The universal duty to alleviate inflicted suffering: An ethical grounding for Siu's new discipline of PaneticsDr. Ralph G. H. Siu has challenged the intellectual community with a call for a new academic discipline that he calls Panetics (from the Pali word paneti meaning 'to inflict'). Panetics is the study of humanly engendered suffering, its causes and methods of alleviation. Suffering is measured in units called dukkhas (from the Pali word dukkha meaning suffering), which are the product of the intensity of pain and the amount of time the pain is endured. The result will be in terms of units of suffering, i.e. the dukkha. Dr. Siu has argued that this new academic discipline is not a forum for the discussion of theoretical ethics nor is there any implied moral precept which prescribes moral action. It will be shown that not only are there prescriptions for moral action embedded in panetic talk but that the entire discipline rests on moral presuppositions. In addition, a normative ethic is implied in the purpose of the Panetic Calculus, and this will be clarified. It will be shown that Dr. Siu's approach to the "New Utilitarianism" constitutes a form of negative utilitarianism, which may provide an 'ethical ground' upon which to rest what will be called the Principle of Least Inflicted Suffering. It will be argued that this Principle can be universalized because the 'ethical ground' upon which it rests is composed of a human universal (viz, human suffering), a component of all human 'forms of life.'
Feasibility Of Farm-To-School In Alaska: A State-Wide Investigation Of Perspectives From School Food Service ProfessionalsChildhood obesity is a significant public health concern and schools are a key setting for prevention. The majority of U.S. children are enrolled in school where they consume a large portion of their daily energy. Farm-to-school programs are a promising strategy for preventing childhood obesity in school-aged children. The overall objective of this study was to conduct a baseline assessment of Alaska school food service professionals' perspectives of using local foods. Specific objectives were to: 1) Assess interest in utilizing local foods, 2) Identify perceived barriers to purchasing local foods, and 3) Determine resources needed to facilitate local food procurement. A survey was administered to all school food service professionals in Alaska (n = 74) who oversee the National School Lunch Program in their program site or district. The survey consisted of open and close-ended questions, comprising six domains: interest, perceived benefits, perceived usefulness, perceived barriers, and future needs. Descriptive statistics were performed on all variables. The majority (80-96%) of school food service professionals reported interest in utilizing local foods in the school meal programs. School food service professional's reported concern with finding a reliable supply (67%) and the cost (46%) of locally sourced foods. Nearly all (92%) school food service professional's agreed that information about what foods are available, where to purchase them, and USDA purchasing regulations would be useful. Farm-to-school strategies are attainable in Alaska. Interest is high, and perceived barriers and challenges are consistent with national findings. The most useful resources identified could be accommodated through increased communication and use of existing resources.
Indigenous Television In The Canadian North: Evolution, Operation, And Impact On Cultural Preservation.Indigenous television broadcasting in the Canadian North has evolved as a successful response to help mitigate the cultural domination imposed over the aboriginal people in the Canadian North via television which originates in the Canadian South and other dominant television producers such as the United States. I have concluded, based on my research and the results from a survey of indigenous people in the Canadian North, that the evolution of indigenous television in the Canadian North has enabled the indigenous people of the Canadian North to achieve greater cultural stability within the increased political empowerment and self-determination that their television programming has been able to afford them. A brief discussion of the evolution of indigenous television in Australia compares the evolution of a similar system in another context and emphasizes the success of the Canadian experience. <p>
Observable effects of attention, posture, ergonomics and movement in the classroomTwo studies related to student attention, posture, school ergonomics, student behavior (leaning, standing up, and moving), and learning engagement were conducted in Alaska. The Children's Postural Improvement Study (CPIS) looked at the observable effects of two interventions on attention. In the Classroom Environmental Study (CES) a baseline ergonomic survey compared observed student behavior and classroom arrangements. The purpose of the CPIS was to investigate the effects of a postural education program, consisting of five 30-minute instructional sessions, as compared to a nutritional intervention at two elementary schools and its effect on attention. Three quantitative tools measured attention, the post-Partial Vanderbilt ADHD Teacher and Parent rating scales and pre- and post-math fluency tests. Qualitative measures included pre- and postintervention photographs, daily comments from students after the lesson, and post open-ended-question student and teacher surveys. Based on the post-surveys, participants valued their good posture and made concentrated efforts to improve it. Quantitative results of this postural study revealed no correlation between posture and attention. The follow-up CES examined the current state of furniture in 78 classrooms and pedagogical practices in regard to student movement and learning engagement in eight fourth-grade classrooms in three elementary schools. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant school effect for leaning and significant classroom nested within school effects for leaning, standing up, and moving. Classroom sketches were coded to examine movement and posture. No significant difference for desk clusters by grade, or by school using the Chi-squared test were found, but there was a significant difference comparing the seating relationship to instructional delivery by grade and by school. Recommendations for future research and changes within Schools of Education and school districts to improve posture and learning engagement include: adjust current students' chairs and desks to meet their ergonomic needs; raise awareness of and inform pre-service, current teachers, students, and parents about ergonomic health concepts; encourage teachers to move around the classroom while instructing to engage students as they track the teacher's movement; and limit instructional periods to 20 minutes or less to allow for student movement breaks.