• Fall Seeding: Will it Work in Interior Alaska?

      Masiak, Darleen; Sparrow, Stephen (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1990-12)
      Short growing seasons in interior Alaska, averaging 90 days in Fairbanks, are a major factor affecting crop production. In the past, volunteer germination of seed from previous years crops has been observed in the field. These volunteer plants tend to get a head start on spring seeded plants, indicating that the use of fall planting could have potential advantages. Spring planting is often delayed due to soil wetness following snow-melt. This problem could be avoided with fall seeding. Seedbed preparation causes rapid drying of the surface of silt loam soils, which are common in interior Alaska. This, combined with low rainfall during spring, often results in moisture levels which are too low for good germination and early growth of shallow planted seeds. Since the soil would not be disturbed in the spring, seeding in fall might allow crops to take advantage of moisture available from snow-melt. Also, fall seeding has the potential of reducing the workload during the short spring planting period.
    • Growth Performance of Holstein Dairy Calves Supplemented with a Probiotic

      Windschitl, Paul M.; Randall, Kirsten M.; Brainard, Donald J. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1991-04)
      Administration of antibiotics in both therapeutic and sub-therapeutic doses has been the standard practice for dealing with pathogenic bacteria problems in farm animals since the 1940s. Several types of antibiotics are currently used to promote weight gain and feed efficiency in domestic livestock. There is growing concern that the use of antibiotics as growth promoters may result in the development of resistant populations of pathogenic bacteria and, in turn, influence the therapeutic use of antibiotics. The indiscriminate and improper use of antibiotics in food-producing animals could result in the presence of residues in milk, meat, and other animal food products consumed by humans. One possible alternative to antibiotics is the use of probiotics. Probiotics can be defined as “live microbial feed supplements which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance” (Fuller, 1989). Probiotics introduce beneficial microorganisms into the gut which act to maintain optimal conditions within the gastrointestinal tract and inhibit the growth of pathogenic or other undesirable bacteria.
    • INFLUENCE OF STRAIN AND GENERATION NUMBER ON PERFORMANCE OF THE POTATO VARIETY RUSSET NORKOTAH

      Carling, Donald E. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 1999-02)
      It is well known that strain and generation number can influence the quality and quantity of tubers produced by varieties of potatoes. However, the effect of strain and generation number on yield may be quite different from one variety to another. Strains are spontaneously occurring variants within a variety that may possess qualitative or quantitative characteristics that are superior to the parent variety. Strain selection is a practice that has been in use with potatoes for many years and examples of successful strain selections include Russet Burbank from Burbank, Dark Red Norland from Norland and Norgold Russet M from Norgold Russet. Some strains are discovered based on chance observations of desirable characteristics while others are the products of systematic searches for superior performance.
    • INFLUENCE OF STRAIN OR SOURCE AND GENERATION NUMBER ON PERFORMANCE OF THE POTATO VARIETY RUSSET NORKOTAH 1999

      Carling, Donald E. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2000-02)
      Strains are spontaneously occurring variants within a potato variety that may possess qualitative or quantitative characteristics that are superior to the parent variety. Strain selection is a practice that has been in use with potatoes for many years and examples of successful strain selections include Russet Burbank from Burbank, Dark Red Norland from Norland and Norgold Russet “M” from Norgold Russet. Some strains are discovered based on chance observations of desirable characteristics while others are the products of systematic searches for superior performance. Strain can influence the quality and quantity of tubers produced by a given variety of potato.
    • IRT-76® POLYETHYLENE MULCH FILM AND GROWTH OF SWEET CORN IN FAIRBANKS, ALASKA

      Matheke, Grant E.M.; Holloway, Patricia S.; Wagner, Patricia J. (Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 1991-04)
      Cold soils during the short growing season in interior Alaska often limit growth and prevent the maturing of many field-grown warm season crops such as tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, pumpkins and sweet corn. Clear polyethylene mulch has been recommended for many years as a method of warming soil to promote crop maturity and improve marketable yields (Dinkel, 1966). One significant problem with the use of clear polyethylene mulch is enhanced weed growth beneath the mulch. Weeds compete with the crop for nutrients and water in addition to reducing the soil-warming effects of the mulch. Consequently, herbicides must be used in conjunction with the clear mulch to obtain optimum plant growth. An alternative to clear polyethylene is black polyethylene mulch which suppresses weed growth but does not have the soil-warming and yield-improvement capabilities of clear polyethylene (Matheke et al., l989).
    • MALTING BARLEY QUALITY IN ALASKA: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

      Dofing, S.M.; Gavlak, R.G.; Knight, C.W. (Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 1991-08)
      Barley is the cereal crop best adapted to Alaska’s cool, short-season environment. Not surprisingly, barley is the most important agronomic feed crop in many north-latitude regions which experience similar growing season limitations. Results from longterm yield trials have demonstrated the consistently high yield potential of barley in Alaska. However, the lack of available markets and other economic considerations have limited the extent of its cultivation. An alternative use for barley in Alaska would help provide additional in-state markets. One such use is the production of Alaskagrown barley for use in locally brewed beers. No research trials which investigate the malting quality of Alaska-grown barley are available. This study provides a preliminary assessment of the quality of malt barley produced in Alaska.
    • Metam Sodium and Dasomet as Herbicides for Use Vegetable Growers

      Carlin, D.E.; Walworth, J.L.; Conn, J.S. (Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 1995-07)
      This study was designed to determine: 1) the effectiveness of surface application followed by “watering in” as a method of applying these two chemicals, 2) the depths to which each chemical is carried into the soil profile by one inch of irrigation water, 3) optimal rates of metam sodium and dasomet required with this method of application to eliminate weed seeds from the plow layer, and 4) phytotoxic effects of metam sodium and dasomet on potatoes and vegetables.
    • Nitrogen-Fixation by Legumes in Interior Alaska

      Sparrow, Stephen D.; Cochran, Verlan L.; Sparrow, Elena B. (Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 1990-11)
      Legumes are notable for their ability to convert atmospheric dinitrogen into forms of nitrogen which are usable by plants. This is done in association with bacteria (called Rhizobium) which inhabit nodules of the plant roots. This process is called nitrogen-fixation. Legumes are important as forage and food crops due to their high protein content. Some are also useful for soil conservation purposes. There was no information on nitrogen fixation by legume crops in Alaska. This research was initiated to determine how much nitrogen different types of legumes can fix in interior Alaska.
    • Peonies for field cut flower production

      Holloway, Patricia S.; Hanscom, Janice T.; Matheke, Grant E.M. (Alaska Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2005-07)
    • Peonies for field cut flower production first-year growth

      Holloway, Patricia S.; Hanscom, Janice T.; Matheke, Grant E. M. (Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2003-10)
    • PEONIES FOR FIELD CUT FLOWER PRODUCTION SECOND-YEAR GROWTH

      Holloway, Patricia S.; Hanscom, Janice T.; Matheke, Grant E.M. (Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2004-04)
      Cultivar trials with herbaceous peonies were initiated during the summer of 2001 to evaluate their potential as field-grown cut flowers. The plants became well established, and all but three cultivars bloomed in 2002. The bloom times for all cultivars ranged from 30 June through the first week of August (Holloway et al. 2003). The purpose of this report is to present evaluations of the cultivar trials through the 2003 growing season and identify possible problems with flowering and plant establishment. Peonies for the cut flower market are typically not harvested until their fourth season, so this initial data only reflects the plant establishment phase of field production.
    • Perennial Grass and Soil Responses to Four Phosphorus Rates at Point MacKenzie

      Mitchell, Wm. W.; Mitchell, G. Allen; Helm, D. (Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, University of Alaska-Fairbanks, 1987-05)
      Three perennial grasses were established on Kashwitna silt loam at Pt. MacKenzie in 1985 to test their responses to different rates o f phosphorus (P) fertilization. Laboratory studies with a number o f Alaskan soils have indicated strong P-fixation properties for the Pt. MacKenzie soils (Ping and Michaelson 1986, Michaelson and Ping 1986). Earlier work with cereal forages showed responses for barley up to 90 lbs/acre and for oats up to 60 lbs P205/acre (Michaelson et al. 1984). All three perennial grasses [‘Engmo’ timothy (Phleum pratense), ‘Manchar’ bromegrass (Bromus inermis), and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea)] responsed to P2O5 up to 120 lbs/acre in their establishment year in 1985 (Mitchell and Mitchell 1986). Reed canarygrass significantly outproduced in 1985, yielding over two tons dry matter/acre at the higher fertilizer levels. Bromegrass was the least productive in the establishment year. This report concerns the results obtained in 1986, which constituted the first full harvest year.
    • Phosphorus Rate Effects on Establishment of Perennial Grasses And on Soil Values at Point MacKenzie

      Mitchell, Wm. W.; Mitchell, G. Allen (Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, University of Alaska-Fairbanks, 1986-02)
      This trial concentrates on the effects of varying rates of P with N and K supplied in amounts judged to be ample for establishment of perennial grasses. The results indicated that, by seeding sufficiently early and supplying 90-120 lb P20 5/acre, harvestable amounts of forage could be obtained in the year o f seeding. Reed canarygrass would provide the most forage in the first year; how ever, in previous trials timothy has been more durable and higher yielding over a series of years (Mitchell, in press). Laboratory measurements of crude protein and digestible dry matter indicated the quality of the forage would be good to excellent. The high-yielding reed canarygrass was the lowest in quality but still afforded about 13 per cent crude protein and 60 percent digestible dry matter. The trial is to be continued to determine the cumulative effects of annual fertilizer applications at the same rates on yields and soil test values. A question of immediate concern is the possible effect of promoting high production in the year of establishment on the overwintering characteristics of the grasses.
    • Reestablishment of Woody Browse Species for Mined Land Reclamation Year 1 (1989) Results

      Helm, Dorothy J. (Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 1990-06)
      Long-term goals of revegetation include the reestablishment of diverse, self-reproducing plant communities suitable for desired post-mining land uses. In Alaska, these uses include habitat for moose and other wildlife. Current state and federal revegetation regulations affect only coal-mined lands, but some mine operators have been revegetating their lands voluntarily. Regulations requiring revegetation may affect other types of mines in the near future. Revegetation of mined lands or other disturbed lands helps control soil erosion, which traditionally has been controlled by grass cover. However, vigorous grass growth may interfere with woody plant regeneration needed by wildlife for thermal cover, browse, and hiding cover. Growth of plant species varies in different soils because of the biological, physical, and chemical properties of the individual soils. Biological components of soils are often overlooked even when the physical and chemical properties of soils are considered. The potential advantages and disadvantages of planting certain species in certain types of soils are examined in this study.
    • Reestablishment of Woody Browse Species for Mined Land Reclamation Year 2 (1990) Results

      Helm, D.J. (Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 1991-04)
      Revegetation of coal-mined land with plant species suitable for the desired post-mining land use is required by state and federal regulations. The most common postmining land use in Alaska is wildlife habitat, especially browse production for moose. However, few data are available on growth of woody browse plants on reclaimed sites or effects of different soils on plant species. Another unknown is how much bluejoint reedgrass (Calamagrostis canadensis) suppresses the desired woody browse species. Bluejoint reestablishes from seeds and rhizomes (underground stems in the soil) and is a major problem in establishing moose browse on the Matanuska Valley Moose Range near Palmer. Study plots have been established for the Wishbone Hill coal project to investigate plant species and soil relationships for establishing moose browse in this area. Seven woody species were selected based on ease of propagation, desirability for browse or hiding or thermal cover for moose, and presence on the site prior to disturbance: balsam poplar (Populus balsamifem), feltleaf willow (Salix alaxensis), barclay willow (Salix barclayi), Bebb willow {Salix bebbiana), paper birch (Betula papyrifera), alder (Alnus tenuifolia), and white spruce (Picea glauca) (Helm 1990). Four soils were selected based on their biological properties which are governed by the pre-disturbance vegetation: paper birch-white spruce (contained m ycorrhizae for white spruce), upland meadow (dominated by bluejoint), lowland meadow (has diversity of herbaceous species), and overburden (had gravels from beneath the developed soil and had negligible biological activity). Hereafter birch-spruce soils or plots will be used to refer to those plots and soils from the paper birch-white spruce vegetation type. Similarly the upland meadow and lowland meadow soils refer to those soils disturbed within those vegetation types. The most important biological properties examined were the propagule bank (seeds, rhizomes, roots) from which native species could regenerate and the mycorrhizal fungal propagules which are needed to establish mycorrhizae on the roots of plants. Mycorrhizae are symbioses between plants and fungi in which the fungi increase soil moisture and nutrient absorption for the plant and, in turn, receive carbon (energy) from the plant. Most plant species have mycorrhizae when growing under field conditions. This relationship is essential for some species such as the coniferous trees, including white spruce. More details on the rationale behind the species and soil selections are included in Helm (1990). This study was designed to determine: 1. Survival and growth of woody species on soils from three different vegetation types and overburden. 2. Species of plants which colonize a site from propagule banks in these disturbed soils.
    • Reestablishment of Woody Browse Species for Mined Land Reclamation Year 3 (1991) Results

      Helm, D.J. (Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 1992-09)
      Many mined lands or other disturbances are being reclaimed to wildlife habitat, especially moose browse. However, little information has been available on expected growth rates of woody plant species used for moose browse on mined land sites, their tolerance ranges for soil physical or chemical properties, and the biological potential of soils for natural regeneration of forbs and grasses, and mycorrhizal fungal inoculum. Mycorrhizae are mutualistic symbioses between plants and fungi in which the fungi increase absorption of soil moisture and nutrients for the plant and, in turn, receive carbon substrates from the plant to produce energy. The potential for natural regeneration and mycorrhizal colonization will depend on vegetation already growing on the soils. This study was designed to determine: 1. Survival and growth of seven woody species on soils from three different vegetation types and overburden. 2. Species of plants which colonize a site from propagule banks in these disturbed soils. These data were needed for reclamation planning for the Wishbone Hill Coal Project as well as other mines.
    • Results of the 1989 Northwestern Canada Barley Trial Grown at Palmer

      Dofing, S.M.; Blake, S.A.; Wolfe, R.I. (Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 1990-02)
      Favorable climatic conditions for barley production in 1989 at the Matanuska Research Farm resulted in exceptionally high grain yields. Mean grain yield for cultivars in this test was 92.5 bushels per acre (Table 1). A total of 908 growing degree-days (41 degree F base) were accumulated between May 1 and Aug. 31. 'Otal' required 98 days or 700 growing degree-days to reach maturity. A high temperature of 80 degrees F was recorded on July 19. Soil moisture was generally adequate throughout the growing season.
    • Results of the 1990 Northwestern Canada Barley Trial Grown at Palmer

      Dofing, S.M.; Blake, S.A.; Wolfe, R.I. (Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 1990-12)
    • TRITICALE COMPARED WITH OATS AND WEAL BARLEY AS A FORAGE AT PT. MACKENZIE

      Mitchell, W.W. (Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 1989-03)
      Trials conducted with entries of oats, barley, and triticale on the university tract in 1987 and 1988 provided the first research information on triticale for forage use at Pt. MacKenzie. Triticale is a hybrid resulting from a cross between wheat and rye. The rye ancestry would confer greater acid tolerance than is possessed by wheat alone. In previous trials with cereals on the moderately to strongly acidic soils of Pt. MacKenzie, the better yielding oat varieties have out produced barley (Mitchell 1983 and unpublished data).
    • TURFGRASS PERFORMANCE FOR GOLF COURSES IN SOUTHCENTRAL ALASKA

      Mitchell, Allen; Gavlak, Ray; Hall, Beth; Evers, Timothy (Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2003-09)
      There are currently more than 20 public golf courses in Alaska that suffer varying degrees of winter turf injury from diseases, ice suffocation, and winterkill. For example, during the winter of 2001–2002, essentially every green and many fairways in Alaska suffered some degree of winter injury resulting in significant expense to reseed. The current study evaluated and compared new varieties and species against Nugget and Arctared on sand-based greens and soil-based fairways. We also assessed overseeding with rough bluegrass and bentgrass as a remedial treatment to establish playable greens.