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dc.contributor.authorIbarra, Sonia Natalie
dc.date.accessioned2021-11-29T03:27:47Z
dc.date.available2021-11-29T03:27:47Z
dc.date.issued2021-05
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11122/12552
dc.descriptionThesis (Ph.D.) University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2021en_US
dc.description.abstractComplex resource conflicts may benefit from the inclusion of social-ecological systems approaches that recognize the complex linkages between humans and their environment. Competition for shared shellfish resources by sea otters and humans in Southeast Alaska has caused food security concerns, cultural and economic losses, and uncertainty about the future of various fisheries, including rural subsistence-based fisheries. In rural Alaska Native communities, access to subsistence resources are critical to maintaining a way of life, with deeply rooted knowledge systems that are tied to the land, water, and natural resources. This dissertation documents Indigenous and local knowledge of Alaska Native customary and traditional food experts, sea otter hunters, and elders (hereafter harvest experts) to understand empirical observation and interpretations of restoring balance with sea otters. This work took place within the traditional territories of the Tlingit and Haida people of Southeast Alaska in four rural communities, Kake, Klawock, Craig, and Hydaburg. With Tribal leaders and harvest experts, my collaborators and I used a participatory framework that became a formal partnership to co-develop study goals, objectives, and methodology. Through a multiple evidence-based approach, I co-conducted semidirected and site visit interviews, structured questionnaires, mapping exercises, and participant observation in all four communities, and intertidal bivalve (shellfish) surveys in Hydaburg and Kake. Qualitative and quantitative approaches revealed local and Indigenous knowledge about sea otters caused changes to subsistence shellfish resources and harvesting patterns that included declines in availability and spatial extent of shellfish harvests, and shifts in shellfish harvest hotspots. Community adaptive strategies to observed shellfish declines include shifting harvest locations away from sea otter presence. Community management recommendations about restoring balance with sea otters include increasing sea otter hunting locally using spatially explicit techniques. Financial subsidies for sea otter hunters, creating local tanneries, legal changes to the Marine Mammal Protection Act, and market creation and development for sea otter handicrafts were noted as solutions to barriers of local implementation to management recommendations. Commercial and charter fisheries are other factors that have contributed to shellfish declines. Butter clam (Saxidomus gigantea) size and density declined with increased distance to community and increased sea otter activity near Hydaburg, demonstrating the influence of sea otters and human harvests on bivalve population dynamics. Application of these results about Indigenous knowledge, management, and governance systems to sea otter management in Alaska could create a more inclusive, equitable and community-driven management approach.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Science Foundation (NSF) Coastal SEES grant (#1600230), Alaska Sea Grant (project R/111-03), National Institutes of Health (#UL1GM118991, TL4GM118992, RL5GM118990), NSF Graduate Research Program Fellowship, NSF Integrative Graduate Education and Research Training (IGERT) program Marine Ecosystem Sustainability in the Arctic and Subarctic (MESAS) Fellowship, Andrew W. Mellon Fellowship, Sustainable Southeast Partnership, American Fisheries Society Hutton Junior Fisheries Program, Alaska Conservation Fund, Alaska Native Fund, Sealaska Corporation, and Spruce Rooten_US
dc.description.tableofcontentsGeneral introduction -- Chapter 1: Documenting community observations and interpretations of reductions to customary and traditional shellfish resources among Indigenous communities in Southeast Alaska with sea otters -- Chapter 2: Two top predators and their interaction: Butter clam (Saxidomus giganteus) abundance and size distribution across indices of sea otter and human harvest -- Chapter 3: Community management recommendations and governance: Contemporary intersection of sea otters, indigenous communities, and shellfish in Southeast Alaska -- General Conclusion.en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.subjectBiologyen_US
dc.subjectSoutheast Alaskaen_US
dc.subjectShellfish as fooden_US
dc.subjectShellfish gatheringen_US
dc.subjectShellfish populationsen_US
dc.subjectPredationen_US
dc.subjectShellfishen_US
dc.subjectHabitaten_US
dc.subjectSea otteren_US
dc.subjectAnimal communitiesen_US
dc.subjectEthnobiologyen_US
dc.subjectEthnoecologyen_US
dc.subjectTraditional ecological knowledgeen_US
dc.subjectEthnoscienceen_US
dc.subjectSubsistence economyen_US
dc.subjectSubsistence fishingen_US
dc.subject.otherDoctor of Philosophy in Fisheriesen_US
dc.titleAddressing a complex resource conflict: humans, sea otters, and shellfish in Southeast Alaskaen_US
dc.typeThesisen_US
dc.type.degreephden_US
dc.identifier.departmentDepartment of Fisheriesen_US
dc.contributor.chairEckert, Ginny L.
dc.contributor.committeeMonteith, Daniel
dc.contributor.committeePyare, Sanjay
dc.contributor.committeeLangdon, Stephen J.
dc.contributor.committeeVanBlaricom, Glenn
refterms.dateFOA2021-11-29T03:27:48Z


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