• Evolution of marine organisms under climate change at different levels of biological organisation.

      Harvey, Ben P.; Al-Janabi, Balsam; Broszeit, Stefanie; Cioffi, Rebekah; Kumar, Amit; Aranguren-Gassi, Maria; Bailey, Allison; Green, Leon; Gsottbauer, Carina M.; Hall, Emilie F.; et al. (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2014)
      Research to date has suggested that both individual marine species and ecological processes are expected to exhibit diverse responses to the environmental effects of climate change. Evolutionary responses can occur on rapid (ecological) timescales, and yet studies typically do not consider the role that adaptive evolution will play in modulating biological responses to climate change. Investigations into such responses have typically been focused at particular biological levels (e.g., cellular, population, community), often lacking interactions among levels. Since all levels of biological organisation are sensitive to global climate change, there is a need to elucidate how different processes and hierarchical interactions will influence species fitness. Therefore, predicting the responses of communities and populations to global change will require multidisciplinary efforts across multiple levels of hierarchy, from the genetic and cellular to communities and ecosystems. Eventually, this may allow us to establish the role that acclimatisation and adaptation will play in determining marine community structures in future scenarios.