Recent Submissions

  • In car video for law enforcement in rural communities

    Harrison, Wade Gray; Duke, Rob; Boldt, Frank; May, Jeffrey (2022-08)
    Rural communities in Alaska face technical challenges in law enforcement every day. Over recent and past years, rural communities specifically have faced challenges with obtaining in-car video systems. There are numerous best practices that are research projects done by the Department of Justice and other scholarly resources to support this claim. In this project, a need feasibility and application for Alaska law enforcement and the benefits of in-car video systems for dash cams and transport/in car camera systems will be discussed. Any opposing views or challenges will also be discussed. This researcher will look at a logical argument for the claim of in car video systems, some best practices are that are used today in relation to in-car video systems, and I will explore the literature that are related to organization change in order to accomplish this goal in the Nome Police Department and similar agencies.
  • Hatred and harm: the influence of digital pimps and the miseducation of the hyper-masculine man

    Lantier-Novelli, Justin; Duke, J. Robert; May, Jeffrey; Boldt, Frank (2021-12)
    The purpose of this research project is to measure the effects of a correlation between exposure to violent, hardcore sexually-explicit Internet materials, or SEIM (also known as pornography), and behaviors and attitudes that demean, degrade, subjugate, and abuse women and girls resulting in systemic gender inequality. Research is based on peer-reviewed journal articles, subject-matter publications, crime statistics, personal interviews with experts, and meta-analyses of previous research on related topics. The research has demonstrated a very strong correlation between exposure to SEIM and hyper-masculine attitudes and behaviors of gender-inequality toward women, beginning at one end of the spectrum with verbal micro-aggressions or misogynistic cultural biases and ending at the other end with sexual assault or sexual abuse, depending on external factors of the user including environmental, social, family of origin, and psychological. The conclusion is that any exposure to SEIM relates to negative attitudes and behaviors toward women, but that specific types of individuals are more effected by such exposure. All exposure to these materials should be limited to avoid continued gender-inequality in our society.
  • Bridging the cultural divide: creating culturally diverse therapeutic foster homes in rural Alaska

    Dillard, Erica A.; Daku, Mike; Duke, J. Robert; May, Jeff; Boldt, Frank (2021-12)
    The disproportionate number of American Indian and Alaska Native children being removed from their homes and communities by Child Protective Services is statistically alarming. Despite the current resources available, many families are unable to take advantage of these resources due to issues caused by their rural environments. This paper reviews the causes leading up to the removal of American Indian and Alaska Native children from their homes and communities, examines the importance of cultural identity, and discusses the resources that are needed to prevent these removals from occurring.
  • The shift towards marijuana legalization and its effect on violent crime trends

    Michael, Kari L.; Duke, J. Robert; Daku, Mike; May, Jeffrey; Boldt, Frank (2021-05)
    This study assesses the restrictiveness of state marijuana policies on overall violent crime rates. Considering the effects that current marijuana policies have on violent crime rates within individualized states will hopefully allow for more refined decisions based on empirical data in both state and federal legislation in the future. Data was collected from 1995 in order to allow for a time period prior to any marijuana legalization, medical or recreational and every third year after until 2019, when the most recent data had been made available for violent crime rates. Four different states were analyzed: California, Hawaii, Texas and North Carolina so as to give a general, broad-spectrum view of populations throughout the United States. Their legislation policies on marijuana, violent crime rates per year, and total crime rates per year were compiled and numerical data was recoded into tables and some converted into percentages. The data was then used to see if there was a significant correlation between if and when marijuana (medical or recreational) was legalized and the overall violent crime rate in the state. Finally, all four states were compared based on their legislation and violent crime rates to see if this could prove any association found. The data and the graphs generated did not show a statistically significant relationship between marijuana legislation and violent crime rates.
  • The catalyst for contemporary jihad: the religious leaders and their strategies

    DeWitt, Ronnie; Duke, Rob; Skya, Walter; Sine, Don; Botros, Maged; Boylan, Brandon (2021-08)
    This dissertation provides insight in the methodologies utilized by leaders of jihadist terrorist organizations who create a dedicated following in their pursuit of establishing a global caliphate. The research in this project illustrates a linkage from these charismatic leaders to the sacred edicts of the Koran, the Hadith, the Sunna, Sharia (Islamic jurisprudence), and the prophet Muhammad. Moreover, it bears out a unique perspective in academic national security studies which delves deeper than similar published works regarding subject matter focused on both violent and stealth jihad (also known as the non-violent usurpation of non-Islamic cultures). These subjects are discussed in detail with real-world examples that focus on the surreptitious use of political propaganda and sustaining influence, which are key ingredients necessary to recruit empathetic followers into doing the bidding of Islamic-based terrorist organizations. Without studying the psychological aspect that motivates potential terrorists it would be a daunting task to develop countermeasures in defeating this global threat. This dissertation also reviews key literature related to this concept. This investigative study bears out a perspective that uniquely differs from any previously published work in this discipline due to the author's professional experience outside of academic research. This will become clear in chapter seven which focuses upon the infamous Day of Terror trial in the Southern District of New York Federal Court in 1995. This episode, coupled with other evidence, will prove that jihadists have been striving to establish a global Islamist caliphate by utilizing terrorism and cultural usurpation.
  • Learning to work and think for life

    Sprankle, Elizabeth; Daku, Mike; Duke, J. Robert; Boldt, Frank (2019-08)
    This paper explores literature related to the use of restorative discipline and restorative practices in school communities. It draws heavily on the ideas presented in Ron and Roxanne Claassens’ book, Discipline that Restores, in order to illustrate why students, staff, administrators, families and the community connected to a traditional public high school, such as West Valley High School, in Fairbanks, Alaska, would benefit from shifting to a restorative approach to discipline. The paper also examines numerous sources to demonstrate why embedding lessons related to social justice and restorative practices into content areas is logical and beneficial and attainable and that both these embedded courses and this approach to discipline support and foster content related to a Career Technical Education pathway focused on Education, Public & Human Services.
  • Tackling revenge porn: mitigating destructive behaviors among minors through education

    Spencer, Dominique Nichelle; Boldt, Frank; Duke, J. Robert; Boldt, Frank (2019-08)
    Revenge porn is at the forefront of the American consciousness now more than ever before. The effects of revenge pom are long-lasting for both victims and perpetrators, yet efforts to address these behaviors remain highly unorganized. A combination of victim blaming, an inability to keep up with technology, and poor legislation have made the process of addressing revenge pom extremely challenging. Although anyone can become a victim of revenge pom, this report will focus on the group in our society which is the most susceptible to these risks and the least protected, minors and young adults. Furthermore, this report will delve into the social, psychological, financial, and legal ramifications of participating in revenge pom. Finally, this report will advocate for the implementation of comprehensive sex education programs in schools, because education is the only way to render the excuse of ignorance of the law invalid.
  • Community policing: implementing community policing in our communities

    Johnson, Devin R.; Duke, J. Robert; Boldt, Frank (2019-08)
    Community policing is a philosophy that is geared towards achieving more effective and efficient crime control, reducing the fear of crime, improving police legitimacy, and services that improve the quality of life in the community. A philosophy such as this is believed to hold law enforcement officers to a higher standard of accountability, allows the public to be involved in the decision-making process, and put a greater emphasis on civil rights and liberties. Law enforcement officers in many communities network in order to build a rapport between the law enforcement agencies and the community. Community-Oriented policing addresses the root of crime and helps reduce the fear that non-law-abiding citizens bestow on the community. community policing is a government-funded program that can only flourish if everybody is involved in reducing the terror of crime.
  • Eliminating 3-strikes policies: a secondary research analysis that evaluates 3-strikes policies and proposes a strategy for weaning states off of a policy that does not work

    Grubb, Austyn Ava Hewitt; Duke, J. Robert; Boldt, Frank; Daku, Mike (2019-08)
    The 3-strike policy was adopted by some states in the 1990s. Crime rates were becoming an increasing issue and the general public was starting to notice. The policy was supposed to decrease the crime rates to make people safe. The drastic sentencing on the last strike was supposed to decrease crime rates and create a safe environment for the public. This policy has done the opposite as what was intended and now states are facing multiple issues. Reversal of the 3-strikes policies could: reverse the increased crime rates, cause less financial issues, and offenders have the opportunity to get an appropriate sentencing.
  • Exploring the impact of culture in strengthening the stewardship of compact funds in the Federated States of Micronesia: a convergent parallel mixed methods design

    Asuncion-Nace, Zenaida; Duke, Rob; Walter, Ansito; Skya, Walter; Ho, Kevin; Perez, Karri (2019-08)
    As the U.S. attempts to create conditions for a self-sufficient Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), significant uncertainty remains. Based on the agreement between the U.S. and the FSM under the Compact of Free Association Act (COFA) of 1985, Federal funds are transferred to FSM to sustain its economy in return for the free use of FSM's land, water and air for U.S. military purposes. As originally envisioned, this transfer would be complete by 2023, but with only a few years remaining, this goal seems unattainable. Neither the U.S. government nor the FSM seem willing to make concessions. With the U.S. demanding better oversight and accountable accounting practices, and the U.S. Financial Stability Board (FSB) asserting culturally informed management prerogative, both entities' interests are imperiled, especially as China seems to be waiting in anticipation to pick up the pieces should an impasse be reached. This mixed-methods research (surveys and interviews) was conducted utilizing the employees of two FSM national government departments: The National Department of Education and National Department of Public Health and Human Services. These two FSM departments receive the largest share of federal assistance. This research paper attempts to generate insights on the impact of culture in strengthening the accountability of Compact funds in the FSM. The study explores the social stratification and hierarchy in Micronesian societies in terms of stewardship competencies to fulfill the federal administrative requirements in the management of federal funds. What works for the mainland U.S. may not work worldwide. The effect and import of cultural influences cannot be understated, particularly in relationships amongst cultures that vary widely, as do those of the U.S. and FSM. It's important to understand the nuances of how the notion of stewardship is perceived and exercised in other countries, especially when the interests of two nations converge, while their cultures do not. This study represents the present environment in FSM governance. Understanding culture and its influences is an essential step in considering the real effect on a leadership style, transcending to ethics and stewardship. A leadership style can have a different effect or impact in other societies relative to the cultural environment in which it is adopted. This research finds support for the notion that leadership styles cannot be embraced and applied in similar manner throughout the various cultures or nations. There are a wide variety of different leadership styles across the globe; each individual region possesses its own cultural idiosyncrasies, and naturally these are reflected in the way in which people lead. This dissertation concludes with eight specific recommendations for implementing structural and policy reforms which will strengthen the relationship between the U.S. and FSM and better prepare FSM to be self-sufficient.
  • DUI courts: the need for standardized DUI court evaluations

    Cameron, Howard; May, Jeff; Boldt, Frank; Duke, J. Robert (2018-12)
    There have been numerous evaluations of driving under the influence (DUI) treatment courts. The evaluation process and tools vary widely. This research project reviewed seven individual courts' evaluations, including process evaluations and outcome evaluations to determine the strength of each court's evaluation. The research goal was to better understand how these courts are evaluated, the strength of those evaluation processes, and to determine what, if any, changes can and should be made to strengthen them. Presently, there are not any standardized evaluations tools for DUI treatment courts. This research concludes that evaluations should be standardized and such standardization will allow for a stronger evaluation and the ability to uniformly compare courts and court processes.
  • The Fairbanks Four: hopeless innocence and the flawed system that escorted them to stagnant wrongful convictions

    Hill, Meghan (2014)
    This project explores factors that lead to wrongful convictions with a case study from 1997 on the sensitive claim of innocence on the Fairbanks, Alaska community: The John Hartman murder. As the representative model throughout the project, this sexual assault and murder case of the accused Fairbanks Four will be examined. Through a multi-disciplinary scope, the topic will be approached through numerous accounts of research, interviews, and field-work. By dissecting the Fairbanks Four case and applying it to the research of the burdensome appeals process, the supporting factors are apparent in the practices that lead to wrongful convictions. In the synopsis, methods that lead to convictions, as well as the inconsistent wavering time table, will be disclosed. Further, counter methods to tactics currently practiced and how to avoid time delays of such a rigorous and often hopeless process will also be included. With underdog defense organizations such as The Innocence Project and The Alaska Innocence Project growth and expansion, we increasingly see success in the overturn of wrongful convictions throughout the United States. This paper will argue and highlight the systemic faults in the current convictions process and identify recommendations to modify such faults in relation to the case study of the Fairbanks Four.
  • Preventing recidivism by using the theory of reintegrative shaming with conferences

    Enters, Patrick G.; Jarrett, Brian; Daku, Michael; Duke, J. Robert; May, Jeff (2013-06)
    Driving while intoxicated in the United States is a major problem with more than 31 percent of national driving fatalities caused by intoxicated drivers. The purpose of the present study is to identify the possibility between the use of reintegrative shaming with conferences and the likelihood that it will reduce the recidivism of driving while intoxicated. The study explores John Brathwaite's theory on reintegrative shaming and how that theory applies in conferences. The emerging theory o f Storylines from Robert Agnew is also explored in its importance when conducting these conferences. Studies conducted in Australia, Pennsylvania, Kansas and Alaska have all suggested that the use of conferences, especially those which utilize reintegrative shaming and reintegrating offenders back into the community reduces the recidivism rates. The research found in this article helps point future studies to examine offenders in a longer term after they have completed reintegrative shaming programs and conferences.
  • Segregated prisoners: nature imagery project in prisons as a program option

    Schwankl, Kristine (2018)
    Solitary confinement can be summarized as the state of being alone in a prison cell for 22 to 24 hours a day with minimal human interaction, little to no natural light, property restrictions, visitation constraints, and the inability to participate in group activities and communal meals. Solitary confinement can go by many names; it can be referred to as lockdown, Security or Special Housing Units (SHU), Special Management Units (SMU), administrative segregation, disciplinary or punitive segregation, restrictive housing, or "the hole". Solitary confinement is utilized for many purposes, primarily for the health and safety of themselves and others. It was first intended as a means of rehabilitation. However, instead, it has contributed to negative psychological and physiological effects on prisoners. There is argument for and against the use of solitary confinement and reformation efforts are being made to reduce solitary confinement. In an attempt to provide programming to segregated prisoners and reduce the amount of time that prisoners are in their cells, various correctional institutions have implemented nature imagery programs to reduce violent behavior and physiological states. Nature Imagery in Prisons Project (NIPP) was the first program of its kind and has laid the groundwork for other correctional institutions to follow. Programs such as this are designed for segregated prisoners and are used as a means of rehabilitation for these individuals as they prepare for their return to the community or to general prison population.
  • Alaska pretrial project proposal: organizational structure change to incorporate a mental health focus

    Gabriel, Anna (2018)
    The Pretrial Enforcement Division (PED) for the Alaska Department of Corrections (DOC) came into operation on January 1, 2018. PED emerged out of senate bill ninety-one (91) in hopes to reduce incarceration population, and the overall costs of corrections to the state. In response to the new division, a closer look at how this may or may not affect the prison population with behavioral health needs is analyzed. DOC is the number one mental health provider in the state, and often individuals with behavioral health needs are incarcerated longer than those without. With the proposal of assessing all defendants prior to initial arraignment for behavioral health needs, and making referrals to identified community providers, it is hopeful that this can be mitigated. Pretrial supervision for those with identified needs will include Pretrial Enforcement Officers (PEO) to handle specialized caseloads, Crisis Intervention Training (CIT), community behavioral health services, and access to social services.
  • Police culture: does culture prevent proper policing?

    McGuffin, Michael; Duke, J. Robert; May, Jeff; Boldt, Frank (2018)
    This project is about identifying the key issues that police officers face in today's society. There is an emphasis on community policing and to adjust police training to account for the strong pull of the police subculture. The main purpose of this project is to strengthen the bonds between the police and the community and changing how officers approach their interactions within the community. The end goal is to alleviate community concerns that police officers are out to get them while also alleviating the concerns officers have that the community hates them. This project will attempt to quell those concerns while proposing a solution that benefits both officers, the police department, and the community.
  • Creating, communicating and measuring strategic objectives through the application of a balanced scorecard: the case of the University of Alaska Fairbanks Police Department

    McGee, Sean Eric; Duke, Rob; Berry, Kevin; May, Jeffrey (2015-08)
    This project served to align the vision and mission of the University of Alaska Fairbanks Police Department with the needs of the University community through the employment of a balanced scorecard. The balanced scorecard itself is a strategic performance management framework that enables organizations to identify, manage and measure strategic objectives. While there have been instances where police agencies have attempted to implement the balanced scorecard in the past, these police agencies have been very large, and they failed to achieve the level of granularity in their balanced scorecard necessary to effectively identify and manage true strategic objectives. In case of the University of Alaska Fairbanks Police Department, the balanced scorecard served to answer four fundamental questions: how will they sustain their ability to change and improve, what business processes must they excel at, how should they be perceived by their community, and how can they be responsible stewards of the funds that they are given?
  • Fairbanks juvenile recidivism case study: a comparison of criminogenic needs and case planning of recidivists and non-recidivists

    Dompeling, Tracy A. (2015-08)
    Research has shown that addressing criminogenic needs of offenders, both juvenile and adult, can reduce the likelihood of recidivism. Utilizing the Risk Need Responsivity theory (Andrews, Bonta, & Hoge, 1990; Andrews, Zinger, et al., 1990), the hypothesis for this small case study of youth recidivist and non-recidivists in interior Alaska was developed to compare data to determine if what is identified in research models to reduce recidivism correlated to what was applied in practice with juvenile offenders. Specifically this comparative case study intended to show that youth who had case plans which were identified to be "inadequate," that they had fewer than 75% of the identified criminogenic needs from their YLS/CMI addressed on their case plan, would be more likely to recidivate. Further, youth who had case plans which were identified to be "adequate," that they had greater than 75% of their identified criminogenic needs from their YLS/CMI addressed on their case plan, would be less likely to recidivate.The case study also compared case plans of recidivists and non-recidivists in the use of dynamic criminogenic needs and any subsequent impact on recidivism. After the statistical analysis of both the efficacy of case plans addressing individual criminogenic needs as well as the efficacy of case plans addressing dynamic criminogenic needs and their impact on reduction of recidivism, only the later analysis of dynamic criminogenic needs was able to reject the null hypothesis; that inclusion of criminogenic needs on a case plan has no impact on recidivism.
  • Helping veterans through outreach

    Ebersole, Rodney B.; Daku, Mike; Boldt, Frank; Duke, Rob (2017-12)
    The present Master's project seeks to develop a better understanding of Veterans and what they are going through. Research methods include extensive data on the high suicide rates of Veterans. Veteran and service members are in need of a service to them that will address the issue of suicide and what can be done to help and eliminate this problem. The programs that need to be designed to help needs should be in locations that have Veteran populations so as to serve them with their needs. Ultimately, Veterans Affairs (VA) officials have boosted their mental health personnel and suicide hotline staff in recent years, but at this time their data does not reflect it helping Veterans getting the help that they so desperately need.

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