• Officer-Involved Shootings in Anchorage 1993-2013

      Payne, Troy C. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-06-15)
      This article presents findings from the December 2013 report Officer-Involved Shootings in Anchorage 1993–2013, which describes shootings involving officers of the Anchorage Police Department (APD) for the period January 1, 1993 through May 11, 2013.
    • Older Women Face Psychological and Physical Abuse

      Rosay, André B. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2017-07-14)
      This article examines psychological and physical abuse against women in Alaska who are aged 60 or older and compares these rates to national rates. Psychological abuse includes expressive aggression by intimate partners and coercive control by intimate partners. Physical abuse includes physical violence by intimate partners. It also includes sexual violence, by both intimate partners and non-intimate partners. Estimates are provided for both psychological and physical abuse. Alaska estimates come from the 2010–2015 Alaska Victimization Survey (AVS) and national estimates from the 2010 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS). Results show that one in nine Alaskan women aged 60 or older (11.5%) experienced psychological or physical abuse in the past year. These rates are all significantly higher than national rates.
    • Pretrial Risk Assessment Tool Developed for Alaska

      Cravez, Pamela (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2018-01-16)
      Beginning January 1, 2018, judicial officers, defense attorneys, and prosecuting attorneys in all Alaska courts began to receive information from a new pretrial risk assessment tool that calculates whether a defendant is at low, moderate, or high risk for failure to appear at trial or to commit another crime if the defendant is released pretrial. The tool, incorporated in Alaska’s new bail statute, aids in the judicial officer’s decision regarding pretrial bail conditions. This article looks at risk assessment tools in general and describes the development of Alaska’s pretrial risk assessment tool.
    • Prison Visitation Policies in the U.S. And Alaska

      UAA Justice Center (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-02-19)
      This article examines prison visitation in Alaska and nationally based on a 2012 survey of prison visitation policies for all 50 states and in the federal prison system.
    • Recover Alaska: Healing Alaska's Alcohol Problems

      Rivera, Marny; Hall, Tiffany (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2016-12-23)
      This article provides an overview of the strategies being implemented by the Recover Alaska initiative in its mission to reduce excessive alcohol use and related harm in Alaska by influencing social norms and perceptions about alcohol use and abuse. Includes a list of online resources.
    • Restorative Justice: Theory, Processes, and Application in Rural Alaska

      May, Jeff D. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-12-17)
      An exploration of the principles behind using restorative justice as an alternate form of sentencing in criminal cases, with a focus particularly on how restorative justice might be of benefit in rural Alaska. Includes a bibliography. A sidebar, "Restorative Justice Programs and Sentencing", looks at amendments to Alaska Rules of Criminal Procedure 11(i) and Delinquency Rules 21(d)(3) and 23(f) which describe the requirements for referral to a restorative justice program as part of the sentencing process.
    • Revisiting Alaska's Sex Offender Registration and Public Notification Statute

      Periman, Deborah (University of Alaska Anchorage Justice Center, 2009-03)
      This article examines the background and judicial interpretation of Alaska's sex offender registration and public notification statute, the new federal requirements for state sex offender registries and public notice under the Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act, and weaknesses in both Alaska's existing system and the enhanced requirements of the new federal legislation. These weaknesses include: * Absence of incentives for offenders to seek therapy or treatment; * Failure to provide for individualized risk assessment that would differentiate between those offenders who pose a negligible or very low risk of re-offending from those who pose a continuing public risk — a failure that causes unwarranted marginalization of low risk offenders and diminishes the overall effectiveness of the public notification system; * Public notice provisions so broad as to substantially impede offenders' reintegration into their families, their community, and the workforce, and potentially chilling family reporting; * Internet posting requirements associated with severe stigmatization and public harassment, and concomitant emotional destabilization and isolation of offenders — factors that may actually increase the risk of recidivism and community harm. * Because the Walsh Act conditions state receipt of Byrne Grant funds on compliance with its enhanced registration and notice requirements, there is little Alaska can do to remedy the above weaknesses and still remain eligible for Byrne funds. However, the article concludes with a recommendation for limited changes to our statute that would minimize, to the extent possible, its adverse effect on offenders' ability to find employment; omit the lowest risk offenders from internet posting requirements; and provide those incentives for treatment permissible under the Walsh Act.
    • Rural Governance Report 2014

      Kimmel, Mara (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-12-17)
      This article presents highlights from the report of the reconvened Rural Governance Commission, with a focus on pathways necessary to ensure public safety for rural Alaskans. The Alaska Commission on Rural Governance and Empowerment was originally convened in 1999.
    • Senate Bill 64 - Omnibus Crime Bill

      Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-09-22)
      This brief article describes provisions of SB 64, the omnibus crime bill enacted during the 2013–2014 session of the Alaska Legislature. Sidebar accompanying the article "The Alaska Criminal Justice Commission: A Legislative Call for Action."
    • Senate Bill 91: Summary of Policy Reforms

      UAA Justice Center (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2016-09-21)
      This article highlights provisions of Senate Bill 91, "Omnibus Criminal Law & Procedure; Corrections Act," related to the recommendations of the Alaska Criminal Justice Commission. SB91 was signed into law on July 11, 2016.
    • Sequential Intercept Model: Framework for a ‘Wicked Problem’

      Cravez, Pamela (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2018-04-02)
      The Sequential Intercept Model offers conceptual points at which a person with serious mental illness could be diverted from the criminal justice system and into community-based treatment. This article reviews the 2015 book "The Sequential Intercept Model and Criminal Justice" (New York: Oxford University Press), which looks at the success of programs along the intercept continuum. A workshop on the model sponsored by the Alaska Department of Corrections will be held in Anchorage in May 2018.
    • Sexual Assault Case Processing: A Descriptive Model of Attrition and Decision Making

      Snodgrass, G. Matthew (University of Alaska Anchorage Justice Center, 2009-03)
      This study examined the outcomes of sexual assault cases reported to the Anchorage Police Department between January 2000 and December 2003. The data include 1,052 cases involving one suspect and one victim (85% of all reported sexual assaults). Cases and charges were tracked through the Alaska Department of Law to determine what was referred, accepted, and convicted. * Overall, 18% of cases were referred for prosecution. The most common referred charge was a sexual assault in the first degree. Seventy-nine percent of referred charges were sexual assault charges. * Overall, 12% of cases were accepted for prosecution. The greatest point of attrition was from report to referral. Once referred, 68% of cases were accepted for prosecution. Sixty-eight percent of charges were accepted by the Department of Law as referred. The most common reasons for not accepting a charge as referred were evidentiary reasons. The most common accepted charge was also a sexual assault in the first degree. Seventy-five percent of accepted charges were sexual assault charges. * Overall, 11% of cases resulted in a conviction. Once accepted, 87% of cases resulted in a conviction. Although convictions were common in accepted cases, accepted charges were often dismissed. While 87% of accepted cases resulted in a conviction, 59% of accepted charges were dismissed. Ninety percent of guilty findings were a result of plea bargaining. With plea bargaining, some charges were dismissed but a conviction was still secured. Fifty-six percent of convicted charges were sexual assault charges. The most common convicted charge was for assault, followed by sexual assault in the second degree.
    • Sexual Assault Kit Initiative: Alaska Making Progress

      Cravez, Pamela (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2018-04-02)
      Victim-centered policies being developed by the Alaska Department of Public Safety for processing unsubmitted and untested sexual assault kits collected by Alaska State Troopers are one part of the state’s efforts to tackle more than 3,000 untested kits under grants from the Sexual Assault Kit Initiative of the Bureau of Justice Assistance, U.S. Department of Justice.
    • Sexual Assaults in Anchorage

      UAA Justice Center (University of Alaska Anchorage Justice Center, 2009-03)
      This study examined the characteristics of all sexual assaults reported to the Anchorage Police Department from 2000 through 2003. Key descriptive findings are summarized. * Victims tended to be young and female, with Native women victims in over 45% of reported sexual assaults. * In a majority of the assaults – over 62% – the assailant was not a stranger to the victim. The most common non-stranger relationships included friends and acquaintances. * A majority of the assaults occurred indoors, with 45% taking place at the residence of one or both of those involved. * Sixty-five percent of victims had used alcohol prior to the assault and 74% of suspects had also. * While assaults occurred all over the Municipality of Anchorage, they happened with more frequency in Spenard, Fairview, and Downtown.
    • Sexual Assaults Reported to Alaska State Troopers

      Rosay, André B.; Postle, Greg; Wood, Darryl S.; TePas, Katherine (University of Alaska Anchorage Justice Center, 2009-02)
      This study examined 989 cases with a sexual assault or sexual abuse of a minor charge reported to Alaska State Troopers in 2003 and 2004, and excluded any sexual assault cases reported to local or municipal departments. * Forty-eight percent of reports came from C Detachment (Western Alaska - Kodiak to Kotzebue), and 58% were reported from communities off the road system. * In 69% of cases, the identity of at least one suspect was known. While most suspects (87%) were adults, most victims (73%) were juveniles. Sixty-one percent of victims were Alaska Native and 38% were White. Intra-racial victimizations were much more prevalent than inter-racial victimizations. The most common suspect was a friend or acquaintance of the victim, followed by a relative. Forty-three percent of suspects and 27% of victims had used alcohol. * Sexual penetration occurred in 60% of assaults. Weapons were very rarely used. Most assaults occurred inside private residences. Nineteen percent of victims experienced general physical pain and 10% suffered bruising or swelling. Most victimizations were reported quickly to Troopers and Troopers were quick to respond. Ninety-six percent of victims were interviewed, with 48% interviewed on the day of the report and 80% interviewed within one week of the report. * Forty-six per cent of reported cases were referred for prosecution, 60% of referred cases were accepted for prosecution, and 80% of accepted cases resulted in a conviction. Overall, however, only 22% of reported cases resulted in a conviction. In some cases, the conviction may be for a non-sexual offense. The highest level of attrition occurred from report to referral.
    • Shifting Marijuana Laws and Policies: Implications for Alaska

      Brandeis, Jason (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-09-22)
      Marijuana regulation continues to be a pressing criminal justice and social policy issue both in Alaska and across the nation. A ballot measure that would legalize, tax, and regulate marijuana in Alaska will be before the state’s voters at the November 2014 general election. This article summarizes Alaska’s current marijuana laws (as of summer 2014), identifies recent changes to other state laws and federal policies related to marijuana use and possession, and discusses the impact of those changes on Alaska’s marijuana laws.
    • Smart Justice in Alaska

      Armstrong, Barbara (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-11-06)
      Smart justice initiatives seek to reform criminal justice systems by reducing correctional populations and recidivism while lowering costs, maintaining offender accountability, and ensuring public safety. This article describes two smart justice initiatives underway in Alaska, “Results First” and “Justice Reinvestment."
    • Stalking in Alaska

      Rosay, André B.; Postle, Greg; TePas, Katherine; Wood, Darryl S. (University of Alaska Anchorage Justice Center, 2009-02)
      This study examined 267 cases with a stalking charge reported to Alaska State Troopers from 1994 to 2005, and excluded any cases reported to local or municipal departments. We also examined the legal resolutions for cases that were reported from 1999-2004. * Over 50% of reports occurred in B detachment (Southcentral Alaska) and D detachment (Interior Alaska). Three units (Fairbanks AST Enforcement, Palmer AST Enforcement, and Soldotna AST Enforcement) handled 49% of reports. Thirty-five percent of the charges were for stalking in the first degree and 65% were for stalking in the second degree. * Most suspects (91%) were male and most victims (89%) were female. Most suspects (78%) were White and most victims (86%) were also White. On average, suspects were 36 years old while victims were 33 years old. Twenty percent of suspects had used alcohol, but only 2% of victims had used alcohol. Fifty-four percent of suspects were, or had been, in a romantic relationship with the victim. An additional 35% of suspects were friends or acquaintances of the victim. * The most common forms of stalking included standing outside or visiting the victim's home (in 54% of charges), making unsolicited phone calls to victims (in 51% of charges), following the victim (in 39% of charges), threatening to physically assault the victim (in 36% of charges), harassing the victim's family and friends (in 28% of charges), trying to communicate with the victim in other ways (in 27% of charges), standing outside or visiting the victim's work (in 20% of charges), physically assaulting the victim (in 19% of charges), sending the victim unsolicited mail (in 15% of charges), and vandalizing the victim's home (in 13% of charges). Forty-five percent of behaviors occurred primarily at the victim's home, while 27% occurred primarily in cyberspace. * Seventy-five percent of the cases reported between 1999-2004 were referred for prosecution, 55% were accepted for prosecution, and 40% resulted in a conviction on at least one charge. Cases with suspects who violated protective orders were 20% more likely to be referred for prosecution, were 19% more likely to be accepted, and were 41% more likely to result in a conviction.
    • Study Examines Sexual Assault Survivor Experiences

      Johnson, Ingrid D.; Breager, Randi; TePas, Katherine H. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2019-09-12)
      The Alaska Department of Public Safety is working with the University of Alaska Anchorage Justice Center to better understand how sexual assaults reported to the Alaska State Troopers are handled and perceived, and which factors shape the likelihood of achieving justice for sexual assault victim-survivors. A final report including recommendations for practice improvement is expected mid-2020.
    • A Survey of Studies on Judicial Selection

      Fortson, Ryan; Knudsen, Kristin S. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-09-01)
      The Alaska legislature is considering a bill — Senate Joint Resolution 3 — that would put before voters a state constitutional amendment to change the composition of the Alaska Judicial Council and the way its members are selected. The Alaska Judicial Council plays a constitutionally-mandated role in the selection of Alaska’s judges and also makes recommendations to voters concerning retaining or not retaining judges as part of the judicial retention election process. This article reviews selected existing studies relevant to potential effects of this proposed change to the council composition — studies that examined judicial effectiveness, responsiveness of judges to public opinion, and public perception of judges. Also provided are flowcharts of the selection processes for members of the Alaska Judicial Council and of judges of the Alaska Court System; a detailed table of judicial selection methods in U.S. states and the District of Columbia; and a bibliography.