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dc.contributor.authorSpaleta, Karen Joy
dc.date.accessioned2023-02-04T23:46:16Z
dc.date.available2023-02-04T23:46:16Z
dc.date.issued2022-12
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11122/13130
dc.descriptionDissertation (Ph.D.) University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2022en_US
dc.description.abstractBismuth (Bi) and tellurium (Te) are technologically critical elements (TCEs), also known as critical minerals, primarily recovered as byproducts in the extraction of lead (Pb) and copper (Cu), respectively. Global demand for Bi and Te is expected to rise signicantly in the coming decades as energy production becomes carbon neutral. In order to meet this demand, alternative sources of Bi and Te must be identifed. Bismuth and Te are commonly enriched in granitoid-related gold (Au) deposits and epithermal Au-Ag-Te deposits but are not presently recovered. Identifying which Bi and Te minerals are present throughout the Au extraction process is essential to determining where these elements might be recovered and in what quantities. Concurrent with the need to identify potential sources of TCEs is the need to validate advancements in analytical geochemical methods. Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) methods have become a go-to mineralogical identication tool in the mineral exploration and mining industries due to their rapid automated analysis. However, little cross-validation has been done to verify the results and determine the limitations of these tools. Here I present the results of three studies: 1) an EDS bulk mineralogy phase mapping method validation study on Au and Cu mill processing samples; 2) a detailed elemental composition and mineralogical analysis of samples from the Pogo Mine Mill (Interior Alaska, USA) identifying potential annual byproduct recovery of 13.5 and 7.5 metric tonnes of Bi and Te, respectively; and 3) a detailed elemental composition and mineralogical analysis of mill samples from the Golden Sunlight Mine Mill (Whitehall, Montana, USA) identifying Te primarily hosted in pyrite. Using this approach for similar metallurgical studies at other Au mines with known signicant Bi and Te could yield additional targets for recovery and provide a framework for identifying other potential TCEs/critical minerals in other deposits.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipUSGS Mineral Resources External Research Program (Award USGS/G12AP20054), University of Alaska Fairbanks Office of Undergraduate Research and Scholarly Activity (Witte Summer 2014 and McCartney Summer 2017), Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd. Pogo Mine (Hayes 2016)en_US
dc.description.tableofcontentsChapter 1: Introduction -- Chapter 2: To COMPASS minerals but by help of devils: evaluating the utility of principal component analysis on EDS x-ray maps to determine bulk mineralogy -- Chapter 3: The Bi Te of Au: A geometallurgical assessment of Bi and Te deportment in the mill of the Pogo Au deposit, Alaska, USA -- Chapter 4: A geometallurgical assessment of Te in the Golden Sunlight Mill, Montana, USA -- Chapter 5: Conclusions.en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.subjectBismuth oresen_US
dc.subjectBismuth mines and miningen_US
dc.subjectTellurium oresen_US
dc.subjectTelluriumen_US
dc.subjectBismuthen_US
dc.subjectDelta Junctionen_US
dc.subjectMontanaen_US
dc.subjectGolden_US
dc.subjectGold oresen_US
dc.subjectPogo Gold Mineen_US
dc.subjectGolden Sunlight Mines, Inc.en_US
dc.subjectX-ray spectroscopyen_US
dc.subjectIndustrial mineralsen_US
dc.subjectIndustrial minerals industryen_US
dc.subjectStrategic materialsen_US
dc.subject.otherDoctor of Philosophy in Geoscienceen_US
dc.titleFinding solutions to the world's pending critical minerals supply crisis: developing new geochemical analytical methods and evaluating the potential for Te and Bi extraction from existing Au minesen_US
dc.typeDissertationen_US
dc.type.degreephden_US
dc.identifier.departmentDepartment of Geosciencesen_US
dc.contributor.chairNewberry, Rainer J.
dc.contributor.chairHayes, Sarah M.
dc.contributor.committeeKeskinen, Mary J.
dc.contributor.committeePiatak, Nadine M.
dc.contributor.committeeTrainor, Thomas P.


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