• Fate and effects of commercial crude oil bioremediation products in Arctic seawater

      Gofstein, Taylor R.; Leigh, Mary Beth; Simpson, William; Guerard, Jennifer; Collins, R. Eric (2020-08)
      With increased oil exploration, development, and transport in the Arctic in recent years, the potential for disastrous oil spills is imminent. Biodegradation, the consumption of contaminants by indigenous microorganisms capable of using them as an energy source, can be enhanced using bioremediation treatments and may be a viable spill remediation method when traditional physical recovery techniques are not. The EPA National Contingency Plan (NCP) product schedule lists oil spill response treatments that can be used in the event of a spill, many of which can stimulate intrinsic biodegradation. However, there is often little to no experimental data demonstrating the effectiveness of these products in aiding the remediation of a spill. Here we investigate the effects of the currently listed NCP products Corexit 9500 and Oil Spill Eater II (OSEII) on crude oil biodegradation in Arctic seawater and the associated shifts in the microbial community using mesocosm incubations. Despite conflicting reports in the literature, Corexit 9500 showed no inhibitory effects on the biodegradation of crude oil. When oil and Corexit were co-present, chemical and microbial data revealed a sequential degradation beginning with the non-ionic surfactant components of Corexit (Span 80, Tween 80, Tween 85), followed by the degradation of the labile alkane oil components, with the degradation of other Corexit components such as dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (DOSS) and dipropylene glycol n-butyl ether (DGBE) less clear. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that oil and Corexit stimulate different microbial communities but some taxa are stimulated by either (Oleispira, Pseudofulvibacter, Roseobacter), suggesting that these organisms may be capable of degrading both. Further analysis with metatranscriptomic sequencing showed increased gene expression in the presence of Corexit, even when co-present with oil, suggesting that Corexit may enhance the metabolic activity of oil degraders. Increased expression of β-oxidation pathway genes (fadE, fadA, fadB) in the presence of Corexit coincided with the chemical loss of Corexit components. Based on these findings and the abundance of ester groups in the chemical structures of Corexit 9500 surfactant components, we propose a biodegradation pathway that involves the transformation of ester groups into fatty acids either through biotic lipase enzymes or abiotic hydrolysis, before funneling into the β-oxidation fatty acid degradation pathway. Taxonomic origins for these transcripts showed a diverse number of genera expressing these genes, which along with its lability may serve to explain the number of taxa observed to respond to Corexit both here and in the literature. Characterization of the contents of OSEII revealed the presence of sugars, surfactants, nutrients, phytochemicals, amylase, protease, and the non-hydrocarbonoclastic non-viable microorganisms Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces. Incubation experiments targeting the efficacy of OSEII showed a slight enhancement of n-alkane loss at 30 days, suggesting that it may have utility in longer term use following a post-spill nutrient depletion. However, the nutrient contents of OSEII were up to 32-fold times higher for ammonia and 100,000-fold times higher for iron than in ambient Arctic seawater, which although are limiting nutrients in seawater, may also cause more harmful ecological effects following a spill by inducing phytoplankton blooms. Based on these findings, the non-ionic surfactants of Corexit 9500 appear to be easily degraded through the proposed β-oxidation fatty acid pathway. Future NCP dispersants should target these labile ester chemical moieties while also being effective at dispersion. It is imperative for NCP products to undergo more rigorous third-party experiments to demonstrate their suitability, effectiveness, toxicity, and unintended side effects that may occur in situ before an oil spill occurs. Doing so will allow decision-makers to have comprehensive information to aid in selection of appropriate oil spill response techniques.
    • Feasibility of multiple camera large-scale particle image velocimetry techniques for rivers in Alaska

      LaMesjerant, Eric N.; Toniolo, Horacio; Barnes, David; Shur, Yuri (2020-12)
      Alaska is characterized by sparse hydrologic data. Non-intrusive gauging is one method of increasing the data available but is limited in its current application. This study seeks to assess the feasibility of using commercially available software and multiple cameras to diversify the conditions for which large-scale particle image velocimetry may be applied. Using available software and the deployment of multiple cameras, stereoscopically determined discharge is compared with discharge determined using an acoustic Doppler current profiler and accepted single camera practices currently in use with large-scale particle image velocimetry. The results indicate that the use of commercial software and multiple cameras is feasible, with additional work, and that there is a statistically significant relationship between the velocity index (alpha) and aspect ratio (B/H, width divided by average depth). The velocity index-aspect ratio data indicate that the velocity index is a result of the environmental and geometric conditions for a given cross section and that an empirical relationship could be established.
    • Genomic signatures of optimal growth temperature in the family Colwelliaceae

      Gentilhomme, Anais; Collins, R. Eric; Hennon, Gwenn M.M.; Leigh, Mary-Beth; Drown, Devin (2020-12)
      The temperature range supporting growth defines a complex physiological phenotype that depends on interactions between an organism's genome and its environment. Its implications are widespread since small changes in optimal growth temperature (OGT) can alter an organism's ability to inhabit an ecological niche. Thus, organisms with extreme thermal growth traits (e.g., psychrophilic, with OGT < 15℃, or thermophilic, with OGT 60 -80℃) may be useful for identifying promising targets when searching for life on other planets, as well as predicting population dynamics in a warming Arctic. We performed comparative genomic analyses of bacteria newly isolated from Arctic sea ice that were affiliated with Colwelliaceae, a family of Gammaproteobacteria that contains many psychrophilic strains, to identify genomic factors that might be used to predict OGT. A phylogenomic analysis of 67 public and 39 newly-sequenced strains, was used to construct an updated phylogenetic tree of Colwelliaceae, of which at least two genera were well represented. To augment the previously reported OGTs of 26 strains, we measured growth rates at −1, 4, 11, and 17 ℃ to determine the OGTs of these 39 new strains of Colwelliaceae. We found that growth rates among all isolates were comparable at −1℃, but varied widely above 10 ℃, indicating higher variability in the ability to tolerate warmer temperatures. To analyze the phenotypic differences on a genomic level, we examined indices of amino acid substitutions that have previously been linked with cold adaptation via an increase in protein flexibility. We found that these indices were significantly correlated with OGT at the whole genome level, although the sign of some correlations were opposite of the predicted positive correlation between temperature and the indices. Using these data, we fit a multiple linear regression model for OGT within the Colwelliaceae family that incorporates the three most informative amino acid indices: GRAVY, Aliphatic Index, and Acidic Residue Proportion. Additionally, a putative cold-adaptive gene cassette was identified that was likely introduced by horizontal gene transfer between two closely related clades with different OGTs. These contributions offer key insights into OGT variability and its underlying genomic foundation in the family Colwelliaceae.
    • Geochemical, spatial, and temporal relationships of the intrusives and meta-intrusives of the Pogo deposit, eastern Interior, AK

      Thompson, William D.; Newberry, Rainer; Keskinen, Mary; Mezger, Jochen (2020-12)
      The Pogo deposit is an intrusion-related gold deposit (IRGD) located approximately 90 km southeast of Fairbanks, Alaska. It consists mainly of shallowly NW dipping quartz veins hosted in amphibolite facies paragneiss and predominately granite orthogneiss bodies. To date the deposit has produced over 4 million ounces of gold. U-Pb zircon dating of the orthogneisses shows they have Devonian-Mississippian protolith ages. Dates from the metamorphic zircons, established by microprobe Th data and cathodoluminescence studies, constrain a mid-Cretaceous metamorphic event to ~116 Ma. Recrystallization of kyanite to sillimanite and zircon recrystallization indicates this was a large fluid flux event that predated mineralization by 10 million years. Due to the fine-grained nature of the intrusive rocks at Pogo, identifying rocks in hand sample proved problematic. By combining XRF analysis of the rocks' major and trace elements and age data from this and previous studies, I identified and differentiated several suites of igneous rocks. The oldest is peraluminous granite, emplaced at ~2.5 ± 0.5 kb at ~109-107 Ma, predating mineralization at 104 Ma at a pressure of 2.0 kb. Non-peraluminous granite is less common and of uncertain relationship to the peraluminous granite. Next, temporally, is a body named the Football pluton (and associated dike) of granodioritic to tonalitic composition, emplaced at 2.0 ± 0.5 kb at 103 ± 2 Ma. Not only indistinguishable from age and depth of mineralization, a dike of this body is present downdip underneath the Liese veins (main zone of mineralization), making it the most likely candidate for being the causative pluton for mineralization. The final mid-Cretaceous body is the Liese pluton (and associated dikes), of quartz diorite to tonalite. This forms a large body with E-W dikes cutting the Pogo mineralization and post-dating it at 95.4 ± 0.2 Ma, emplaced at a pressure of 1.0 kb. Thermobarometry and radiometric dating indicate a consistent uplift rate of about 0.6 mm/year during the mid-Cretaceous, 116 to 95 Ma. Initially an extensional event, subduction-related magmatism began at about 105 Ma. At the same time, the thrust faults were re-activated as low angle normal faults that apparently acted as pathways for the Liese mineralization.
    • Gravity and mountain waves and their phenomena in Fairbanks, Alaska: a comparative case study

      Brink, Hannah; Mölders, Nicole; Fochesatto, Javier; Polyakov, Igor; Newman, David (2021-05)
      The area of Fairbanks, Alaska is in a valley surrounded by mountains from the Alaska Range to the South, the Brooks Range to the north, and the eastern mountain range that extends into Canada. The topographical nature of this subarctic area brings unique atmospheric features to the Fairbanks area, such as temperature inversions and mountain wave perturbation. This thesis will examine two case studies of gravity wave phenomena; one a mountain wave from December 2017, the other a non-mountainous gravity wave from December 2016. Data was collected from radiosondes and Global Data Assimilation Model (GDAS) maps, with the former smoothed for comparative purposes. Profiles of the atmosphere were created to see direct changes that mountain waves create on atmospheric parameters and the subarctic valley area. Methods were explored to separate mountain wave buoyancy effects from other atmospheric buoyancy effects, and then used to compare mountain wave buoyancy effects with frontal motion buoyancy effects. In all cases, the polar jet stream was found to have signicant influence on gravity wave effects in the Fairbanks area. Attention to the polar jet stream location can help predict mountain wave effects and associated atmospheric perturbations. Weather phenomena localized by altitude due to gravity waves were also identified. These include localized short-term surface pressure systems on the day of gravity wave cases. Mountain waves were found to be strongly linked to synoptic temperature events in Fairbanks, Alaska, and the mountain wave case was found to have more pronounced atmospheric effects than the gravity wave case.
    • Growth and reproductive rates of calanoid copepods in the northern Bering and southern Chukchi Seas

      Poje, Alexandra; Hopcroft, Russ; Coyle, Kenneth; Danielson, Seth (2020-08)
      Egg production and copepodite growth rates were measured for the calanoid copepods Pseudocalanus spp., Calanus marshallae/glacialis, and Metridia pacifica in the northern Bering and southern Chukchi Seas during June of 2017 and 2018. For all taxa, instantaneous growth rates generally decreased with increasing copepodite stage, though the differences between most stages was not significant. The growth rates for Pseudocalanus spp. averaged 0.03 ± 0.002 day⁻¹, Calanus spp. 0.09 ± 0.004 day⁻¹, and M. pacifica 0.05 ± 0.03 day⁻¹. Egg production rates increased with prosome length for all species, but when standardized to body weight this trend reversed. All Pseudocalanus species had similar weight-specific egg production (SEP): 0.18 ± 0.01 for P. acuspes, 0.15 ± 0.00 for P. newmani, and 0.11 ± 0.02 for P. minutus. The SEP for Calanus was considerably lower, 0.09 ± 0.01, while for M. pacifica it was 0.11 ± 0.01. These rates suggest considerable discrepancies between growth rates and egg production weights that we propose are due to differences in life history strategies. Pseudocalanus reproduce nearly year round, they appear to invest less in somatic growth, preferring to quickly reach their adult stage where they invest heavily into reproduction. Calanus spp. have 1 or possibly 2 generations per year in this region, they invest more into somatic growth in order to ensure their population is ready for a reproductive season timed to the spring phytoplankton bloom. The more omnivorous M. pacifica is also likely limited to 1 or 2 generations, although their ability to thrive on a wider range of food sources than Calanus seems to allow for relatively higher investment in reproduction and perhaps lower investment in somatic growth. Consistent with other studies, global growth models do not match our observations particularly well, likely because they are dominated by egg production estimates at lower latitudes.
    • Holy American burnout! - essays

      Enfield, Sean; Farmer, Daryl; Johnson, Sara; Schell, Jennifer (2021-05)
      Neither students nor educators are ever just the body which occupies a classroom. Both bring their personal histories as well as the socio-cultural and political climates in which they live. The essays in this collection explore the author's development as both a student and as an educator, revolving often around themes of race and religion. At the core of this narratively linked collection of essays is the author's first-year teaching experience in which he worked as an 8th grade literature teacher at a private, quasi-religious school. Cultural and music criticism provide the bridge by which these personal essays broaden their scope into their larger socio-political landscape. It evokes sources as disparate as the disgraced Disney film, Song of the South; Igor Stravinsky's ballet, The Rite of Spring; and the Pulitzer-winning hip hop artist, Kendrick Lamar. These sources serve as the prism with which the author navigates his personal experiences with racism and teaching Muslim students during the mounting of the 45th presidents anti-Islamic, anti-immigrant campaign. All in all, these essays seek to illuminate the many ways learn, develop, and relate to each other in America, looking for new ways to navigate this broken system which so often dead ends in burnout.
    • How aspen tree height influences aspen leaf miner (Phyllocnistis populiella) oviposition and performance

      Tundo, Giovanni; Doak, Pat; Wagner, Diane; Breed, Greg (2021-05)
      Under the optimal oviposition theory, insects are expected to lay eggs on hosts that maximize the success of their offspring. Tree height is known to be an important factor influencing the distribution of phytophagous insects because some species perform better at a distinct range of heights. This difference in performance could lead to incorrect estimates of population parameters if surveys are only conducted on one host plant height. Aspen leaf miners (Phyllocnistis populiella) have undergone a major outbreak in interior Alaska over the last two decades. We quantified patterns of aspen leaf miner oviposition and juvenile survival over 2 years and found that aspen leaf miners were approximately 1.5 times more likely to survive on tall trees than short trees. Parasitism and both egg and larval predation were lower on tall trees. Aspen leaf miners on tall trees also had larger pupal masses than those on short trees. Although aspen leaf miners performed better on tall trees, the number of eggs laid per leaf did not significantly differ by tree height. There were no significant differences in leaf foliar nitrogen between tall and short trees. We also found little differences in wind speed between tall and short trees that could explain ovipositional patterns. Ovipositional patterns may partially reflect the difference in phenology between tall and short aspen trees. Aspen leaf miners only lay eggs on new leaves. Tall aspen trees leafed out 7 days earlier on average than short aspen trees, and tall trees, unlike short trees, ceased to produce new leaves after budburst. Consequently, there was little overlap in the availability of tall and short aspen trees for oviposition, so even if aspen leaf miners have a preference for laying more eggs on tall than short trees, they can only act on it during the short time period when tall trees are available for oviposition. The results suggest that population projections based on data collected from only short trees may underestimate future aspen leaf miner population growth due to lower juvenile survival rates and pupal masses on short trees. More broadly, the results highlight the importance of examining multiple tree heights when studying the performance and population dynamics of phytophagous insects. They also suggest that phenological differences between plants may constrain insects from using higher quality hosts.
    • I hear what you're saying: evaluating the couple validation training (CVT), a brief behavioral intervention

      McKay, Jessica; Worrall, Michael J.; Gifford, Valerie; Lopez, Ellen; Eldridge, Gloria; Fitterling, James (2020-12)
      Couple distress has strong implications for individual, couple, and family functioning. Research has found couple relationship education to be an effective tool in alleviating couple distress, thus improving the quality of couple communication and problem-solving skills. Couple relationship education has been shown to be more cost-effective and less likely to provoke the typical fears couples face when considering couple therapy, increasing the likelihood of receiving needed help. This study used a brief, highly structured behavioral intervention to teach partners to identify and code effective and ineffective ways of communicating. The primary research question sought to determine whether learning a structured coding process would lead to observable behavior changes through increased use of validating communication behaviors and decreased use of invalidating communication behaviors during a conflict-based discussion with a partner. Secondary questions pertaining to effective communication, relationship satisfaction, and training satisfaction were also explored. Participants were 16 couples who identified as being in a committed (nonmarried), heterosexual relationship, ages 18-40 (M = 26.00, SD = 6.61), and who were interested in improving their communication skills. The study used a quasi-experimental, three-level multilevel model to assess for dependence and change in the dependent variable (communication behaviors) over time. Hypothesis testing using the multilevel model found a significant difference between intervention and control groups pre to post workshop. However, inconsistent with the hypothesis the control condition increased validations significantly while the intervention condition showed no significant change over time. No other significant difference between groups were found. Other areas of interest emerged from the data. Couples self-reported a benefit from engaging in the study; over 85% of couples reported feeling satisfied with their experiences in the workshop and gave positive feedback about their experience. Future studies may explore the mechanisms of change and the possibility of additional clinically relevant changes which are not measured in this study. Keywords: relationship education, couples, validation, invalidation.
    • Identifying spatial patterns of storm driven flooding and erosion at Nelson Lagoon, Alaska

      Bogardus, Reyce C.; Maio, Chris; Mann, Daniel; Overbeck, Jacquelyn (2021-05)
      This project quantifies localized potential for shoreline change and flooding at Nelson Lagoon, a small fishing community located on the Bering Sea coast of the Alaska Peninsula. The overall goal of this project is to generate societally relevant and locally applicable map and data products through synergistic relationships with federal, state, private, tribal, and public partners. This project intends to substantiate anecdotal observations by local residents, with the ultimate goal of informing erosion and flooding mitigation efforts moving forward. Long-term trends of shoreline change were measured using multi-temporal orthorectified aerial imagery between 1983 and 2019, while annual changes in shoreline morphology were measured via cross-shore elevation profiles using a survey grade Real-time-Kinematic Global Navigational Satellite System (RTK-GNSS). Shoreline positions were extrapolated using linear regression techniques. A digital surface model (DSM) of the community was derived using Structure-from-Motion (SfM) with >2,400 aerial images collected with an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and used to assess flooding vulnerability after being geodetically referenced and related to a local tidal datum computed by this project. New and existing topographic and bathymetric datasets were compiled and refined into a 6,000 km² topobathymetric "seamless elevation" model of the Nelson Lagoon area, over which storm-tide induced currents were simulated using Delft3D FM Suite HMWQ. Remote sensing records indicate that the Nelson Lagoon spit elongated by more than 800 m and narrowed with an average Net Shoreline Movement (NSM) of -16.9 m between 1983 and 2019 (distal end not included). Though, NSM values show high variability ([sigma] = 21.9 m) and the lagoon and seaward sides of the spit are exhibiting very different erosional regimes. On both sides of the spit, episodes of rapid erosion mainly occurred during high storm-tide events that coincided with significant wave action. For this reason, the long-term erosion rates ultimately reflect the combined erosional impact of just a few storm events. Sand dunes in the supratidal zone on both sides of the spit are eroding at the vegetation line while the dune face retreats landward. By assessing erosion and flooding vulnerabilities for the Nelson Lagoon community, this study adds to an ever-growing database of such assessments statewide; which, ultimately, advance our understanding of regional coastal change in a shifting environment.
    • If women were dragons: a study of the conquest of women and dragons in Ragnar's saga, the Volsunga sagas, and the Nibelungenlied

      Baalke, Claire-Elise A.; Harney, Eileen; Stanley, Sarah; Riley, Terry (2020-08)
      This thesis is a study displaying the connections between female characters and dragons in Old Norse and Middle High Germanic literature. The main associations that I examine are the ways that female characters and dragons share the characteristics of greed or hoarding, prophetic sight or supernatural power, and "monstrosity" or "Otherness." The fundamental argument is that the women and dragons have common characteristics which define them as dangerous and thereby cause the men or heroes of the tale to feel the need to silence or depower them through conquest. Typically, the dragon is the barrier between the woman and the hero in these kinds of stories and thus the dragon is violated or slain in a manner that represents quashing of feminine power. I argue that the dragon is defeated as proxy to the defamation or depowering of deviant female characters, non-conforming women who do not follow socially accepted gender roles. The texts used to present these arguments are The Poetic Edda, The Volsunga Sagas and its prequel Ragnar's Saga, and The Nibelungenlied. In the majority of dragon stories there is a direct relationship between a dragon and a female character, commonly a princess who is being protected or arguably kept captive by the dragon. I argue, however, that these characteristics of the dragon, which are imitated by female characters, can manifest metaphorically as well. In the texts considered in which there are no "real" or physical dragons, a woman stands in as the metaphorical dragon that must be defeated.
    • Iliamna Lake ethnogeography: Yup'ik place names and sense of place

      Kugo, Yoko; Charles, Walkie; Ehrlander, Mary; Holton, Gary; Koskey, Michael; McCartney, Leslie (2021-05)
      This dissertation explores Iliamna Lake ethnogeography, the physical and mental understanding of the landscape, by researching Yup'ik place names and stories about these places from Iliamna Lake Yup'ik perspectives (Yupiit iingitgun). Many Yup'ik place names were forgotten after Euro-Americans arrived and introduced modern education in the early twentieth century. Some Iliamna Lake Yup'ik Elders remember Indigenous place names even though the subsistence resources in the places have declined or they no longer travel there due to environmental and cultural changes. Prompted by the declining population of Iliamna Lake Yup'ik speakers, along with their knowledge, the Iliamna Lake communities requested this study of Iliamna Lake Yup'ik place names and narratives about the places. Using two methods, oral history and a community-based participatory approach, the community participants and the author recorded 219 Yup'ik and over 100 contemporary place names during eight ethnographic field trips conducted from 2016 to 2019. This dissertation used two analytical methods--grounded theory and mindful inquiry--to categorize place names in themes that are relevant to Iliamna Lake community perspectives. This research revealed that place names and stories about these places illustrate community histories, lifeways, and cultural ethics and practices that are grounded in the people's intimate relationships with their homeland. Telling and retelling these stories enables the people to visualize their landscape, while affirming and reinforcing the knowledge and practices that have enabled the Yup'ik people to survive and thrive in the region for many generations. Ethnogeography addresses how these cultural landscapes intertwine with local histories and changes in land use from insider perspectives. Yup'ik names and stories related to these places act as mnemonic pegs or mental landmarks that assist the people in commemorating and continuing to navigate within their homelands. Maintaining their place names with accounts about these places supports Iliamna Lake residents in continuing to share their geographic knowledge, cultural practices, Yugcetun (Central Yup'ik language), and community histories, thereby enhancing community cohesiveness, which in turn promotes community and ecological well-being.
    • Impacts of climate change on juvenile broad whitefish Coregonus nasus in Arctic Alaska: bioenergetics model development and application

      Green, Duncan G.; Sutton, Trent M.; Norcross, Brenda L.; Cunningham, Curry J. (2020-08)
      Anthropogenic climate change is contributing to rising temperatures worldwide, yet the increase is particularly rapid in the Arctic. Despite their position on the front of global temperature warming, the responses of Arctic ecosystems and the individual species within them are poorly understood. Broad whitefish Coregonus nasus in the Alaska nearshore Beaufort Sea not only inhabit a rapidly changing ecosystem, but are also a key component of subsistence harvest in the region and a relatively understudied fish. I parameterized and corroborated a bioenergetics model through species-specific physiological investigation and laboratory rearing trials, and used the resulting model to simulate potential responses in growth and consumption under climate change scenarios projected with global climate models. Simulations at current estimated prey energy densities projected increases in future consumption rates of up to 4% required to maintain historically observed summer growth, while simulations in which prey energy density was reduced by 50% resulted in projected consumption increases of up to 107% necessary to maintain historic growth. Simulations in which prey energy density was increased by 50% indicated the ability for juvenile broad whitefish to reduce consumption rates by up to 32% and maintain current growth rates. These results suggest that, although the physiological effects of rising water temperatures have the potential to increase growth rates of juvenile broad whitefish, climate-induced shifts in prey availability or prey quality are likely to be regulating factors that determine the magnitude and direction of changes in growth rates.
    • In pursuit of harm reduction in the Alaskan context: patient cultural explanatory models of addiction and treatment outcomes for a medically-assisted program utilizing a buprenorphine/naloxone formulation

      Vasquez, Ángel R.; Campbell, Kendra; Lopez, Ellen; Gifford, Valerie; Gonzalez, Vivian (2020-08)
      This study explored the process of completing a private-for-profit medically-assisted treatment (MAT) program which treats opioid use disorder in a semi-rural community in Alaska. The goal of the study was to answer two broad research questions: (a) did patients get better during the medically-assisted treatment program, and (b) what characterized patient experiences participating in the MAT program? Limited research has been conducted to understand patient experiences of completing medically-assisted treatment in small communities and how various factors may impact treatment outcomes and recovery trajectories. To achieve this goal, a mixed methods case study approach was conducted to evaluate changes in symptom distress and characterize the experience of patients who participated in the program. Three Phases were implemented. Phase I involved archival data analysis of a 22 patient dataset was conducted to assess pre-post treatment outcomes. In Phase II three participants were interviewed who initiated in the program to explore patient treatment themes. Phase III involved co-interpretation of preliminary findings MAT program providers to synthesize findings and gain insights into systemic factors that may have impacted participant experiences. The three-phase research study revealed three major findings. First, MAT patient program completers in our sample who utilized buprenorphine/naloxone in conjunction with counseling experienced a statistically significant reduction in psychological distress with a large observed effect size (Phase I). Second, themes that emerged from semi-structured interviews suggest motivation and treatment process factors play an important role in treatment success (Phase II). Finally, community stakeholders on the provider treatment team were consulted to more deeply understand why it is important to assess patient needs and co-interpret key study findings (Phase III).
    • Influence of environmental attributes on intertidal community structure in glacial estuaries

      McCabe, Mary K.; Konar, Brenda; Iken, Katrin; Kelley, Amanda (2021-05)
      High-latitude coastal environments are experiencing dramatic changes due to climate warming. Increased glacier discharge rates modulate downstream environmental conditions in coastal watersheds. These fast-changing environments are predicted to influence the structure of nearshore marine communities. Here, rocky intertidal community structure, recruitment of key organisms, and environmental correlates were examined at nine watersheds in two regions (Kachemak Bay and Lynn Canal) that bookend the Gulf of Alaska, which were separated by approximately 1000km. Each watershed was part of a gradient in each of the regions that spanned 0-60% glacial coverage. Percent cover, biomass surveys, and recruitment of intertidal organisms, along with environmental monitoring of salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, river discharge, turbidity, and nutrient loading were completed from April - September 2019 in each watershed. Biological community structure and variance were analyzed by taxa and by ecological group (i.e., primary producer, filter feeder, omnivore, grazer, predator) and then in relation to the local environmental spatiotemporal profiles. In general, larger watersheds with more glacial coverage and river discharge resulted in higher cover of primary producers and less cover of filter feeders. This pattern was more apparent in the region with more oceanic influence as compared to the other region located within an inlet. In relation to specific environmental drivers, salinity was negatively correlated with primary producer cover (r = -0.52), but positively associated with barnacle cover (r = 0.40). Additionally, turbidity was positively correlated with primary producer biomass (r = 0.50), but negatively correlated with mussel cover (r = -0.30). In contrast, there was a positive relationship among mussel recruitment and discharge and turbidity. There was variability in within-ecological group response between regions that could be a response to local circulation and oceanic influences. Barnacles were the main filter feeder species driving patterns in the more saline region located close to the open ocean, while mussels drove patterns in the other less oceanic region. As glaciers recede, environmental conditions, such as salinity, will increase and turbidity will decrease, which may alter future intertidal community assemblages dominated by filter feeders.
    • Integration of remote sensing technologies into Arctic oil spill response

      Garron, Jessica I.; Meyer, Franz; Trainor, Sarah; La Belle-Hamer, Nettie; Lee, Olivia; Mahoney, Andrew (2020-12)
      Identifying the tools and pathways to successful integration of landscape level science into decision-making processes is vital for quality environmental stewardship. Remote sensing information can provide critical facts to decision makers that historically were only available via manned airplane flights and ground truthing expeditions. Remote locations like the Arctic are well suited for monitoring with remote sensing tools due to the lack of transportation infrastructure and communications bandwidth. Remote sensing tools can be valuable when monitoring specific Arctic targets like ocean going vessels, sea ice, coastal erosion, off-shore resource development infrastructure, and oil spills. This dissertation addresses how to mount a more efficient and informed response to Arctic oil spills by capitalizing on available RS tools. I posed three research questions to frame this work, 1) What remote sensing tools are currently available, as compared to those currently used in the Incident Command Structure of an oil spill response? 2) Are there barriers to additional remote sensing tool use for oil spill response support? 3) What process changes can improve or increase remote sensing data use in oil spill detection and response? I conducted a four-phased, exploratory sequential mixed methodological study to examine current remote sensing capacity and solutions to expand remote sensing use in support of oil spill response. Phase One defined the remote sensing tools available to support oil spill response, identified how those tools are being used in support of oil spill response actions, and was used as the foundational research to inform the following phases of the study. Phase Two used cloud-processing resources to establish an automated oil detection pipeline. Phase Three addressed human-driven barriers to remote sensing tool use identified in phase one through remote sensing tool training, knowledge coproduction, and remote sensing data integration into oil spill response exercises. Synthesizing all components of Phases One, Two and Three, a remote sensing protocol for the use of unmanned aircraft systems in support of oil spill response was developed and integrated into U.S. Coast Guard operational policy in Alaska to complete Phase Four of this research. This research identifies opportunities and solutions that support improved Arctic oil spill response decision-making through the application of remote sensing data and information.
    • Investigation of variability of internal tides in the Tasman Sea

      Brazhnikov, Dmitry; Simmons, Harper; Kowalik, Zygmunt; Johnson, Mark; Marchenko, Alexey; Horrillo, Juan J. (2021-05)
      Surface tides, when obstructed by bottom relief, give rise to periodic oscillations within the stratified oceanic interior. Such transformation of the depth independent (barotropic) tide into internally propagating (baroclinic) waves comprises 1/3 of the global energy losses from the surface tide. Internal waves of tidal period known as internal tides tend to have low vertical shear and hence are very stable and long lived. They have been observed to propagate essentially unchanged across ocean basins. Details of the internal tide wave life-cycle are not well known, yet turbulent dissipation powered by the slow decay of these waves is one of the key processes shaping deep ocean water properties. The Tasman Sea stands out as a natural laboratory to investigate the internal tide life cycle. In this dissertation, the generation and propagation of internal tides were examined by means of realistic simulations of ocean circulation under varying conditions, and were compared to observations obtained during the Tasman Tidal Dissipation Experiment (TTIDE). The simulations reveal that the barotropic-to-baroclinic conversion is intensified at the Macquarie Ridge near New Zealand by coupling with secondary, nonlocally produced internal tides. Because of this complexity, regionally varying hydrographic conditions drive remarkable temporal and spatial variability of internal tide generation. The internal tides that are created at the ridge constructively superpose into a spatially confined, beam-like feature (Tasman beam) that radiates across the Tasman Sea over 1000 kilometers from its generation region and reaches the Tasman shelf. The beam is described well at first order by simple plane wave propagation theory, but also exhibits non-plane wave characteristics associated with diffraction. Additional intricacy arises from development of a standing wave, the result of the beam's reflection near Tasmania. Temporal changes include hydrography-induced refraction and strong perturbations from interactions with eddies. It is concluded that in-situ mooring measurements and ship surveys of internal tides exhibit a great deal of apparent spatial and temporal variability that can be difficult to interpret. This variability can largely be eliminated in the analysis of numerical models which allow the underlying wave field energy life cycle to be quantified.
    • Investigations on the impacts of ship traffic in the Bering Sea on aerosol optical depth using automatic identification systems data, and MODIS collection 6.1 data

      Summers, Tyler; Mölders, Nicole; Friberg, Mariel; Fochesatto, Javier (2021-05)
      Increasing Arctic shipping requires study of the increasing aerosol emissions impact on aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the Bering Sea and the Bering Strait. This study used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 550 nm AOD 3 km products to study the seasonal variability over the length of the Arctic shipping season, from June to October, over 2011 and 2014. Bucket resampling was used to project and downscale the MODIS AOD to a 0:25 by 0:25 grid during overpasses. An overpass is dened as consecutive MODIS granules from both the Terra and Aqua satellites. Ship positional data obtained from automatic identication systems (AIS) was aggregated to hourly data. Collocation of ships and AOD from overpasses were determined for all quarter degree grid cells and times. Area-weighted means for both grid-cells with ship occurrence and without ships were determined for each month. AOD decreases with increasing time in the shipping season due to the increasing frequency of low pressure system and hence aerosol removal via washout and scavenging. Comparison of the AOD of 2011 and 2014 revealed that the position of the Aleutian Low not only strongly aects the sample size, but also AOD over the Bering Sea. The sea-ice area seemed to be without notable impact on the number of ships and AOD. A weak positive correlation was found between AOD and the number of ships present in the same grid cell during a overpass for 7 out of the 10 months. A strong skewing towards October occurred in 2011 due to a strong positive correlation of the number of data points.
    • It's complicated: immigrant parents in Alaska navigating the process of raising bilingual children

      Dosch, Katerina; Sickmann, Sabine; Marlow, Patrick; Martelle, Wendy (2021-05)
      This qualitative study investigates the process of raising bilingual children in Fairbanks, Alaska. The study was guided by an overarching question: Why do some children in bilingual families become bilingual speakers, whereas other children who also have the chance to become bilingual do not? From that, two main research questions have evolved. 1. What are the elements involved in raising bilingual children in Fairbanks, Alaska as reported by the parents? 2. What is the role of a family's place of residence on their children's bilingualism? Data were collected through a socio- demographic questionnaire, semi-structured in-depth interviews, and focus groups. Three rounds of interviews were conducted with each participating family - an initial interview, a follow up interview, and a focus group interview. Seven families participated in the study and only parents were interviewed. These families consisted of either first generation immigrant parents (sharing or not sharing the same native language) or parents in mixed marriages (immigrants married to native- born Americans). Over 19 hours of data were audio recorded, manually transcribed ad verbum, and analyzed. From the method of grounded theory data coding, groups of elements that are involved in the process of raising bilingual children and the development of children's heritage language (HL) emerged, namely: parental and children's HL related actions, factors influencing bilingualism, factors determining bilingualism, and place of residence. The findings suggest that the process of raising bilingual children is positively or negatively influenced and determined by a complex net of interconnected elements. Raising bilingual children, thus, rests on a combination of supportive and detrimental elements, which are in a constant struggle. It seems that the process of raising bilingual children can absorb a certain amount of detrimental elements without collapsing. Considering the elements involved in raising bilingual children, it is not only parents and their actions that play an important role in the process of raising bilingual children. While parents are the instigators of the process, children greatly influence parental actions connected to the transmission of the HL. The findings of this study suggest though, that children and their actions alone do not decide if the process fails or succeeds. Parents seem to be able to mitigate children's detrimental influences (if they exist) through their consistent use of the HL. On the other hand, some parents hinder their own efforts either through their fears, beliefs, or other personal limitations. Finally, based on the data, place of residence does not seem to play a significant role in the process. Some parents are able to raise bilingual children despite living in a place that poses challenges to bilingual families. These parents are able to overcome obstacles through their own efforts and consistency of the HL use.
    • Landscape characteristics influence climate change effects on juvenile chinook and coho salmon rearing habitat in the Kenai River watershed

      Meyer, Benjamin; Rinella, Daniel; Wipfli, Mark; Schoen, Erik; Falke, Jeffrey (2020-08)
      Changes in temperature and precipitation as a result of ongoing climate warming in south-central Alaska are affecting juvenile salmon rearing habitat differently across watersheds. Work presented here simulates summer growth rates of juvenile Chinook and coho salmon in streams under future climate and feeding scenarios in the Kenai River (Alaska) watershed across a spectrum of landscape settings from lowland to glacially-influenced. I used field-derived data on water temperature, diet, and body size as inputs to bioenergetics models to simulate growth for the 2030-2039 and 2060-2069 time periods, comparing back to 2010-2019. My results suggest decreasing growth rates under most future scenarios; predicted changes were of lower magnitude in the cooler glacial watershed and main stem and more in montane and lowland watersheds. The results demonstrate how stream and landscape types differentially filter a climate signal to juvenile rearing salmon habitat and contribute to a broader portfolio of habitats in early life stages. Additionally, I examined two years of summer water temperature data from sites throughout our study tributaries to assess the degree to which lower-reach sites are representative of upstream thermal regimes. I found that the lower reaches in the lowland and glacial study watersheds were reasonably representative of daily and seasonal main stem thermal conditions upstream, while in the montane study watershed (elevation and gradient mid-way between the lowland watershed) upstream conditions were less consistent and thus less suitable for thermal characterization by a lower-reach site alone. Together, this work highlights examples of the importance of accounting for habitat diversity when assessing climate change impacts to salmon-bearing streams.