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AbstractVery few, comprehensive resources, exist that are designed to help a novice bathroom remodeler complete their renovation. Often resources assume the remodeler has a higher level of experience than in reality or the resources are not compiled in a useful manner to help complete an entire bathroom remodel. This project is important because bathroom renovations often spiral out of control due existing bathroom conditions and a lack of knowledge. This project will address the latter of these two issues. This project will develop a “How to Tool” that could be used by novice bathroom remodelers to aid in their remodel of a bathroom who are on a limited budget. This “How to Tool” will provide resources in a consolidated format that will guide a novice remodeler through their bathroom remodel to ensure that they are able to maximize the value of their investment while preventing the project from spiraling out of financial control.
DescriptionA Project Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE in Project Management
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Neuroendocrine and glial cell remodeling in a hibernating mammalDuncan, Cassandra; Williams, Cory; O'Brien, Kristin; Christian, Helen (2021-08)In most seasonally breeding vertebrates, changes in photoperiod trigger the remodeling of neuroendocrine and glial cells known to be involved in activation of the reproductive axis. We used electron microscopy to determine whether similar remodeling occurs under conditions of continuous darkness during hibernation in arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii). Immediately prior to the reproductive season, arctic ground squirrels naturally sequester themselves in a persistently dark hibernacula for 6-8 months where they experience only muted fluctuations in ambient temperature. Hibernation consists of two to three week-long bouts of torpor, during which body temperature and metabolism are depressed, periodically interrupted by short (<24h) interbout arousals where animals become euthermic and metabolism returns to "normal" levels. Although their exact functions are unknown, interbout arousals are generally thought to be associated with homeostatic processes. With the exception of brief dynamic changes during interbout arousals, brain activity and neuroendocrine pathways are generally thought to be relatively static across hibernation. We hypothesized that interbout arousals may allow for cellular ultrastructural remodeling of pars tuberalis thyrotroph cells, hypothalamic tanycytes, and pars distalis gonadotroph cells across hibernation, allowing for animals to activate their reproductive axis in anticipation of the active season. To test this, we sampled brains from arctic ground squirrels during early, mid-, and late hibernation, as well as post hibernation. We found evidence for cellular remodeling and activation of the reproductive axis across hibernation including decreases in neuronal contacts with the hypothalamic basal lamina, increases in the cell area and decreases in granule density of pars distalis gonadotrophs, increases in gonadal mass, and upregulation of steroidogenic genes in gonadal tissue. We hypothesize that the return to euthermy during interbout arousals allows for remodeling of the hypothalamus and pituitary, which we tested by exposing male arctic ground squirrels to a warm ambient temperature (30°C) during midhibernation, which causes animals to prematurely end hibernation. However, the premature termination of hibernation resulted in limited ultrastructural changes, suggesting that temperature alone is insufficient to activate reproductive maturation. Altogether, our study reveals a previously underappreciated physiological dynamism during hibernation that allows animals to rapidly transition between seemingly incongruous life-history states.
Atp-Dependent Chromatin Remodeling Complexes In Xenopus DevelopmentBrown, Elvin E.; Krebs, Jocelyn E.; Drew, Kelly (2010)A central question in the study of vertebrate development is how to account for the exquisite interplay of genes within differentiating cells and of groups of cells as they create the organs of the vertebrate embryo. Recently it has become clear that gene regulation by epigenetic processes adds a formerly unappreciated level of complexity to the regulatory network of development. One form of epigenetic gene regulation is embodied in ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes, which use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to alter the interactions of DNA and histones. Chromatin remodeling complexes can both promote and repress expression of a gene at the appropriate time and place in vertebrate development. The list of their known roles in development is long and growing. Here I have studied the developmental role of CHRAC17, a subunit of the CHRAC and ATAC complexes, by visualizing its expression and by ablating CHRAC17 function in Xenopus laevis embryos. Whole mount in situ hybridization localized CHRAC17 expression to the neural tube, cranial placodes, and myotomes. Loss of CHRAC17 function following injection of embryos with CHRAC17-specific morpholino oligonucleotides resulted in abnormal development in the neural tube, eyes, notochord, and pharyngeal pouches, underlining the critical importance of CHRAC17 function in Xenopus development. Similarly, ablating the function of CHD4, the ATPase motor of the NuRD chromatin remodeling complex, resulted in severe developmental abnormalities in early Xenopus development.
Expression and function of the ATP dependent chromatin remodeler imitation switch in Xenopus laevisDirscherl, Sara Suzanne (2005-05)One of the first ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes was first identified and characterized over ten years ago. Since then, the number of distinct ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes and the variety of roles they play in nuclear processes have become dizzying. Some of the processes include transcription, replication, repair, recombination, and sister chromatid cohesion. The SWI/SNF-related ATP-dependent remodelers are divided into a number of subfamilies, all related by the SWI2/SNF2 ATPase at their catalytic core. In nearly every species where researchers have looked for them, one or more members of each subfamily have been identified. Here I have investigated the ATP dependent chromatin remodeler ISWI. I have shown that Xenopus ISWI, which is in its own subfamily, has a critical function in developing neural tissue. Whole mount in situ hybridization shows ISWI localized in neural tissue including the eye and developing neural tube. Injection of antisense ISWI RNA, morpholino oligonucleotides or dominant-negative ISWI mutant mRNA into fertilized eggs misregulates genes involved in patterning and development, such as BMP4 and Sonic hedgehog (Shh), and ISWI binds to the BMP4 gene in vivo. Partial inhibition of ISWI function results in aberrant eye development and the formation of cataracts. These data suggest a critical role for ISWI chromatin remodeling complexes in neural development.