• Geographical and Sexual Variation in the Long-Tailed Jaeger Stercorarius Longicaudus Vieillot

      Manning, T. H. (University of Alaska. Institute of Arctic Biology, 1964-08)
      Manning, T. H. 1964. Geographical and sexual variation in the Long-tailed Jaeger, Stercorarius longicaudus Vieillot. Biol. Pap. Univ. Alaska, No. 7. Pp. iii + 16 (Author's address: RR 1, Merrickville, Ontario, Canada) Statistical comparison of the color of the underparts of 474 Nearctic and 64 western and central Palearctic sexed specimens of Long-tailed Jaegers indicates that S. l. pallescens Loppenthin is a valid race ranging across the Nearctic and eastern Siberia to the Indigirka River. Spitsbergen specimens are also referable to this race; Iceland specimens belong to S. l. longicaudus. Females are significantly darker than males. The origin and migration of the two races are discussed. bills and wings of Nearctic males are shorter than those of females, and there are significant geographical differences within the Nearctic population. Regression and correlation statistics for wing and bill lengths are given and discussed. Thirty-two weighed specimens indicate that within populations weight is correlated with wing length but not with bill length.
    • Glacial Geology of the Toolik Lake and Upper Kuparuk River Regions

      Hamilton, Thomas D. (University of Alaska. Institute of Arctic Biology, 2003)
      Glaciers of middle and late Pleistocene age flowed into the upper Kuparuk map area from the west, east, and south. Glacial deposits are assigned to the Sagavanirktok River (middle Pleistocene) and Itkillik I and II (late Pleistocene) glaciations of the central Brooks Range glacial succession. During the initial (maximum) advance of Sagavanirktok River age, large valley glaciers flowed north along the Itkillik, Sagavanirktok, and Kuparuk River drainages. Moraines are massive but subdued, with heavy loess cover and broad flanks smoothed by solifluction. A subsequent less extensive advance of Sagavanirktok River age overflowed into the upper Kuparuk drainage from the west and south, forming moraines and outwash remnants that are intermediate in appearance between those of the maximum advance and the subsequent Itkillik moraine succession. Itkillik I glaciers abutted divides west, east, and south of the upper Kuparuk drainage, but overflowed those divides only locally. Their moraines are modified by weathering and erosion, but on a much smaller scale than deposits of the Sagavaniktok River glaciations. Crests are slightly flattened, with loess and vegetation cover locally absent; kettle lakes are common. The subsequent Itkillik II advance, which dates between about 25 and 11.5 ka (thousand 14C years B.P.), is marked by little-modified moraines with stony crests and steep flanks. Glacial flow patterns were generally similar to those of present-day river drainage. Two major advances of Itkillik II age took place between about 25 and 17 ka, forming extensive ice-stagnation features around Toolik Lake. A subsequent readvance is dated between about 12.8 and 11.4 ka at its type locality near the east end of Atigun Gorge. Surficial deposits of Holocene age, although less extensive than those of Pleistocene glaciation, are locally significant. They include alluvial terraces along the Sagavanirktok River, fan deposits at the mouth of the Atigun River, raised beaches and fan-delta deposits around Galbraith Lake, and local landslides and debris flows.
    • Life in the Cold

      Barnes, Brian M.; Carey, Hannah V. (University of Alaska. Institute of Arctic Biology, 2004)
      Preface; First and Corresponding Author Contact Information; An Evolutionary Framework for Studies of Hibernation and Short-term Torpor -- Gordon C. Grigg; Was Adaptive Hypothermia a Prerequisite for the Colonization of Madagascar By Mammals? -- Barry G. Lovegrove; No Evidence for Torpor in a Small African Mainland Primate: The Lesser Bushbaby, Galago moholi -- Nomakwezi Mzilikazi, Barry G. Lovegrove, and Judith C. Masters; The Origin of Mammalian Heterothermy: A Case for Perpetual Youth? -- Michael B. Harris, Link E. Olson, and William K. Milsom; Passive Rewarming from Torpor in Mammals and Birds: Energetic, Ecological and Evolutionary Implications -- Fritz Geiser, Rebecca L. Drury, Gerhard Kortner, Christopher Turbill, Chris R. Pavey, and R. Mark Brigham; Solar Radiation and the Energetic Cost of Rewarming from Torpor -- Andrew M. McKechnie and Blair O. Wolf; The Role of α-Linolenic Acid (18:3) in Mammalian Torpor -- Craig L. Frank, Wendy R. Hood, and Mary C. Donnelly; Heat Transfer in Humans: Lessons from Large Hibernators -- Dennis Grahn and H. Craig Heller; Factors Influencing the Timing of Dormancy in the Pocket Mouse,Perognathus longimembris -- Alan R. French; The Energetic State-dependency of Autumn Immergence in Eastern Chipmunks -- Murray M. Humphries and Brandon Rodgers; Seasonal Timing of Reproduction and Hibernation in the Edible Dormouse (Glis glis) -- Claudia Bieber and Thomas Ruf; Reproduction and Hibernation in Females: A Comparison of Two Sympatric Ground-Dwelling Rodents -- Eva Millesi, Ilse E. Hoffmann, Anna Aschauer, and Claudia Franceschini; How the Photoperiod Times the Annual Reproductive and Hibernation Cycles -- P. Pevet, M. Saboureau, and P. Klosen; Behaviour, Body Temperature, and Hibernation in Tasmanian Echidnas (Tachyglossus aculeatus) -- Stewart Nicol, Christina Vedel-Smith, and Niels A. Andersen; Metabolic Diversity in Yellow-Bellied Marmots -- Kenneth B. Armitage; Metabolic Rate Reduction During Hibernation and Daily Torpor -- Fritz Geiser; How to Enter Torpor: Thermodynamic and Physiological Mechanisms of Metabolic Depression -- Gerhard Heldmaier and Ralf Elvert; Slow Loss of Protein Integrity During Torpor: A Cause for Arousal? -- Sandra L. Martin, Timothy Dahl, and L. Elaine Epperson; A Technique for Modelling Thermoregulatory Energy Expenditure in Free-ranging Endotherms -- Craig K. R. Willis, Jeffery E. Lane, Eric T. Liknes, David L. Swanson, and R. Mark Brigham; Sex Differences in the Response of Torpor to Exogenous Corticosterone During the Onset of the Migratory Season in Rufous Hummingbirds -- Sara M. Hiebert, John C. Wingfield, Marilyn Ramenofsky, Leah Deni, and Antoinette Grafin zu Elz; The Avian Enigma: “Hibernation” by Common Poorwills (Phalaenoptilus nuttalli) -- Christopher P. Woods and R. Mark Brigham; Shivering Thermogenesis in Birds and Mammals -- Esa Hohtola; The Impact of Social Interactions on Torpor Use in Hummingbirds -- Donald Powers; The Energetics of the Rewarming Phase of Avian Torpor -- Andrew E. McKechnie and Blair O. Wolf; Insect Cold-Hardiness: New Advances Using Gene Screening Technology -- Kenneth B. Storey and David C. McMullen; Advantages and Disadvantages of Freeze-Tolerance and Freeze-Avoidance Overwintering Strategies -- Karl Erick Zachariassen, Sindre Andre Pedersen, and Erlend Kristiansen; Live and Let Diapause: Cell Cycle Regulation During Insect Overwintering -- Savvas c. Pavlides, Kenneth A. Weir, and Steven P. Tammariello; Vertebrate Freeze Tolerance: Role of Freeze-Responsive Gene Expression -- Kenneth B. Storey; Ice, Antifreeze Proteins, and Antifreeze Genes in Polar Fishes -- Arthur L. DeVries; Overwintering in Submerged Turtles -- Donald C. Jackson; Environmental Physiology of Terrestrial Hibernation in Hatchling Turtles -- Patrick J. Baker, Jon P. Costanzo, and Richard E. Lee, Jr.; Overwintering in Tegu Lizards -- Denis V. Andrade, Colin Sanders, William K. Milsom, and Augusto S. Abe; Overwintering in Cold-Submerged Frogs -- Glenn J. Tattersall; Effect of Temperature on Regular and Modified Circannual Rhythms in the European Ground Squirrel Under Free-Running Conditions -- Radoslav K. Andjus, Marina Marjanovic, and Dragoslava Zivadinovic; The Role of the Suprachiasmatic Pacemaker (SCN) in Energy Expenditure During Hibernation of Golden-mantled Ground Squirrels -- Patricia J. DeCoursey; Does Hibernation Violate Biological Laws? -- Andre Malan; The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Influences Energy Balance of Golden-mantled Ground Squirrels During Hibernation -- Norman E. Ruby; Pesticide Effects on Body Temperature of Torpid/Hibernating Rodents (Peromyscus leucopus and Spermophilus tridecemlineatus) -- Thomas E. Tomasi, Peta Elsken-Lacy, Jean A. Perry, and Kerry Withers; Steroidogenesis and the HPA Axis During Hibernation: Differential Expression of the StAR Protein -- Matthew T. Andrews, Meaghan M. Tredrea, and Aubie K. Shaw; A Quest for the Origin of Mammalian Uncoupling Proteins -- Marton Jastroch, Sigrid Stohr, Kerry Withers, and Martine Klingenspor; Brown-Fat-Derived and Thyroid-Hormone Thermogenesis: Mechanisms and Interactions -- Jan Nedergaard, Valeria Golozoubova, and Barbara Cannon; Alterations in Localization of Hippocampal Protein Kinase Cγ (PKCγ), but Not PKCα, -β1, or –β2, in European Ground Squirrels During Hibernation -- Eddy A. Van der Zee, Jens Stieler, Roelof A. Hut, Martin de Wilde, and Arjen M. Strijkstra; The Role of the Medial Septum in the Control of Hibernation -- Irina Yu. Popova and Yurii M. Kokoz; Proteolysis in Hibernators -- Frank can Breukelen; Post-genomic Approaches to the Mechanisms of Cold Response in Fish and Hibernating Small Mammals -- Daryl Williams, L. Elaine Epperson, Andrew R. Cossins, Jane Fraser, Weizhong Li, Sandra Martin, and Andrew Y. Gracey; Use of Suppression Subtractive Hybridization to Elucidate Novel Gene Products Related to Physiological Events in a Hibernator -- Gregory L. Florant, Chris Pittman, and Scott A. Summers; Clinical Applications and Limitations of Hypothermia -- Philip E. bickler; Hibernation in Mammals: A Model for Alzheimer-type Phosphorylation of the Microtubule-associated Protein Tau -- Thomas Arendt, Jens Stieler, Arjen M. Strijkstriam Roelof A. Hut, Eddy A. Van der Zee, max Holzer, and Woldfgang Hartig; Resistance of Livers to Cold Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury During Hibernation: Involvement of Matrix Metalloproteinase and Nitric Oxide Synthase -- Hannah V. Carey, Timothy M. Piazza, Sarah E. Davis, Susanne L. Lindell, Anna Durranis, Kieran Clarke, and James H. Southard; Anti-Proliferative Effects of Plasma from Hibernating Rodents -- Donna G. Sieckmann, Decheng Cai, Howard Jaffe, John Hallenbeck, and Richard M. McCarron; Antifreeze Proteins in Terrestrial Arthropods -- John G. Duman, Valerie A. Bennett, N. Li, L. Wang, L. Huang, T. Sformo, and B.M. Barnes; Cardiac Conduction and Resistance to Ventricular Fibrillation in Siberian Hibernator Ground Squirrel Citellus undulatus -- Vadim V. Fedorov, Rubin R. Aliev, Alexey V. Glukhov, Andrey V. Resnik, Andrey Anufriev, Irina A. Ivanova, Olga V. Nakipova, Stella G. Kolaeva, Leonid V. Rosenshtraukh, and Igor R. Efimov; The Correlation Between Akt Activity and Hibernation -- Decheng Cai, Richard M. McCarron, Donna Sieckmann, and John M. Hallenbeck; Protection from Traumatic Brain Injury During Hibernation -- Kelly L. Drew, Fang Zhou, Xiongwei Zhu, Rudy J. Castellani, and Mark A. Smith; δ-Opioid Agonists Protect the Rat Liver From Cold Storage and Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury -- Thomas L. Husted, Wen-Jian Chang, Alex B. Lentsch, Steven M. Rudich;Animal Adaptability to Oxidative Stress: Gastropod Estivation and Mammalian Hibernation -- Marcelo Hermes-Lima, Gabriella R. Ramos-Vasconcelos, Luciano A. Cardoso, Adrienne l. Orr, Patricia M. Rivera, and Kelly L. Drew.
    • A New Nonparasitic Species of the Holarctic Lamprey Genus Lethenteron Creaser and Hubbs, 1922, (Petromyzonidae) from Northwestern North America with Notes on Other Species of the Same Genus

      Vladykov, Vadim D.; Kott, Edward (University of Alaska. Institute of Arctic Biology, 1978-04)
      A new nonparasitic lamprey, Lethenteron alaskense from Alaska and Northwest Territories is described and illustrated. The holotype (No. NMC 76-614) is deposited in the National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa, Canada. The study was based on 67 metamorphosed specimens. The species, by its permanently non-functional intestinal tract and weak dentition, smaller disc and much smaller size (maximum 188 mm), is easily separable from the parasitic Lenthenteron japonicum (maximum length 625 mm) found in the same areas. It is distinguishable from nonparasitic L. lamottenii, found in eastern and southern North America, by 1) a generally weaker dentition but possessing more anterials and supplementary marginals; 2) typically with five velar tentacles as opposed to seven in L. lamottenii; 3) differences in pigmentation pattern of the second dorsal fin and a lack of dark pigmentation on the gular region; 4) smaller size in comparison to 299 mm maximum length in L. lamottenii; and 5) distinct areas of geographical distribution separated from each other by 2400 km. All three, L. alaskense, L. lamottenii, and L. japonicum have usually 66 to 72 trunk myomeres. L. alaskense, by its higher number of myomeres is separable from two other nonparasitic species: L. reissneri from Asia with less than 64 myomeres and L. meridionale from eastern tributaries of the Gulf of Mexico with 50 to 58 myomeres.
    • Pre-Earthquake Intertidal Ecology of Three Saints Bay, Kodiak Island, Alaska

      Nybakken, James Willard (University of Alaska. Institute of Arctic Biology, 1969-08)
    • Reindeer Ecology and Management in Sweden

      Skuncke, Folke (University of Alaska. Institute of Arctic Biology, 1969-02)
    • Research advances on anadromous fish in arctic Alaska and Canada

      Norton, David W. (University of Alaska. Institute of Arctic Biology, 1989-01)
      Editor's Introduction -- David W. Norton; The Databank for Arctic Anadromous Fish: Description and Overview -- Debra K. Slaybaugh, Benny J. Gallaway, and Joshua S, Baker; An Introduction to Anadromous Fishes in the Alaskan Arctic -- Peter C. Craig; Overwintering Biology of Anadromous Fishes in the Sagavanirktok River Delta, Alaska -- David R. Schmidt, William B. Griffiths, and Larry R. Martin; Localized Movement Patterns of Least Cisco (Coregonus sadinella) and Arctic Cisco (C. autumnalis) in the Vicinity of a Solid-Fill Causeway -- Robert G. Fechhelm, Joshua S. Baker, William B. Griffiths, and David R. Schmidt; Recruitment of Arctic Cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) into the Colville Delta, Alaska, in 1985 -- Lawrence L. Moulton; Genetic Analysis of Popualtion Variation in the Arctic Cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) Using Electrophoretic, Flow Cytometric, and Mitochondrial DNA Restrictio Analyses -- John W. Bickham, Steven M. Carr, Brian G. Hanks, David W. Burton, and Benny J. Gallaway; "Noise" in the Distributional Responses of Fish to Environment: An Exercise in Deterministic Modeling Motivated by the Beaufort Sea Experience -- William H. Neill and Benny J. Gallaway; Subsistence Fisheries in Coastal Villages in the Alaskan Arctic, 1970-1986 -- Peter C. Craig; Popualtion Trends for the Arctic Cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) in the Colville River of Alaska as Reflected by the Commercial Fishery -- Benny J. Gallaway, William J. Gazey, and Lawrence L. Moulton
    • A review of Arctic grayling studies in Alaska, 1952-1982

      Armstrong, Robert H. (University of Alaska. Institute of Arctic Biology, 1986-12)
      Most information on studies of the Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) in Alaska came from annual progress and performance reports of the Alaska Department of Fish and Game and reports of the Alaska Game Commission prepared before Alaska Statehood in 1959. Only a few reports have been published. Sport harvest, stocking, life history and population estimates are reviewed, and recommendations for further research are offered.
    • Some New Records and Range Extensions of Arctic Plants for Alaska

      Johnson, Albert W.; Viereck, Leslie A. (University of Alaska. Institute of Arctic Biology, 1962-09)
      Johnson, Albert W. and Leslie A. Viereck. 1962. Some new records and range extensions of arctic plants for Alaska. Biol. Pap. Univ. Alaska, No. 6. Pp. iv + 32. Many vascular plant species not previously reported from coastal northwest Alaska were found during floristic investigations in that region. Plant collections were made primarily in the Ogotoruk Creek-Cape Thompson area but extended as far as Keeseemalouk Creek on the southeast and to Cape Lewis on the northwest. This area is characterized by long, cold winters, cool summers, low precipitation, and high winds. Superimposed on substrates composed of basic to acidic rocks and their erosion products are vegetation types and plant communities, the most common of which are dominated by Dryas octopetala and sedges. The mosaic of habitats in the area includes broad wet meadows, dry fellfields, talus slopes, precipitous cliffs, gravel bars and benches, snow-beds, tundra ponds, strands, and coastal lagoons, each of which supports a characteristic aggregation of species. The 37 species presented in this paper are: Calamagrostis deschampsioides Trin., C. lapponica (Wahlenb.) Hartm., Trisetum sibiricum Rupr., Koeleria asiatica Domin., Puccinellia vaginata (Lge.) Fern. & Weatherby, Festuca baffinesis Polunin, Festuca vivipara (L.) Sm., Kobresia hyperborea Pors., Carex nardina E. Fries, C. subspatheacea Wormskj. ex Hornem., C. ursina Dew., Allium schoenoprasum L. var. sibiricum (L.) Hartm., Salix chamissonis Anderss., S. ovalifolia Trautv., Koenigia islandica L., Rumex graminifolius Georgi. ex Lambert, Claytonia tuberosa Pall. ex Willd., Montia Laprosperma Cham., Arenaria nardifolia Ledeb., Ranunculus aquatilis var. eradicatus Laestad., R. turneri Greene, Lesquerella arctica (Wormskj.) Wats., Draba pseudopilosa Pohle, Smelowskia borealis Drury and Rollins var. jordalii Drury and Rollins, Potentilla egedii var. groenlandica (Tratt.) Polunin, Rubus arcticus L., Sanguisorba officinalis L., Astragalus australis (L.) Lam., Callitriche verna L., Viola epipsila Ledeb. subsp. repens (Turcz.) Becker, Angelica lucida L., Pedicularis oederi Vahl, Linnaea borealis L., Adoxa moschatellina L., Aster alpinus L. subsp. vierhapperi Onno, Senecio pseudo-arnica Less., Tarxacum phymatocarpum J. Vahl.
    • Studies of Birds and Mammals in the Baird and Schwatka Mountains, Alaska

      Dean, Frederick C.; Chesemore, David L. (University of Alaska. Institute of Arctic Biology, 1974-03)
      In 1963 a joint University of Alaska-Smithsonian Institution crew worked at five locations in the Baird and Schwatka mountains in northwestern Alaska, conducting an ecological reconnaissance and faunal and floral inventory. Standard methods of observation and collection were used. Camps in the Kobuk drainage were located in the Redstone River valley and at Walker Lake, both on the margin of the taiga. The Noatak valley was represented by one camp each in the lower, middle, and upper reaches of the river, all in tundra. A summary of pre-1963 ornithological work in the region is presented. Significant records of distribution and/or breeding were obtained for the following birds: Podiceps grisegena, Anas platyrhynchos, Aythya valisineria, Histrionicus histrionicus, Melanitta perspicillata, Mergus merganser, Aphrizia virgata, Bartramia longicauda, Actitis macularia, Tringa flavipes, Phalaropus fuficarius, Lobipes lobatus, Larus hyperboreus,Xema sabini, Sayornis saya, Nuttalornis borealis, Eremophilia alpestris, Tachycineta thalassina, Riparia riparia, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, Phylloscopus borealis, Dendroica petechia, Leucosticte tephrocotis, Zonotrichia atricapilla, Calcarius pictus; and the mammal, Spermophilus undulatus. Good series of Cletihrionomys rutilius (350) and Microtus miurus (147) have been deposited in the University of Alaska Museum. Severe doubt has been raised regarding the validity of the standard three-night trap grid for population estimation under wet conditions in arctic areas.
    • Studies on Alaskan Fishes

      Morrow, James E.; Frohne, Ivan V.; Voght, Kenneth D.; Vascotto, Gian L. (University of Alaska. Institute of Arctic Biology, 1973-10)
      A New Species of Salvelinus from the Brooks Range, Northern Alaska; Statistical Analyses of Discrete Morphology in Northern Populations of the Fish Genus Salvelinus; New Distributional Records of Liparids and Description of a New Species from Alaska; Behavior of the Arctic Grayling, Thymallus arcticus, in McManus Creek, Alaska
    • Taxonomy and Ecology of the Inconnu, Stenodus Leucichthys Nelma, in Alaska

      Alt, Kenneth T. (University of Alaska. Institute of Arctic Biology, 1969-03)
      A taxonomic and life history study of the inconnu was carried out on populations from the Kobuk, Chatanika, and upper Yukon Rivers, and Selawik, Alaska. Data on 24 morphological measurements and 11 meristic counts show little difference among: 1) males and females; 2) young and older inconnu; and 3) fish from the upper Yukon River, Chatanika River, Selawik, and Kobuk River in Alaska and the Ob River, USSR. Based on close agreement of these counts and measurements, the inconnu in Alaska is designated as Stenodus leufifhthys nelma (Pallas). For arctic fish, the inconnu exhibits a rapid growth rate. Growth rates for males and females are similar, but females live longer than males. Alaskan inconnu become sexually mature quite late in life (for Selawik males, 9 years; females, 10 years). Spawning behavior is described. Spawning occurred in the Kobuk River above Kobuk the last days of September at water temperatures betwen 1/4 and 4.6 C. Older inconnu are mainly piscivorous while the younger fish feed on invertebrates and fish. The least cisco, Coregonus sardinella, was the main food item of the Selawik inconnu. The estimated catch in Northwest Alaska in 1965 was between 34,200 and 37,000 fish, 85% of which were taken for subsistence.
    • Variations in the Skull of the Bearded Seal

      Manning, T. H. (University of Alaska. Institute of Arctic Biology, 1974-11)
      Fourteen measurements taken on 260 skulls are described and analysed using variance, covariance, reduced major axes, and discriminant functions. No sexual variation is found. Changes in relative growth with age are demonstrated and discussed. Skulls from the Atlantic adult population are shown to be significantly larger than those from the Pacific in most dimensions. An important exception, nasal breadth, is significantly smaller. Differences in the regression coefficients between the Atlantic and Pacific populations are probably not significant, but some differences in position of the regression lines are highly significant. The results are compared with those of some previous authors and the boundaries between the populations considered. The recognition of E. b. nauticus for the Pacific population is justified.
    • Vegetation in the vicinity of the Toolik Field Station, Alaska

      Walker, Donald A.; Maier, Hilmar A. (University of Alaska. Institute of Arctic Biology, 2008)
      This publication contains a group of vegetation maps at three scales in the vicinity of the Toolik Field Station. Alaska, which is an arctic research facility run by the Institute of Arctic Biology at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. The maps are intended to support research at the field station. The front side of this map sheet contains a vegetation map and ancillary maps of a 751-km squared region surrounding the upper Kuparuk River watershed, including the Toolik Lake and the lmnavait Creek research areas, as well as portions of the Dalton Highway and Trans-Alaska Pipeline from the northern end of Galbraith Lake to Slope Mountain. The reverse side shows more detailed vegetation maps of the 20-km squared research area centered on Toolik Lake and a 1.2-km squared intensive research grid on the south side of Toolik Lake (red rectangles on Map A). All the maps are part of a hierarchical geographic information system (GIS) and the Web-based Arctic Geobotanical Atlas (http:/www.arcticatlas.org/). The atlas also includes other map themes for all three areas and a previously published hierarchy of maps of the lmnavait Creek area (Walker et al. 1989: Walker and Walker 1996) (black rectangles on Map A). Photos and explanations of the geobotanical mapping units and the supporting field data and metadata can also be found on the website.