• Measures of Effect: Near Miss Reporting on Construction Site Injuries

      Mckay, Brian (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2013-05-01)
      A large petrochemical construction project implemented a near miss management program during a phase of heavy construction. The consequent 966% increase in near misses being reported resulted in marginal decreases in reported first aid cases, but also resulted in a significant decrease in OSHA recordable injuries. The correlation statistics between near miss rates and first aid cases were r(30)= -­‐ 0.212, p = 0.05 (exact) and between near miss rate and OSHA recordable injuries r (30)= -­‐ 0.342, p < .05, revealing a significant but moderate inverse effect between the rate at which near misses are reported and OSHA recordable injuries. While construction remains one of the world’s most demanding and dangerous occupations, this practicum research has identified an effective counter measure toward decreasing occupational injuries on construction sites. This report includes details about the project, the near miss program and reports the use of a modified version of the Eindhoven Error Classification scheme operationalized for use on construction specific error types.
    • A Methodology for the Prioritization of Invasive Plant Management in Alaska

      Blackburn, Brianne N. (University of Alaska Anchorage, Project Management Department, 2014)
      The control of invasive, non-native plants is of increasing concern in ecosystem management as invasive plant species are found to be threatening natural resources through the disruption of biodiversity, habitat structure, and ecosystem processes across the world. State Government leadership in invasive plant management policy is required to ensure efforts are coordinated and cost effective. As resources for managing invasive plants are limited, the need to evaluate and rank non-native species is a primary concern before expensive management is attempted so that the most threatening species may be addressed first. An objective, repeatable and clearly defined methodology for prioritizing invasive plant management within Department of Natural Resources, Division of Agriculture (DOA) was developed. The development process reviewed literature on the philosophy of decision analysis and various case studies in its application to natural resource projects and act as a guide for the development of an initial process framework. Subject matter experts were engaged to develop the decision criteria using a Delphi survey technique to collect information on experts’ current priorities and tolerances for invasive plants. The final product includes a process diagram, a summary worksheet, and a detailed record of the evaluation decision, rationale, and supporting resources.
    • Exploration of Why Alaskans Use Complementary Medicine: A Focus Group Study

      Heafner, Jessica (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-01-01)
      Purpose: To explore why Alaskans choose to pursue complementary medicine as a healthcare option. Design: Qualitative Descriptive. Method: A purposive convenient recruitment methodology was used to recruit project participants. Focus groups were conducted to collect the research data. Findings: Five themes were identified that highlighted why participants use complementary medicine: 1) dissatisfaction, 2) effective, 3) holistic, 4) relationship focused, and 5) a personal journey
    • Alaska's Local Option Law and its Impacts on Underage Drinking Outcomes

      Pineda, Natasha M. (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-03-01)
      The purposes of this project were to explore the relationship between alcohol bans and 1) age of first use, 2) 30-day use and perceptions of harm among high school students, and 3) intentional and unintentional injury among adolescents. Methods involved secondary data analyses of two samples from the Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), the Alaska Trauma Registry (ATR), and the Alaska Violent Death Reporting System (AKVDRS) – including 49 communities without a ban on possession, and including 11 villages with a ban on sales, importation and possession. Lower rates of self-reported alcohol consumption in underage persons in communities with a ban on possession were not found. Moreover, data from the YRBS indicates youth in communities with a ban on alcohol possession had increased odds of lifetime use of alcohol (OR 1.621) as well as use before age of 13 (OR 1.903) and increased odds of lower reported peer approval related to drinking (OR .531). No significant differences were identified between the two communities on 30-day use of alcohol; 30-day binge drinking; drinking on school property; perceptions of risk related to daily use of alcohol; and parental approval for regular alcohol use. Communities with a ban on possession had lower number of suspected or proven alcohol use related injuries and deaths. Study findings suggest that it is insufficient to address alcohol-related problems among youth based on a single environmental level policy. Communities need to look beyond a single factor to solve a public health problem and consider the complex interactions between the individual, interpersonal, and other environmental-level.
    • Standard Operating Procedures for Community Emergency Response Teams (CERT)

      Torres, Michelle (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-04)
      The Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) Program educates people about disaster preparedness for hazards that may impact their area and trains them in basic disaster response skills. Using the training that they learn in the classroom and during the exercises, CERT members can assist others in their neighborhood or workplace following an event when professional responders are not immediately available to help. CERT members also are encouraged to support emergency response agencies by taking a more active role in emergency preparedness projects in their community. People who go through CERT training have a better understanding of the potential threats to their home, workplace and community and can take the right steps to lessen the effects of these hazards on themselves, their homes or workplace.
    • Using Multimedia Instruction as a Training Enhancement for Aircraft Maintenance Technicians

      Hubbard, Carrollea (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-04)
      This research conducted an evaluation of new and different modalities of aircraft maintenance training for flight line technicians. The primary types of instruction analyzed were instructor based training (IBT), aircraft simulator (SIM) training, on-the-job training (OJT), virtual reality (VR), and video-based training (VBT). The focus was the analysis of training effectiveness for the various instructional platforms. The two aircraft types for training program consideration were the McDonnell Douglas MD-11 (MD-11) and the Boeing B-777 (B-777). Aircraft manufacturers and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) set the training standards for all aircraft mechanics in the airline industry. This study examined the development of effective training for aircraft mechanics. Twenty Anchorage flight line technicians completed two anonymous surveys, and three members from the training department participated in an unstructured interview. The research analyzed the results of the surveys and the interviews to determine what types of multimedia instruction are the most effective for enhancing flight line technician training. The goal was to maximize the educational platform and increase launch reliability numbers efficiently. The best practice to achieve these goals is to have effectively trained technicians.
    • Learning Group Formation Factors in a Career and Technical Education Networking Program

      Plunkett, George R. (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-04)
      Team based learning based on the transformation of permanent student groups into powerful learning teams is widely and successfully used as an instructional strategy in postsecondary career and technical education. Failure of groups to reach the learning team status is a major learning drawback of this approach. Factors affecting the transformation of groups to teams are applied consistently to the whole class, with the exception of group formation and membership. Career and technical education populations differ from other postsecondary populations and examination of group formation factors may result in improvement of student results.
    • Better Understanding the Modifiers of Domestic Water Consumption: An Investigation Project

      Lespin, Eric J. (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-04)
      Around the world different living circumstances have an enormous yet poorly quantified impact on human water consumption. Water consumption levels are in turn closely linked to health and quality of life, particularly where access to water is limited. These facts place significant water and health impacts in the hands of those who make design and implementation decisions about living circumstances – professionals who are not necessarily experts in matters of water. This investigation was an examination of the abundant yet discordant and atomized data on human water consumption, providing a summary of water consumption modifiers and water consumption numbers over a wide range of circumstances, in table form, to those involved with dwelling infrastructure, water/sanitation, hygiene, or other water-impacted fields. Disambiguation of the water consumption concept was necessary, which encompasses three categories of consumption: footprint, domestic, and ingestion. Footprint water consumption was documented to be greater than domestic consumption by an order of magnitude. Domestic consumption was found to be ~99% defined by our surroundings and to vary between 7 and 600 lpcd. Principal modifiers of domestic consumption are service level, sanitation decision (dry vs. flush), presence of metering, use of low flow fixtures, residential lot or compound size, and climate. Sanitation decision is linked to substantial health externalities. Price appeared to have a less-than-anticipated impact, due likely to social/health restraints in applying strict economic principles. Dwelling size was found not to be a modifier. Relative impact of modifiers discussed.
    • Project Delivery Method Study of Civil Projects in Alaska

      May, Julene D. (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-04-01)
      Government agencies across Alaska use primarily one project delivery method (PDM), design-bid-build, to complete civil construction projects (roads, landfills, airports, etc.). The problem many agencies encounter is that the method does not appear to provide on-time, within budget projects that encounter complex issues. The purpose of this study was to provide insight into whether an alternative PDM might have provided a more successful outcome for projects undertaken by the Northern Region Alaska Department of Transportation. Evidence of success can be measured in different ways, including on-time completion, staying within budget, and/or the final product meeting requirements. This study assessed only completion timeliness and budget compliance if a different acquisition PDM type had been used. The study used engineers’ estimates, initial bid prices, initial schedule completion dates, final cost, final completion dates, and change orders to assess how a different PDM might have resulted in a more successful project. Proposed Objective Relationships: • assessed whether a PDM selection guide could be created to help select the best PDM to use for different levels of project complexity • used the guide developed for this study to determine which PDM might have provided a more budget compliant project completion • analyzed whether PDM success varied across civil construction projects based on project complexity To specifically help the ADOT Northern Region and provide for consideration of use by other agencies within the state, this study developed a PDM selection process and then used that process to do a case study on three projects, two already complete projects finished under the DBB process, and one project having completed its design and about to go into construction using the PDM process.
    • Stephanie Myers PM686A Spring 2014

      Boedigheimer, Stephanie (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-04-10)
    • Career Exploration in the Anchorage School District

      Daniels, Adele M. (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-05)
      Job shadow opportunities for middle and high school students provides valuable exposure to workplace environments as students look at future career choices. This type of career exploration can help to connect students to careers of interest as part of a career pathway. These experiences can help a student recognize the skills that are needed for a particular job, as well as the day-to-day duties for a person working in a given field. Military installations located near local school districts are an untapped resource for the career exploration opportunities that are available. Many military and civilian occupations are very similar in nature, allowing for useful connections to be made by students. Making the connections more simplified, for both partners, could allow for more opportunities to take place. This paper will provide a suggested template to follow when planning an event in any school district located near a military installation.
    • To be or not to be Smoke Free: An Analysis of the University of Alaska Anchorage Peer Institutions Smoking and Tobacco Policies

      Britt, Joy D. (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-05)
      More colleges and universities are adopting smoke-and tobacco-free policies, yet no literature exists on how types of enforcement protocols aide in policy success. The goal of this study was to assess the comprehensive smoke- and tobacco-free policies of the University of Alaska Anchorage’s peer and neighboring postsecondary institutions to determine what enforcement type may benefit the university in moving towards a comprehensive smoke-free campus policy. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. In particular, content analysis was used to determine each peer institution’s campus tobacco policy and enforcement strategy, while case study analysis was used to assess the effectiveness of different enforcement types. Results show that approximately 52% of UAA peer institutions have either comprehensive tobacco- and smoke-free campus policies. Of the institutions with comprehensive smoke- or tobacco-free campus policies, 57% have hard/strict enforcement protocols. The case study analyses of two smoke/tobacco-free campuses suggested that hard enforcement with set guidelines and a punitive offense system would promote more policy success over soft enforcement, which only provided verbal reprimand. Study findings suggested that a hard enforcement type was the preferred enforcement method of the sample and that a hard enforcement type supported overall policy success. The study recommends adoption of comprehensive smoke- or tobacco-free campus policies, utilization of a pre-implementation preparatory period before adoption of comprehensive smoke-or tobacco-free policy, and inclusion of hard enforcement protocols to the comprehensive smoke- or tobacco-free policy.
    • The Couple's Advantage: A Case Study of When to Start Collecting Social Security

      Rodrigues, Talisa M. (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-06)
      Deciding when to collect social security benefits is a difficult decision, but particularly so for couples. Without being able to analyze the full spectrum of options, couples could be missing out on potential income. In addition, many of these couples are stuck trying to figure out what to do if there is only one earner in the household. This paper focuses on the difference between a single earner and that earner with a spouse that is not otherwise qualified to collect. It delivers real world solutions by using sensitivity analysis for the interest rates, age at death, and gender. Additional analyses focused on the particular life expectancies predicted on the social security web site. Thus, rather than matrices of strategies for different combinations of ages at death, it is possible to identify the best strategies and the NPV differences for the “average” case. This paper explains the strategies and outcomes for calculating the couple’s advantage over the individual earner as well as an in-depth analysis of benefits for a class of couples. The case results in a $136,559 to $384,989 increase in retirement income for couples over singles. This large increase in annual income can single handedly be attributed to both spousal and survivor benefits that couplesreceive but singles do not. Due to the complexity and many details of the couple’s rules, this analysis is presented as a solution to the case rather than as a set of possible case options.
    • School District Assessment for Sudden Cardiac Arrest Preparation

      Dahlen, Paula (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-06-25)
      A literature review on pediatric sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) suggests that school nurses nationwide are well supported in their responsibilities to manage SCA in school children, despite budget and equipment challenges. In this Masters project, school nurses in a district in the Pacific Northwest completed an online survey to assess their perceptions of personal and organizational preparedness to respond to SCA. As described by the AHA, best practices include: an effective and efficient communication system; coordination, practice, and evaluation of a response plan; risk reduction; training and equipment for CPR and first aid; and in some schools, establishment of an automated external defibrillator (AED) program. Forty-four percent of respondents reported that they have received an adequate amount of resources, support, training and preparation in their school to manage a sudden cardiac arrest event.
    • Student Perceptions of the Clinical Education Environment

      Flores, George E. (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-07)
      This Masters Project surveyed nursing clinical students at a University School of Nursing in the Pacific Northwest using a recently developed tool, the Student Evaluation of Clinical Education Environment (SECEE, version 3). Use of the SECEE (version 3) helped identify differences in student perceptions of various clinical learning environments. Results of nonparametric statistics were non-significant due to the small sample size; however there appeared to be consistent preference by students for clinicals at Magnet designated facilities. Additionally, higher instructor facilitation scores were also noted among students assigned to the university main campus (n = 31, M = 45.19, SD = 9.39) compared to students assigned to the distance campus (n = 9, M = 36.89, SD = 20.63). The findings have implications for nursing education, specifically the potential benefit of student learning at Magnet designated facilities and the importance of adequate support and engagement between university faculty and students in distance learning environments.
    • Medical Respite for the Homeless: Barriers and Facilitators to Implementation in The Municipality of Anchorage

      Dietrick, Beatriz E. (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-07)
      By bridging the gap between the discharge of a homeless individual from the hospital to a state of improved health, medical respite (MRs) programs have been shown to contribute to improved health outcomes and decreased healthcare costs. The question does not appear to be whether a MR program would benefit the Anchorage community, rather, what is the perceived need, how can we best implement this intervention, and what form would it take? The purpose of this project therefore was to explore answers to these questions through identification of barriers and facilitators to the implementation of MR services for the homeless in the Municipality of Anchorage. Data was collected through a series of semi-structured interviews with key informants. Reported barriers and facilitators were encompassed by 12 themes and classified according to the framework of Grol and Wensing (2004). The greatest number of barriers were identified within the social context level, while the most facilitators were perceived at the organizational context level. The process of reaching out to community leaders and key informants through the course of this project has contributed to an improved understanding of barriers and facilitators, provided recommendations for implementation, and has engaged key individuals in the MR discussion.
    • Needs Assessment for an Adult Day Service Center in Sitka Alaska

      Knuth, Carole L. (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-08)
      An adult day service center (A.D.S.C.) provides a coordinated program of professional and compassionate services for adults in a community-based safe group setting primarily during day-time hours. The Senior population (those age 60 and older) in Sitka, Alaska is growing. Options for functionally impaired Seniors wishing to remain home are limited. It was unknown if an A.D.S.C. would be a desirable resource to support the growing Senior population as data did not exist. In collaboration with community partners, a needs assessment for an A.D.S.C. in Sitka was undertaken. Surveys of Seniors, family caregivers and health care providers were administrated from May 2013 through January 2014. The results showed that most people are aware of A.D.S.C. and desire one in Sitka; Seniors wish to remain at home; Seniors and family caregivers would use the service; health care providers would refer to an A.D.S.C.; and most Seniors have funds for services.
    • Dog Bite Health Burden in Alaska Communities, 2002-2012

      Vinnikova, Marina (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-08)
      Dog bite injuries and fatalities are major public health problems nationwide. Alaska dog bite hospitalization rates are consistently higher than national rates, indicating that a health disparity exists. In Alaska dog bite injuries are inconsistently recorded and are not centrally reported. The objective of this study was to characterize dog bite injuries and victims in Alaskan communities for 2002-2012. A cross sectional study design was used in this first attempt to consolidate and analyze scattered statewide data regarding dog bites. Results showed that the vast majority of dog bites in Alaska went unreported, and confirmed previous research that the Alaska Native population and children aged 0-9 were disproportionately affected. This study was intended to provide an update of this public health problem for the State of Alaska, Department of Health and Social Services, Section of Epidemiology and to improve public and stakeholder knowledge.
    • Prospective Development of a Mobile Farmers Market in Mountain View, Anchorage, Alaska

      Seidner, Shaina (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-08)
      The goal of this project practicum was to provide information to help improve food security in Mountain View, a neighborhood located in Anchorage, Alaska, by facilitating increased access to fresh, healthy, and affordable food for low income populations. A mobile farmers market in Anchorage could help achieve this goal. Mobile markets are effectively farmers markets on wheels, allowing food to meet consumers where they live. Such markets are gaining popularity in the Lower 48 and data documenting their successes have been emerging. This project aimed to compile information for a mobile farmers market that could: 1) increase access to, and utiliza-tion of, fresh, healthy, and affordable food for Mountain View, and 2) create positive relation-ships between local food and disadvantaged populations. Data from key informant interviews, surveys and existing research on local foods, financial and business considerations were utilized to characterize how to best serve the identified populations through a mobile market. Key in-formant interviews stressed the importance of consistency, convenience and reliability in any new business as the Mountain View community has a history of businesses not following through on promises. Surveys from potential market customers showed strong interest in the market selling locally grown foods such as root vegetables, greens, corn and berries. Grants from federal and state sources could provide funding needed for the market, including grants which cover EBT machines, which are essential when providing access to customers on federal assistance programs. It was found a successful mobile farmers market in Mountain View could improve food security by increasing community access to food, much locally grown. Increased purchasing of local foods could help develop local food systems, allowing consumers’ money to stay in state, supporting local economies and link local markets.
    • Developing Core Competencies for Training of the Alaska College and Career Advising Corps

      Monrad, Greg B. (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-08)
      For business and organizations, employee training directly impacts the overall performance, competitiveness, and innovation which could lead to its ultimate success, or failure. In addition, training should directly relate to the values and goals of the organization. In the United States, over 200 billion dollars is spent on more than 20 billion hours of formal and informal training each year. Much is done without a framework to direct it to insure is addressing needs of employees and the organization. By designing training programs around specific core competencies, businesses and organizations can align training with the specific skills, knowledge and behaviors required to succeed in the job. Core competencies clarify specific requirements and expectations of the job while supporting the strategic direction of the organization. One method of determining the core competencies for a job is through a DACUM (Designing A CurriculUM) process. DACUM is not a difficult process to undertake and utilizes experts in the job in question to determine the knowledge, skills and abilities required to successfully perform the job.