• Career Exploration in the Anchorage School District

      Daniels, Adele M. (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-05)
      Job shadow opportunities for middle and high school students provides valuable exposure to workplace environments as students look at future career choices. This type of career exploration can help to connect students to careers of interest as part of a career pathway. These experiences can help a student recognize the skills that are needed for a particular job, as well as the day-to-day duties for a person working in a given field. Military installations located near local school districts are an untapped resource for the career exploration opportunities that are available. Many military and civilian occupations are very similar in nature, allowing for useful connections to be made by students. Making the connections more simplified, for both partners, could allow for more opportunities to take place. This paper will provide a suggested template to follow when planning an event in any school district located near a military installation.
    • Caregiver Burden and Perceived Health Competence when Caring for Family Members Diagnosed with Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementia

      Bailes, Christine (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-02-01)
      Purpose: To identify if there is a relationship between perceived health competence and burden of care of informal caregivers of family members with Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementia (ADRD). Methods: Informal caregivers 18 years and older who received services from the Alzheimer’s Resource of Alaska were invited to complete a survey. Conclusion: Findings indicate that there was a significant negative correlation between Perceived Health Competence and Burden of Care (N = 64, r = -.54, p <.001). Furthermore, the three subscales of the Modified Montgomery-Borgatta Caregiver Burden Scale: Relationship burden (r = -.29, p = .021), Objective burden (r = -.65, p = < .001) and Stress burden (r = -.41, p = .001) indicated that different types of burden affect informal caregivers’ health competence. Implications for practice: Based on the findings of this study, it is important to ensure that informal caregivers do have time for themselves as well as taking care of their own health needs. Nurse Practitioners can play an important role in early detection and prevention, with periodic screening to help identify current needs and to ensure optimal health for these informal caregivers.
    • Case Management Assessment and Course Development

      Patuc, Arlene (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-12-01)
      As health care costs skyrocket, a system of financially responsible health care with a high standard of quality is needed. Case management is a concept conceived over 100 years ago to coordinate care with effective use of services, excellent outcomes and patient satisfaction. This study looked at a needs assessment for a case management/care coordination course at the University of Alaska Anchorage (UAA) by interviewing 10 key informants in the Anchorage area who are actively involved in case management/care coordination or supervision. The participants were enrolled via the snowball method. Assessments of current UAA and online offerings were also conducted looking at present university level offerings in case management/care coordination both at UAA and at universities in the United States. Questions posed to the interviewed participants included the need for a case management/care coordination course, suggested format: graduate school, undergraduate or continuing education and the suggested course content. All participants felt UAA needed a specific course on case management/care coordination. Sixty percent of the participants felt the course should offer continuing education credits, 1 % felt the course would be most effective in graduate school and 4 % felt it would be best utilized as an undergraduate arena. Analysis also found 18 universities with online programs ranging from master degrees to certificates. All participants strongly voiced a need for ongoing information on statewide resources and a need for connections with other case managers/care coordinators.
    • A Case Study of Evaluating the Impact of Cost of Quality for Civil Engineering Design Services in a Small Corporation

      Pearson, Isaac (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-12-01)
      This case study evaluated the cost of quality (CoQ) for Civil Engineering Design Services (CEDS) in an Alaska based firm. The firm currently lacks a mature Quality Management System (QMS), which is needed to control and measure CoQ. As a means to justify the implementation of a QMS Feigenbaum quality costs were captured from historical job data and used to develop a Juran and Gryna Optimum Quality Cost Model. During the model development non-parametric testing was performed to determine the following; does the overall job budget size have an effect on quality cost, is there a correlation between appraisal and failure cost, and is the firms CoQ performing at an optimum level as defined by the quality models constructed. The non-parametric testing indicated that budget size did not have an effect on CoQ, appraisal cost are related to failure cost, and the firms CoQ was not optimized in its current state. The firms CoQ, per job, without an active QMS was determined to be 8.9% of the job cost with failure cost accounting for 5.2% of the total cost. By implementing a QMS such as ISO 9001 the firms CoQ, per job, is predicted to reduce to 6.1% of the job cost. This reduction could be achieved by increasing appraisal cost to 4.5% of the total budget, which is predicted to decrease the failure rate to 0.5% of total job cost.
    • Chronic Pain Management With Opioids: An Assessment of Alaska Nurse Practitioner Practices

      Klein, Stephanie (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2016-05-01)
      The purpose of this project was to determine chronic opioid pain management practices of Alaskan Nurse Practitioners (NPs) in primary care, compare them to best practices, and describe perceived barriers to evidence-based guideline use. Participants included NPs in Alaska who work in primary care and currently have an active Alaska NP license and Alaska mailing address. This project answered the questions of to what extent primary care NP practices are consistent with current Federation of State Medical Boards (2013) guidelines when managing chronic non-cancer pain with opioid therapy as well as identified the perceived barriers to guideline use. A cross sectional, descriptive design was used. The principal investigator mailed a paper survey to a convenience sample of NPs in Alaska. Nurse practitioners in Alaska follow guidelines when initiating opioid therapy most of the time, with all but three guidelines being followed ‘very frequently’ by at least 50% of respondents. Respondents follow guidelines less often when managing opioid therapy with only one guidelines being followed ‘very frequently’ by at least 50% of respondents. Two major barriers to guideline use include resource and knowledge barriers. The findings of this project were used to make clinical recommendations for improved practice.
    • Cognitive behavioral therapy in primary care

      Zimmerman, Lisa (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2018-05-01)
      Background: Chronic pain is prevalent, costly and commonly treated in primary care. Current evidence supports the use of integrated therapies that address the physiological and psychosocial factors in the pain experience. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has proven efficacy in the treatment of chronic pain conditions. However, psychological therapies, like CBT, are underutilized in chronic pain management. This may be the result of lack of mental health providers and typical delivery methods of individual therapy in private practice behavioral health settings. Objective: To review the evidence for the use of CBT techniques by health care professionals other than specialist in psychiatrics or psychology, for the management of chronic pain in primary care and community settings. Methods: The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Medline, PsycInfo, PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify qualitative and quantitative research involving CBT techniques used by non-mental health professionals in outpatient settings for adults with chronic non-cancer pain. Results: The search yielded 253 relevant records, and 11 met final selection criteria. CBT-based interventions delivered by non-mental health professionals were effective in reducing physical disability and pain severity in individuals with chronic non-cancer pain. Conclusions: Access to CBT-based interventions should be expanded to include delivery through health care professionals other than specialists in psychiatrics or psychology for the management of chronic pain in primary care.
    • Cold Region Pedestrian Bridge Prototype Maintenance Plan

      Weigand, Brian W. (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2018-05-01)
      In recent years there have been several failures of pedestrian bridges in the network of trails maintained by the Municipality of Anchorage (MOA), Parks and Recreation Department, causing the MOA to realize that they need to develop and maintain a bridge maintenance protocol. This project, the Cold Region Pedestrian Bridge Prototype Maintenance Plan, provides a prototype application and platform created to allow the MOA to obtain and utilize information collected by non-engineer workers to report on the condition of various pedestrian bridges (“Prototype Platform”). The Prototype Platform has three major components: the Bridge Inspection Application (BIA), a Bridge Risk Evaluation program (BRE), and the determination of Bridge Risk Categories (BRC). These three components will help the MOA to record bridge condition information, identify safety conditions that need to be addressed, classify the condition of the pedestrian bridges, group them into one of several broad risk categories, and provide the MOA with a way of accessing this information in a more organized manner. This project will provide information about the background of the MOA pedestrian bridges, their importance to the MOA, and prior work done relating to pedestrian bridge inspection approaches. It will also provide detailed information about components of the Prototype Platform, the testing of the components, and recommendations for the future. This project is an overall asset management tool that will help the MOA identify future potential risks on their pedestrian bridge system. The MOA intends to use this data in conjunction with more detailed reports to provide an overall condition assessment for the pedestrian bridges in Anchorage, Alaska. It is understood by all parties that the Prototype Platform is a first step in a broader effort to create a more robust pedestrian bridge maintenance management plan. The fact that the inspection data will be obtained by non-engineer field workers, and is somewhat simplistic and limited as to its content, makes the results from the field inspection data only a place to start. However, given the very real budget constraints and limited resources available to the MOA, the Prototype Platform gives the MOA a way to make meaningful progress in implementing a maintenance protocol. The BIA should be used annually as part of a routine review of pedestrian bridges. However, routine inspections conducted using the application should not replace full inspections and full structural analysis reports that can only be conducted by a professional structural engineer when needed.
    • Community-Scale Biosand Filter Pilot Project in Cambodia

      Hahn, Jason (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2016-05-01)
      Clean water is a basic human necessity that is essential for the health of all population, yet 700 million people worldwide lack access to this vital resource, particularly in developing countries like Cambodia. This results in high incidences of water-borne illnesses due to the use of contaminated sources and is a burden that prevents people from leading productive lives. Slow sand filtration, both on the municipal level and the household level, is a low-cost technology that has been implemented around the world to address this problem, yet biosand filtration has not been widely implemented on a community level due to the lack of tested, effective filter technology. In this pilot project, a community-scale biosand filter was designed, constructed and tested to determine if it can meet the water needs of a small floating village in the Siem Reap Province of Cambodia. With the collaboration of local partner organizations, this project demonstrated that community-scale biosand filters are a viable and effective solution to rural clean water challenges in Cambodia.
    • A Comparative Analysis of Vanpool and Single Occupant Commuters' Self-Reported Stress Level Before and After the Commute

      Ditmore, Christina (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-12-01)
      Stress—and its impact on personal health and overall wellness—is a well-researched topic. Countless studies are devoted to the effects of stress and its correlation to various aspects of life, including the topic of transportation choice. There has been significant research conducted regarding both stress and commute choices. However, there is limited empirical data specific to vanpools. The purpose of this study is to examine whether commuters who utilize a vanpool (VP) to commute to and from work experience less stress than their single-occupant vehicle (SOV) counterparts. Survey respondents provided their personally perceived level of stress both before and after their commute. The results provide insight into the effects of stress when choosing a vanpool as a primary commute mode. This information can help people understand motivating factors that may save time and money, and benefit the environment based on their commute choice.
    • Comparing methods for estimating Manning's roughness coefficient on a portion of the South Fork of Chester Creek

      Warnke, Grant A. (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2018-05-01)
      This report compares several different methods used for estimating the Manning roughness coefficient of a reach using observed conditions during spring runoff. A survey was taken of the South Fork of Chester Creek in the small valley between the Engineering and Computation Building and the North-West Parking Lot at UAA. The survey included 16 cross sections, a center line profile, water surface elevations (WSE’s), and flow velocity readings at each cross section. Based on observed conditions, a model was created in HEC-RAS to calculate the hydraulic characteristics at each cross section. These hydraulic characteristics, along with downstream cross section lengths and head losses, were used to calculate the composite roughness of the reach. This value was then compared to a visual method that accounts for flow-retarding factors, and an empirical method developed in a laboratory. The roughness values computed for the analytical, empirical, and visual methods were 0.071, 0.045, and 0.077 respectively. Additionally, the three computed coefficients were compared with two methods that involve matching table values. The two approximate table values were 0.11 and 0.10. Supplementary methods not used in the analysis are also discussed.
    • Comparison between physical and cloud infrastructure for a small business technology upgrade

      Horst, Patrick (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2018-08-01)
      Technology makes the business world go ‘round and it does not matter if it is a large corporation or small business, they are both affected equally. While It is true that large corporations have much more complex outcomes around technology decisions, they still must make the same general decisions as a smaller business. These decisions often boil down to a common choice, buy or rent. With the current trend in technology the question of rent versus buy comes down to whether a business wants to purchase and maintain its own infrastructure or rent those services from another company. This paper explores the difference and similarities between the two options and offers some data points to assist in the decision making. There is a comparison between the benefits of each choice as well as a discussion of potential pitfalls that might be encountered. A numerical analysis was performed to determine the cash flow for the two choices as well as an adjusted cash flow to correct for the time value of money. After all the analysis it was determined that while most businesses would find on-site infrastructure to be a competitive option and worth consideration the greater efficiency and safety with the cloud hosted option allows it to have the lower overall cost.
    • Construction productivity and cost reporting

      Champion, Robert Steven (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2018-12-01)
      This research report improves the likelihood of meeting construction project and business objectives by implementing self-perform labor productivity and cost reporting process. The overall approach includes a literature review of construction productivity reporting, evaluating existing reporting processes of an operating construction company, evaluating reporting process improvements on a model project, interviewing subject matter experts in cost control, and evaluating model project survey responses. The research approach involves evaluating a construction organization’s existing processes for estimating in standard units of measure, reviewing existing procedures for establishing cost control budgets, researching methods for developing a process for tracking installed material quantities, researching methods for preparing weekly productivity reports, and labor unit rate benchmarking. Additionally, this report includes examining methods for reducing operational rework for projects executed in the construction industry by implementing a proactive corrective action based on verified actual cost and productivity rates. The results of this research demonstrate that utilizing project management methodology as an approach to researching construction cost and productivity reports improves the success of implementing company standardized reporting processes and provides an opportunity to meet business objectives.
    • Cook Inlet Sediment Budget and Water Quality Model

      Wagner, Natalie (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2021-05-01)
      The topic that is being addressed is whether the sediment load into Cook Inlet increasing as the glacier melt rate has increased in the last 50 years? This is important since regional watershed understanding of the sediment balance and potential changes in sediment erosion and deposition rates in areas and along the coast may impact infrastructure like pipelines, bridges and roads, or communities. The scope includes a discussion on over fifty (50) years of related research, river water and sediment inputs, and an assessment of existing models. Data from USGS and other available sources were gathered, a large scale, high-level statistical assessment was conducted to determine if the riverine discharge data showed any significant increases in flow and sedimentation. The initial results showed that flow was increasing in time, and sediment transport could be as well. A more comprehensive review of the riverine discharge data shows a trend that the rivers are experiencing larger flows. There is not sufficient, comparable data yet to determine if the sediment load has also increased. The research efforts helped to create a basic sediment budget for the Cook Inlet Watershed. The most important results are that the glaciers are melting at a faster rate and the data show that the river discharge volumes are increasing, while sediment rates remain constant or are decreasing. The question this thesis is attempting to answer is whether there is also an increase in the sediment transport. Based on the available data reviewed, the river sediment load appears to be decreasing while the river water content appears to be steady or increasing.
    • The Copper Mountain Project: Financial Analysis and Sustainability Plan for the Copper Mountain Foundation a 501(C)

      Totemoff, Angela (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-12-01)
      The Copper Mountain Foundation (herein referred to as CMF) is a 501 (c) 3 non-profit that is fully funded, fully operated, and established by The Tatitlek Corporation (herein referred to as TTC). CMF currently has a program that provides scholarships and career grants for original enrollees and descendants of original enrollees of TTC. To be eligible to receive funding, a student must be an original enrollee of TTC or a lineal descendant of an original enrollee (by birth or adoption). Original enrollees of TTC either resided in the Native Village of Tatitlek or their families resided in Tatitlek at the time of enrollment in TTC. Today, scholarship applicants very often continue to come from a rural area within Alaska such as the Village of Tatitlek. The college graduation rate of rural students continues to be one of the lowest in the state. To address this problem, CMF created the scholarship program to offer financial assistance for education and career certificates for the enrollees. The CMF Board of Directors have expressed an interest in creating a Financial Analysis and Sustainability Plan to gain financial sustainability. The financial health of TTC has enabled the programs in CMF to be fully funded. However, securing additional funds diversifies CMF’s financial portfolio making them more financially stable, securing scholarships and career grants for the shareholder and descendants of the TTC. The goal of financial sustainability ensures that the programs will continue at the same rate of funding. The purpose of the Copper Mountain Project was to provide a robust Financial Analysis and Sustainability Plan that would provide the Board of Directors a clear understanding of the financial state of CMF and a guide as they pursued funding endeavors. This final report contains the project methodology used to produce the product, the research methodology used to conduct the research, conclusions about the product and research, and recommendations for further research.
    • Cost Benefit Analysis of Implementing Building Information Modeling (BIM) for Construction Management of the Sports Arena of University of Alaska Anchorage

      McConnell, Christopher C. (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-11-01)
      This research project evaluates the costs and benefits of implementing building information modeling (BIM) as a construction project management tool through the scenario analysis of the UAA Sports Arena project completed August 14, 2014. A literature review was conducted providing general information about BIM, its current status, leading software, cost, benefits, and analysis of two case studies. Cost benefit analysis was applied to account for risk and allow for the comparison of multiple scenarios that are simulated in @RISK. Based on the schedule scenario the project could have ended 11 days early, resulting in an estimated savings of 1.5% of total project cost. Based on the cost scenario the project is estimated to save 1.1% of total project cost, with a 72.8% chance of realizing a positive benefit. When the conditions specific to each scenario in this research are met, the results support a go decision with regards to the implementation of BIM.
    • The Couple's Advantage: A Case Study of When to Start Collecting Social Security

      Rodrigues, Talisa M. (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-06)
      Deciding when to collect social security benefits is a difficult decision, but particularly so for couples. Without being able to analyze the full spectrum of options, couples could be missing out on potential income. In addition, many of these couples are stuck trying to figure out what to do if there is only one earner in the household. This paper focuses on the difference between a single earner and that earner with a spouse that is not otherwise qualified to collect. It delivers real world solutions by using sensitivity analysis for the interest rates, age at death, and gender. Additional analyses focused on the particular life expectancies predicted on the social security web site. Thus, rather than matrices of strategies for different combinations of ages at death, it is possible to identify the best strategies and the NPV differences for the “average” case. This paper explains the strategies and outcomes for calculating the couple’s advantage over the individual earner as well as an in-depth analysis of benefits for a class of couples. The case results in a $136,559 to $384,989 increase in retirement income for couples over singles. This large increase in annual income can single handedly be attributed to both spousal and survivor benefits that couplesreceive but singles do not. Due to the complexity and many details of the couple’s rules, this analysis is presented as a solution to the case rather than as a set of possible case options.
    • Cryo-Recovery Business Plan

      Lopez, Jason (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2016-12-01)
      As Anchorage, Alaska continues to grow and sports athletes continue to flourish here in Alaska, a new body recovery system will be needed. A cryo-recovery or “cryosauna” machine is a new technology and an alternative to some forms of physical therapy. It helps the body heal from soreness and inflammation by cooling the body and increasing the blood flow by use of liquid nitrogen gas. A person is exposed for two to three minutes at a temperature of minus 240 degrees Fahrenheit causing the blood to flow from the extremities to the core. When the blood goes through the cardiovascular system, it is cleansed of toxins and supplied with oxygen, nutrients, and enzymes. As the body stays exposed to the cold temperatures, the blood continues to cycle through the cardio vascular system and organs in a continuous loop. When the person exits the cryo-chamber, the oxygenated blood with nutrients and enzymes return to the extremities reducing pain and inflammation. The research project provided a construction of a business plan tailored for an up and coming “new to Alaska” small business. The conducted market analysis was to help target and attract customers and to visualize Anchorage’s competitive landscape. The designed business plan assembles the individual pieces and elements of a business plan to which it includes a business model, marketing plan, operations plan, location requirements and financial plan. This document will help the sponsors of the project make informed decisions on what to look for when starting a cryo-recovery business in Anchorage, Alaska. As of winter 2016, there are no companies in Alaska that have this kind of technology; the closest being in Washington State. This project will be a stepping-stone in bringing Alaska a technology that has existed in the 48 contiguous states and in other foreign countries for multiple years.
    • Crystal River Properties - Rental Property Acquisition Guide

      Wareham, Andrew J. (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-11-21)
      Crystal River Properties is a privately owned small business started in 2011 whose sole revenue stream relies upon rental income from company owned small multifamily (duplex and triplex) real property assets. In order for the business to expand, additional properties need to be acquired to increase revenue. Current real-estate market conditions make it financially impractical to purchase new construction properties. The most feasible alternative is to consider pre-existing properties which, if not done correctly, could expose the company to considerable financial risk. This project will research and identify methods to select prospective existing rental income properties with the greatest potential for maximum, sustainable net income based on operations and maintenance costs, marginal revenue, turnover rate and vacancy rates. The underlying objectives will used to best meet the expectations of the potential occupant segment of stakeholders. Assessment criteria will be based upon price (anticipated return on investment), location, size, age, type of construction, property condition (recent renovations), insurance and tax rates, lessons learned from past property procurements and risk analysis considerations. Consolidated results of gathered information and research will be packaged into a step-by-step user guide for income property acquisition. The guide will available in electronic PDF and hard copy format. The methodology depicted in the guide will enable a thorough evaluation of property selection alternatives against likely risks and key success criteria providing the tools necessary to acquire additional business assets in the most economical fashion while simultaneously exposing the company to the least amount of financial risk.
    • Cultural Awareness as an Essential Business Practice

      Reep, Yelena (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2016-05-01)
      Many organizations conducting business in Alaska realize the necessity for robust cultural awareness training methods, tools and resources as means to managing risks and building positive relationships with stakeholders. This paper investigates the concept of cultural intelligence and its role in improving organizational performance and mitigating risks. Data collected through surveys and interviews showed that cultural awareness training focused on Alaska Native cultures was conducted by a significant number of Alaska organizations. The training is used as a risk mitigation and stakeholder management tool. Data analysis includes a description of the most common methods used to deliver cultural awareness training. The paper lists recommendations for stakeholder identification and engagement, offers considerations for choosing an appropriate cultural awareness training method and developing a training evaluation process. The Alaska Cultural Awareness Guide (see Appendix D) was developed to serve as a training aid and a single source of reference about Alaska and Alaska Native cultures for the project sponsor’s organization. Key Words: cultural awareness training, culture, cultural intelligence, cross-cultural communication, community liaison, training evaluation, training effectiveness, training methods, training life cycle, stakeholder engagement, risk management, mindful coexistence
    • Decision Management Process Improvement Project

      Dahl, Alina (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2016-12-01)
      It has become all too common that questions are raised during the execution of a project pertaining to the decisions that were made early on. Without having maintained a concise, accessible record of project decisions, the project manager and team members would find it difficult to provide hard evidence as to how they got to this point and what impacts specific decisions had on the project’s trajectory. This paper introduces the Decision Management Process Improvement Project (DMPIP), which focuses on improving decision management process throughout the lifecycle of a project with the aim of adding value to project performance and helping obtain project success. This new tool was inspired due to a lack of appropriate methods involving complex projects at a local consulting firm. The process along with the tool is being added to the toolset of a local Consulting Firm. This Firm plans to introduce the tools and techniques to clients that will benefit from an increased Project Management maturity level with improvements to its decision-tracking processes and demonstration of downstream effects of important decisions. The final product is a contribution to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) in the form of creating a Project Decision Management knowledge area in the PMBOK format. A decision log that follows a decision throughout the whole process from problem identification and analysis to the eventual outcome is at the core of the created knowledge area.