify the task of hay curing. First. The manner of precipitation. The rains are never dashing, but fall for the most part in a gentle drizzle. Owing to this, an ordinary cock of hay will withstand a long siege of rainy weather without becoming wet except for a distance of 3 or 4 inches from the surface. Second. The low temperature, which allows green or damp hay to remain in the cock for several days without heating or molding. Third. The southwest winds. The winds are always dry, of high velocity, and blow continuously night and day for three or four days at a time, thereby preventing dew and frost. These winds are more effective than the sun as a drying agent at this time of year. As a clear sky is almost without exception contemporary with a southwest blow, the value of these winds in haying time can be appreciated. Since the inauguration of the work at this station in 1899 the stock belonging to the station have been fed nothing but native feed. This has consisted almost exclusively of hay, and enough of it has always been cured to winter the stock comfortably. During the last two years the station has had about 25 acres under cultivation, and the bulk of this has been given over to growing grain hay. Special attention has been paid to hay curing during this time, and the following notes and deductions therefrom are written in the belief that they will be of practical value to the Alaska pioneer.
    • Production of improved hardy strawberries for Alaska

      Georgeson, C. C. (Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1923-10)
      Alaska is a vast country of very diverse physiographic configuration, lying between latitudes 54° 40' and 71° 20' N. and longitudes 130° W. and 172° E., and covering an area of 580,000 square miles. It has two climatic belts, that skirting the Pacific Ocean along the coast region, and that of the interior. The climatic differences in these two belts are due to the grouping of mountain ranges. In the coast region the winters are comparatively mild, the summers are cool, the temperature ranging between 50° and 70° F., and in some places rising to 80° F., and the precipitation, averaging from 40 to 160 inches a year in different places, is conducive to a luxuriant vegetation. Southeastern Alaska, which is an extension of the coast range, is a rough, mountainous section valued for its minerals and its timber. There are only few areas of real farming land in this section, but there are, nevertheless, small tracts of land in valleys, bays, coves, and inlets which are suitable for farming on a small scale and especially for gardening. In the interior, a vast area lying north of the Coast Range Mountains, the winters are severe, the temperature occasionally falling to 65° below zero, the summers are short and uncomfortably warm, the temperature at Rampart frequently reaching 96° F., and the rainfall (including melted snow) is light, averaging between 9 inches in the Copper River Valley and 14 inches in the Tanana Valley in normal years. The growth of vegetation in the interior is not so luxuriant, but more nearly approaches that of the normal in the States. In the interior are many valleys which again differ from each other in climatic conditions. Such are the conditions that confront farmers and gardeners in Alaska. The common tree fruits, such as the apple, pear, plum, and cherry, have not as yet given much promise of success. Doubtless in time there will be developed by hybridization varieties which will be adapted to these climatic peculiarities. In favorable years some apples and cherries reach maturity, but ordinarily the summers in the coast region are not warm enough to mature these fruits. In the interior the summers are not long enough to mature fruits, and the trees freeze down to the snow line in winter. Although Alaska is not as yet adapted to fruit growing in a general way, it is adapted to small fruit growing—that is, to bush fruits. Red currants and raspberries are indigenous in Alaska and grow wild in abundance up to and beyond the Arctic Circle.
    • Eradication of tuberculosis in cattle at the Kodiak Experiment Station

      Georgeson, C. C.; White, W. T. (Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1924-01)
      Southwestern Alaska is eminently fitted for cattle raising, particularly Kodiak Island, where nutritious grasses grow in abundance and there is little timber, the vegetation being mainly bushes, grasses, and other low-growing plants. This region, including the several other islands lying off the mainland, has a moist climate accompanied by no great variations in temperature, the thermometer in summer seldom registering as high as 75° F. and in winter rarely reaching zero. The shore skirting Kodiak Island is cut by numerous deep bays, at the heads of which lies most of the tillable land. The remainder of the island is mountainous, the land gradually rising from near the seashore to a height of 1,000 to 3,000 feet. Kodiak Island was chosen in 1907 as the location for a cattle-breeding station to determine the adaptability of cattle to the climatic conditions prevailing there.
    • Cereal growing in Alaska

      Georgeson, C. C.; Gasser, G. W. (Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1926-05)
      Prior to the establishment of the Alaska Agricultural Experiment Stations it was almost universally believed that Alaska was a frozen, inhospitable wilderness, and therefore worthless for agricultural purposes. Even as late as 1899 it was declared wholly unreasonable to expect anything like cereals to grow so far north, this statement being fortified by an account of the glaciers and ice fields that the tourist sees in the coast region. To-day, however, public opinion is favorably changing as the result of experiments carried on by the stations; and it is beginning to be realized that the country has great agricultural possibilities, its productive power being merely a matter of development. (Fig. 1.)
    • Vegetable gardening in Alaska

      Georgeson, C. C. (Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1928-11)
      This bulletin is intended for settlers and prospective settlers in Alaska and for others who may be interested in gardening in the Territory. The information given is based upon the results of investigations by the Alaska Experiment Stations during 29 years and should be useful to those who are planning to make Alaska their home. The great extent of the Territory and the variable climate make it necessary to refer briefly to the features which characterize the climate as a whole and to some extent to local conditions as regards temperature and rainfall during the growing season.
    • Brief history of cattle breeding in Alaska

      Georgeson, C. C. (Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1929-01)
      So far as is known the Russians were the first people of the Caucasian race to settle in Alaska. They early recognized the possibilities of Alaska for stock-breeding purposes and imported cattle from Siberia in the belief that the animals could be made to sustain themselves on the lush pastures abounding here and there in the new country. Cattle raising was in progress at each of the principal Russian settlements, including Kodiak, Kenai, Ninilchik, and Sitka, when the United States purchased the Territory from Russia in 1867. Some cattle were introduced from the States after the American occupation, but representatives of the original Russian stock were still in evidence when the first agricultural experiment station was established at Sitka in 1898. All the cattle at Kenai and at Ninilchik, on Cook Inlet, were descendants of those that had been introduced from Russia, and their progeny are still to be found at Ninilchick. The animals were small, slim in all proportions, and had a narrow head with thin, upright horns. The average weight of the mature cow was about 500 pounds. In color the stock was brown, or dark red, and occasionally the body Avas mottled. The milk yield was low and had a fat content of about 3 per cent. The cattle had deteriorated not only in general conformation, but also in milking qualities and in suitability for beef production. In 1906 when the Galloway breed was established by the stations as a foundation stock at Kalsin Bay, 15 miles from Kodiak, it was learned that cattle in considerable numbers had at some time in the past been maintained there by the Russians. The most convincing evidence supporting this fact was the discovery in the region of a large pile of thoroughly decayed cattle manure. The Russians, realizing that about 5,000 or 6,000 acres of land at the head of Kalsin Bay were adapted to cattle raising, had probably used the place as a breeding center whence they distributed stock to the settlements throughout the coast region. A few head of cattle of the dairy type were introduced with the establishment of salmon canneries at various points along the coasts. Some of the descendants of these animals remained in the country. At Kodiak, Sitka, Kenai, and other places where Americans had settled, a few head of cattle were kept for the supply of milk. More cattle were introduced into the country with the development of new settlements and camps. Dairies sprang up in the towns to meet the local demands for milk. These cattle, however, were maintained, excepting for the small amount of pasturage available during the summer, on feed which had to be imported from Seattle for the purpose. This is the situation even to-day, but it does not show that cattle can not be supported by locally produced feed. The winter maintenance of cattle is a matter that must be given careful consideration in all parts of the Territory. Experiments with the silo at the Kodiak station were so successful that winter feeding was not found to be the perplexing problem it would have been had the cattle been dependent upon hay and grain shipped in from Seattle. Any kind of green forage can be made into silage. Grown with peas or vetches, oats make excellent silage. The native grasses, especially wild beach rye (Elymus mollis) and a tall sedge {Carex cryptocarpa), have been relied upon for silage at Kodiak, sometimes supplying 90 to 95 per cent of the material put up annually. Sunflowers and horse beans have been successfully made into silage at Matanuska. Artichokes for silage have been grown at each of the stations. The tops are especially well suited to silage making in that the yield is heavy. In seasons unfavorable for haymaking, native bluetop (Calamagrostis langsdorjii) is utilized to some extent for silage. At times the silo at Kodiak has been kept filled with about one-third each of sedge, beach grass, and field crops consisting of oats, peas, barley, and vetch. At Matanuska, in 1925, 2-year-old heifers daily gained in weight and kept in thrifty condition when they were fed 16 pounds of silage, 8 pounds of straw, and 5 pounds of roots. Cows were maintained in a fair flow of milk when they were fed daily per 1,000 pounds of body weight, 25 pounds of silage, 10 pounds of straw, 12 pounds of roots, and 4 pounds of barley-oat chop. To-day the Alaska stations are maintaining a few head each of the Galloway and the Holstein-Friesian breeds. The Galloways are kept at Kodiak and the Holstein-Friesians and crossbred Galloway-Holsteins at Matanuksa. Some yak are being maintained at Fairbanks for crossing with Galloways.
    • The Potato in Alaska

      Alberts, H. W. (Office of Experiment Stations, United States Department of Agriculture, 1931-07)
    • Oat production in Alaska

      Higgins, F. L. (Office of Experiment Stations, United States Department of Agriculture, 1932-06)
      The oat crop occupies an important place on the farms in interior Alaska, especially in the Matanuska Valley and the Fairbanks region of the Tanana Valley. The crop is used chiefly for hay. It is one of the more important grain crops in the system of diversified farming recommended for Alaska by the Alaska Agricultural Experiment Stations. Good yields for hay and silage can be produced in southeastern Alaska, but production is limited (1) by the small areas of suitable land available for farming, (2) by the high cost of clearing the land, and (3) by cool, wet weather in the fall which makes difficult the work of harvesting. Southeastern Alaska is rough, rugged, and heavily timbered and has comparatively little land available for cultivation. Oats can not be depended upon to mature at Kenai, on Cook Inlet, because of the unfavorable weather prevailing there. However, oats can be grown in that region for hay and silage. The cool, rainy weather in the fall is more favorable for silage making than for haymaking. A small area of oats is grown for forage in the Homer region on Cook Inlet. This region is well suited to oats and vetch, and also to oats and peas for hay and silage. Weather conditions there, as in the Kenai region, are adverse to the ripening of oats. Oat growing in the Tanana Valley, near Fairbanks, began about 1907 with the production of hay for horses, shortly after the establishment of a mining camp in the valley. A number of horses were used in the region for freighting, and as timothy hay had to be shipped in from the States at a cost of more than $100 per ton, some of the teamsters decided to clear their lands and grow oat hay for the local market. Oat hay of good quality brought from $60 to $90 per ton, depending upon market requirements. Oats for forage is an important crop in this region. The native bluetop grass (Calamagrostiis spp.) is found growing only in certain localities, and then in irregular patches. Experience has shown that it does not withstand cutting in successive years. Hardy, high-yielding biennial or perennial legumes have not yet been found which will produce as high tonnage per acre as do oats, in interior Alaska. Oats seeded with peas or with vetch for hay have been found to make an efficient silage material. The addition of legumes to the ration improves the feeding value of the hay and is especially desirable for dairy cows and young stock. Because of inadequate threshing facilities, oats were not grown for grain for some time. However, with the introduction and development of early-maturing varieties of oats and the purchase of a threshing machine by the station for station and community use, farmers began seeding oats for grain. Alaska farmers follow different methods in growing oats. Some plow in the fall, others in the spring, and still others not at all. Those who do not plow prepare the seed bed by disking and harrowing in the spring. Again, some farmers follow a definite scheme of rotation to conserve and increase soil fertility and to lessen loss from crop diseases, whereas others broadcast their grain seed without being reasonably sure that it is free from disease. As a result of general poor management much of the land under cultivation is low in fertility and badly infested with weeds, making it necessary to give attention to weed control. This bulletin, based on observations and experiments in different parts of Alaska, has been prepared for the purpose of assisting farmers of the Territory to grow oats successfully.
    • Forage crops in the Matanuska region, Alaska

      Alberts, H. W. (Office of Experiment Stations, United States Department of Agriculture, 1933-05)
      The principal crops on which the development of agriculture in the Matanuska region 1 depends are grown primarily as a feed for livestock. So far as is known, Fred Herning in 1906 was the first person to grow forage crops in the region. Mr. Herning operated a trading post at Knik and for many years grew^ oats on 2 acres as a feed for his horse. The first farmers did not grow forage crops because they had no barns or other buildings in which to care for livestock, and their areas of cleared ground were not sufficient for the raising of feed for horses and cows. Teams were scarce in the Matanuska Valley in those days, and only small parcels of land could be cleared at a time. Potatoes constituted the chief money crop of the region, and they therefore were grown on nearly all the cleared land. Potato growing required only small capital and yielded immediate returns in cash. However, diseases attacked the crop after it had been continuously grown on the same areas, and the yield of marketable potatoes was greatly reduced in consequence. The farmers then sought for other crops with which to grow their potatoes in rotation. Cereal crops, such as oats, barley, and wheat, were tested for grain and found to make vigorous growth. At Matanuska these crops are grown during the warmest part of the summer and harvested with the coming of cool weather. Frequent slow, drizzling rains coming shortly after cutting may make difficult the work of curing the crop in bundles in the field when it is grown for grain, but curing can be economically done when the crop is grown for forage. Since the establishment of the Matanuska Agricultural Experiment Station in 1917, an endeavor has been made to determine the grain and forage crops best adapted to the region. Inasmuch as legumes had not been grown, such perennial legumes as clovers and alfalfa were introduced for trial. These grew vigorously during the summer and went into the winter in fine condition, but many of the plants were eventually heaved out of the ground by frost. Attention was then turned to field peas and to spring vetch (Vicia sativa), which are now among the more important legumes grown by farmers in the Matanuska Valley. In the first trials field peas and vetch were seeded separately and grew luxuriantly. However, they lodged so badly as to be difficult to harvest and to cure. Thereafter peas and oats or vetch and oats were sown in mixture, the oats to provide support for the recumbent plants. Only enough oats were seeded in the mixture to keep the peas or the vetch from lodging. Sown together, field peas and oats gave a high yield of silage, and vetch and oats made the most desirable of the hay crops. The peas and the oats grew luxuriantly and were readily harvested and cured for winter use. The vetch and the oats for hay, however, required special treatment since they did not cure satisfactorily on the ground. Attempts were next made to cure the crops on racks built in the field, as is done in Norway (fig. 1). This method, although effective, was too expensive for use in Alaska, on account of the high cost of the labor involved. After unsuccessfully trying various other methods of curing, the station devised a simple inexpensive method in which the material is piled on thin peeled stakes driven into the ground (fig. 2). This method is now satisfactorily used by the more progressive farmers of the region.
    • Forty-seven years of experimental work with grasses and legumes in Alaska

      Irwin, Don L. (Agricultural Experiment Stations, University of Alaska, 1945-11)
      As early as 1898 investigations of the agricultural possibilities in Alaska were begun along the southern coast and westward along the Aleutian Islands. In the reports of these investigations frequent reference is made to the variety and abundance of the native grasses, whose value for hay and ensilage in feeding livestock was well-known even .at that early date. In some districts, as many as 40 varieties and species were found. Letters written in the same year from widely-scattered points throughout the Territory indicate that the native grasses were widely disseminated, flourishing as far north as the Yukon River. As a family, the legumes native to Alaska, while widely disseminated, are not so predominant as the grasses. In some small areas they are quite abundant. In other sections, only a few varieties are found in scattered locations. As a whole, they form only a small proportion of the forage plants of the Territory. In their native habitat, the grasses and legumes bear seed and propagate readily. Under cultivated conditions, however, considerable difficulty has been encountered in germinating seed of either the native grasses or legumes successfully. It has been found that close grazing or mowing for hay or ensilage year after year depletes the stand of the grasses and legumes. Also, the period during which the native grasses may be pastured or cut for hay with maximum yield and nutritive value is short. For these reasons, the Agricultural Experiment Stations of Alaska have given considerable attention to studies and trials of cultivated varieties of grasses and legumes for pasture and hay. The experimental data on the grasses and legumes tried at the several Stations are briefly summarized in the following report, giving the variety of grass and legume, the years it was seeded, and the results. No attempt has been made to include detail. Scientific names have been eliminated as much as possible, except where they are necessary for definite identification. Varieties of grasses and legumes best adapted to each section of Alaska are listed in the Summary on Page 42.
    • Agricultural possibilities of Alaska's Kenai Peninsula

      McCurdy, Richard E.; Johnson, Hugh A. (Alaska Agricultural Experiment Station, 1951-03)
      During the summer of 1950, an intensive study was made on the Kenai Peninsula to determine the extent of its agricultural development and the plans and problems of current settlers. All available settlers residing in accessible areas were interviewed. Notes were also collected concerning non-resident or absentee landholders. The resulting information consequently covers the agricultural community that has developed under existing conditions of help, hindrance and laissez faire. The study furnishes guides useful in formulating public settlement policies for the Kenai-Kasilof area and to individuals who might wish to locate in this or other sections of the Peninsula.
    • Farming in the Matanuska and Tanana Valleys of Alaska

      Moore, Clarence A. (University of Alaska, Alaska Agricultural Experiment Station, 1952-01)
    • Present and potential agricultural areas in Alaska

      Johnson, Hugh A. (University of Alaska, Alaska Agricultural Experiment Station, 1953-02)
    • Urban use of Alaskan farm products

      Johnson, Hugh A. (University of Alaska Agricultural Experiment Station, 1953-09)
    • Use of native Alaskan materials for farm and home construction

      Branton, C. I.; Fahnestock, C. R. (University of Alaska, Alaska Agricultural Experiment Station, 1953-11)
    • Matanuska Valley Memoir

      Johnson, Hugh A.; Stanton, Keith L. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1955-07)
      The Matanuska Valley was created through action of ice, water and wind. When the last glaciers retreated up the Susitna, the Knik and the Matanuska valleys, vegetation began cove ring the scars, Over several centuries a dense growth of trees and brush screened the land from Knik Arm to the mountain slopes of the Talkeetna range . Here and there a lake broke the uniform forest mantle. A salt marsh at the mouth of the Matanuska River kept the rank undergrowth from reaching tide water, A few low spots near the Little Susitna and other swampy areas supported a thick cover of moss or grass. The Valley, which really isn't a valley at all but a reworked foreland, rises from the Matanuska River in a series of benches ranging in width from a few hundred feet to more than a mile. Some areas are flat, others are rolling. Soil depth varies from eight feet in thickness for the region bordering the Matanuska River to a few inches in sections west of Wasilla. The soil mantle, of windblown loessial materials, is of relatively new geologic development, The Valley is bounded by the Chugach Mountains on the east, the Talkeetnas on the north, the Susitna Valley on the west and Knik Arm on the south. Winters are long but usually not unduly severe; summers cool and relatively moist, To this country came trappers, prospectors and traders in closing years of the nineteenth century. Hordes of insects, difficult trails, sparse population and great distance s from supply points discouraged many potential residents, Those who stayed were interested primarily in the Willow Creek gold field or the Matanuska coal deposits. Another generation, an uneasy international situation and social crises within the United States were required before the Matanuska Valley and the rest of Upper Cook Inlet were ripe for use. This history of the Valley is designed to trace the many human elements affecting the ebb and flow of agricultural development here. It brings into focus many problems that must be solved before new areas in Alaska can be settled satisfactorily.
    • Getting a start in dairying in Alaska

      Sweetman, William J.; Branton, C. Ivan (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1955-09)
      Dairying in Alaska probably will always be confined to areas where milk can reach city markets readily. The demand £or fresh milk, even at present prices, exceeds the supply. Probably the dairy farmer always will be able to produce milk in competition with fluid mlik shipped in from the States if he is a good manager and has high producing cows. A farmer with low producing cows can show a profit at present prices, but if the price of milk dropped two dollars or more per hundred, he would have a tough time making both ends meet. It is doubtful if other dairy products can be produced in Alaska to compete with stateside prices.
    • Farming in Alaska.

      Andrews, Richard A.; Johnson, Hugh A. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1956-10)
      An analysis of commercial farming in Alaska has long been needed. This report may supply helpful information. It spans the yea rs from 1949 to 1954, a time of rapid development and growth. T he study analyzes detailed information supplied by 75 to 85 farmers in the Matanuska Valley and by 15 to 30 others in the Tanana Valley. In 1952, records were also obtained from 19 farmers in the Kenai Peninsula. These record s are estimated to cover about 60 per cent of all commercial farming activity in these particular areas during the period. Information on farming in areas outside the Kenai Peninsula and the Railbelt was gathered from mailed questionnaires supplemented by personal observations. Data for 1949 and 1950 were collected by Clarence A. Moore and were first summarized in his Mimeographed Circular 1, Alaska Farms : Organization and Practices in 1949, and Bulletin 14, Farming in the Matanuska and Tanana Valleys of A laska, both published by the Alaska Agricultural Experiment Station. The authors are grateful to the farmers, agencies and others whose help made this work possible.