• Community-Based Instruction and Vocational Learning in Special Education: A Meta-Synthesis

      Joslyn, Sean A. (University of Alaska Southeast, 2011-08-03)
      This meta-synthesis on community-based instruction and vocational learning in special education explores the training and skills individuals with disabilities require need to survive and thrive in employment and post-school activities designed to improve self-reliance, personal responsibility, and increase exposure to the community and all of the activities and opportunities that exist there. Substantial barriers must be addressed for all individuals with disabilities, but particularly for those individuals with moderate to more severe disabilities. Through proper trainings, and the utilization of the necessary tools and equipment, individuals with disabilities will continue to increasingly transition into meaningful employment and community-based programs intended to build self-sufficiency.
    • The Comparison of Effective Social-Emotional Learning Programs Use in P-12 Schools: A Meta-Synthesis

      Hebert, David (University of Alaska Southeast, 2011-08-02)
      This meta-synthesis of literature analyzed 59 journal articles pertaining to social-emotional learning programs for P-12 students. The articles underscored the importance of the involvement of peer support, parent support, teacher and parent training, behavior intervention, positive reinforcement, school-wide programs, and individualized programs being utilized in a consistent way as well as the individual programs being used with fidelity across the whole environment of the student for a successful implementation.
    • Coping Skills for Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Synthesis

      Brighton, David (University of Alaska Southeast, 2011-08-01)
      Students diagnosed with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are often seen as problem students with little hope for academic success. It is common for these students to be medicated with a daily dosage of stimulants to help them function more appropriately in the classroom. This meta-synthesis identifies multiple ways to work with students with ADHD; effective interventions can help students with ADHD cope with their disorder and become more successful students.
    • Developing an Effective Learning Environment for Children with Asperger Syndrome: A Meta-Synthesis

      Gressett, Rosanne (University of Alaska Southeast, 2011-08-01)
      This meta-synthesis of the literature on developing an effective learning environment for children with Asperger Syndrome examines four critical areas that help support academic and social growth and self-advocacy. Early intervention and social skills instruction, while considering the specific needs of the child are foremost and provide the foundation from which all future learning will evolve. Effective learning not only encompasses approaches that are person-centered but also requires adaptations that support transition. For the Asperger child, as he moves into adulthood, transitioning can be especially challenging. As an adult, with ongoing support and interventions, transitions can be opportunities for self-awareness and growth.
    • Early Childhood Special Education in Norway and the United States: A Meta-Synthesis

      Brainerd, Julia (University of Alaska Southeast, 2012-06-11)
      This meta-synthesis investigates various aspects of early childhood special education in Norway and the U.S. Both countries strive to provide services for young children with disabilities in inclusive settings. However, the differences in policy, levels of governmental regulation and involvement, local organization of service delivery, and provision of social benefits shape very different realities for children with disabilities, their families, and their service providers in Norway and the U.S. This inquiry of 43 articles addresses such issues as overall quality of services and support available to children with disabilities and their families, qualifications of personnel who work with children with disabilities, funding of various early childhood settings that these children attend, and availability and accessibility of inclusive early childhood environments for children with disabilities in both Norway and the U.S.
    • The Egg/Nest Problem: Teaching Language to Students with Autism. A Meta-Synthesis

      Howe, Ryan (University of Alaska Southeast, 2011-07-30)
      This meta-synthesis of the literature on methods of instruction to students with ASD examines the various methods of teaching language to students with ASD. While each student learns language at his or her own pace, the author has found that certain methods yield results quicker, and these methods need to be examined critically for any literature on their reliability, efficacy, and scientific research. If a student with autism can be taught language quickly, therefore mitigating any further delays in academic development relative to peers, then this methodology should be made accessible to all teachers of such students.
    • How Alaska Natives Learn and Changes to Alaska Education that would Ensure Success: A Review of the Literature

      Kookesh, Sally Woods (University of Alaska Southeast, 2009-07-14)
      I have examined 47 articles that related to Alaska Native/American Indian education and culturally responsive education. I found problems in K-12 education for Alaska Natives; historical contexts; cultural context; building bridges; and the future for K-12 education for Alaska Natives were common themes throughout my review of the literature. Problems with education was established 200 years ago and Alaska Natives still perform lower than their non-Native counterparts; historical context tells a story of past Native educational and mainstream practices; cultural context can play a positive role in closing the achievement gap through language, culture, and involving the community; building bridges can occur between Native and non-Native systems by using best practices and local ways of knowing in a diverse cultural climate; and looking forward by changing K-12 education for Alaska Natives through involving Native parents, communities, educators, and universities as equal collaborators in education for Alaska Natives.
    • The Impact of Language Acquisition and Language Learning On Learning Process: A Meta-Synthesis

      Allman, Ashley (University of Alaska Southeast, 2018-07-20)
      This meta-synthesis explores the correlation between language acquisition and learning. Children who are bilingual have advantages and disadvantages to how they learn. When research first started on this idea, common opinion was that it was a disadvantage to be bilingual. However, as research has progressed more advantages than disadvantages of being bilingual have been found. Furthermore, new ways children can learn language have appeared. Options can include but are not limited to parents and guardians, an immersion program, and/or a dual/multi-language program. An important factor of language acquisition is for children to be fluent in one language before they learn a second language. Children that do not have a firm grasp of their first language combine two language patterns and create a different language. The combining of languages causes them to have challenges throughout their education.
    • Managing Students' Emotional Behavioral Disorder Inside and Outside of the Classroom: A Meta-Synthesis

      Fielding, Estelita D. (University of Alaska Southeast, 2012-06-11)
      This metasynthesis of the literature focuses on managing students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) inside and outside of the classroom. Students with EBD require large amounts of time and attention, often unplanned and in response to disruptive behaviors. Students with EBD can take a heavy emotional and physical toll on teachers, staff and peers involved with them, and instruction time for other students can be shortened or delayed due to disruptive behaviors. School districts find retention more difficult when students with EBD are present due to the high stress factor. When teachers and staff have the appropriate preparation and tools, however, students with EBD can be successful in an inclusive school setting with minimal disruptive behavior. Furthermore, as they make progress, they can practice self-management techniques to achieve more independence.
    • No Teacher Left Behind: The Influence of Teachers with Disabilities in K-8 Classrooms A Meta-Synthesis

      Hauk, Amanda (2009)
      This meta-synthesis of the literature on K-8 teachers with disabilities examines the profound influence that teachers with disabilities can have in our classrooms. Teachers with disabilities act as valuable and realistic role models for all students and bring unique qualities to the classroom, including a passion for inclusive education and creative methods of instruction. However, prejudicial barriers to success often restrict these exceptional teachers from access to our classrooms, undermining the inclusion movement present in most special education programs and schools today. When these teachers are denied employment, students with disabilities suffer in and out of the classroom from a lack of identity construction, reduced self-esteem, and nonexistent advocacy skills.
    • No Teacher Left Behind: The Influence of Teachers with Disabilities in the K-8 Classrooms. A Review of the Literature

      Hauk, Amanda (University of Alaska Southeast, 2009-07-14)
      This review of the literature examines the profound influence teachers with disabilities can have in our classrooms. Teachers with disabilities act as valuable and realistic role models for all students and bring unique qualities to the classroom, including a passion for inclusive education and creative methods of instruction. However, prejudicial barriers to success often restrict these exceptional teachers from access to our classrooms, undermining the inclusion movement present in most special education programs and schools today. When these teachers are denied employment, students with disabilities suffer in and out of the classroom from a lack of identity construction, reduced self-esteem, and nonexistent advocacy skills.
    • Rett Syndrome: A Place for Angels

      Cox, Deborah Ann (University of Alaska Southeast, 2009-07-14)
      Rett syndrome is a thief! It robs little girls of their projected life. It lulls their families into a false sense of security while their little girls develop normally for 6 to 18 months. Then it insidiously robs them of their skills and abilities until they are trapped in a body that won't respond. These little girls are called "silent angels" (Hunter, 2007). Rett syndrome (RS) was originally identified in 1966 by the Austrian neurologist Andreas Rett, but his research and findings were written in an obscure form of the German language the medical world could not and did not translate. It wasn't until 1983, that Rett syndrome was re-identified and labeled as its own disorder (Hunter, 2007). The Rett Syndrome Research Foundation (2006) summarizes the condition best with: Rett syndrome is a debilitating neurological disorder diagnosed almost exclusively in females. Children with Rett syndrome appear to develop normally until 6 to 18 months of age when they enter a period of regression, losing speech and motor skills. Most develop repetitive hand movements, irregular breathing patterns, seizures and extreme motor control problems. Rett syndrome leaves its victims profoundly disabled, requiring maximum assistance with every aspect of daily living. There is no cure. (Retrieved October 14, 2008 from http://www.rsrf.org/about_rett_syndrome/) Research is ever going to regards to Rett syndrome. What is known as of now is that Rett syndrome is caused by a mutation of the gene MECP2. It is not passed down in families and it knows no ethnic boundaries. The majority of Rett girls live to adulthood (RSRF, 2006). The male child doesn't usually survive birth with Rett syndrome.
    • Secondary Transition Planning: Reponsibilities and Strategies. A Meta-Synthesis

      Arnold, Art (University of Alaska Southeast, 2011-08-02)
      This meta-synthesis of the literature, on transition planning for youth with disabilities, examines several important facets that impact the post school outcomes for students with disabilities. Eight specific areas have been highlighted that point out the common theme areas of this metasynthesis. Research recognizes the responsibilities of the regular and special education teachers to the secondary transition process and the roles of the student and parent are not minimized at all. Professional development and continuous training are needed and highlighted for teachers, counselors, administrators, parents and students. There are specific successful strategies and methods to apply to the transition planning process. Raising expectations will likely result in positive post school outcomes as well. However, it is only too often that teachers, counselors, parents, and students are ill prepared for secondary transitions from high school to employment or further training. Expectations are too low and students are not prepared to make decisions about their employment or training in spite of the fact that self determination and self advocacy are strong tools that can and will promote positive outcomes for students. Indeed, individualized transition planning and person centered planning are valuable tools.
    • Selective Mutism: The Child Silenced by Social Anxiety. A Meta-Synthesis

      Merrill, Kellie (University of Alaska Southeast, 2012-06-11)
      This meta-synthesis explores the subject of selective mutism across multiple age groups. Selective mutism is present in a very small percentage of students. Given the small number of students that have this disorder there is limited resources and professional collaboration options available for teachers. The low incident rate of selective mutism often leads to students being forgotten about in the classroom setting. Teachers do not know how to help them overcome their disorder and the students are not able to ask for the help they need. This exploration into selective mutism reviewed 30 articles on the topic and attempted to provide identifying characteristics of the disorder as well as interventions for educators to implement while working with students selective mutism.
    • Septo-Optic Dysplasia (SOD): Educational Issues in Literature for Teachers and Parents

      Bailey, Stephen (University of Alaska Southeast, 2011-06-20)
      Ninety-nine articles published in professional journals related to septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) or the education of young blind children were reviewed by a special education teacher and parent of a blind one year old boy diagnosed with SOD. The articles were classified by publication type (e.g., research studies, descriptive articles, guides, position papers, reviews of literature). Fifty-three of the 99 articles were research studies; these 53 research studies were classified by research design (i.e., quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods); the participants and data sources of each study were identified; and the findings of each study were summarized. All 99 articles were then analyzed using a modified version of the Stevick-Callaizi-Keen method to draw out the essential themes of this body of literature. The 11 themes that emerged from this analysis included: (a) septo-optic dysplasia and optic nerve hypoplasia; (b) parenting and early intervention; (c) cognitive development; (d) language development; (e) orientation and mobility; (f) social behavior; (g) assistive technology; (h) educational placement; (i) emergent literacy; (j) Braille literacy; and (k) assessment. These themes were then considered from the author's roles of parent and teacher.
    • Teaching Children with Reactive Attachment Disorder: A Review of the Literature

      Arnold, Shawn Travis (University of Alaska Southeast, 2009-07-14)
      Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) has been examined by the psychological community for many years, but only in recent years has it entered the realm of education and recognizing students with RAD has occurred. Disagreements continue to take place over what types of assessments or interventions may work for children with RAD. Often children with RAD are not diagnosis [sic] because the symptoms reflect other dysfunctional behaviors and teachers reject these students as unwilling to accept instruction. This paper is a literature review of professional articles available with bearing on teaching children with RAD. In addition, this article presents behaviors of RAD and describes recommendations in dealing with students with RAD that teachers may use. Lastly, the article briefly summarizes the content of several research articles.
    • Teaching Methods for Students with AD/HD: A Meta-Synthesis

      Creamer, Matt (University of Alaska Southeast, 2011-07-30)
      This metasynthesis explores teaching methods and strategies for helping middle school students with ADHD. Students with ADHD show more frequent patterns of inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsivity compared to their peers. There is a significant difference between students with and without ADHD. The severity of ADHD will increasingly affect students' academic performance and social support in the classroom setting. Teachers can improve student performance by incorporating specific interventions, accommodations, and modifications to the students' academic curriculum. In addition, the concepts of teacher support, parent collaboration, and student medication were also discussed. This text also provides suggestion and advice for future special education teachers.
    • Teaching Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Inclusive Classrooms (Grades P-3): A Meta-Synthesis

      Clifford, Melody (University of Alaska Southeast, 2011-08-02)
      This meta-synthesis focuses on the literature pertaining to students with emotional and behavioral disorders in inclusive preschool through third grade classrooms. The first purpose of this study was to discover the feelings and ideas that teachers, parents and community members have. Teachers, parents and community members have varying views about inclusion of students with emotional and behavioral disorders. The second purpose was to discover ideas that teachers could use in the classroom to successfully support students with emotional and behavioral disorders.
    • Transition in Rural Communities: Opportunities for Secondary Students with Disabilities. A Meta-Synthesis

      Anderson, Nancy (University of Alaska Southeast, 2012-06-11)
      This metasynthesis examines transition planning and services in rural communities, especially those in Alaska. It considers the barriers and challenges to transition implementation, the cultural responsiveness of rural educators, the developments in and suggestions for transition services, and approaches and strategies for transition planning. It illuminates the importance of building community relationships and tapping into human resources. Finally, the metasynthesis stresses the rural educator's need for cultural sensitivity in rural Alaska Native communities.
    • Transition Planning for Secondary Students with Learning Disabilities: A Meta-Synthesis

      McKim, Howard (University of Alaska Southeast, 2012-06-11)
      Despite increasing legal requirements in planning and documentation, transition outcomes for secondary LD students continue to fall short of pre-graduation expectations. As students move from the supportive and controlled environment of public school education systems to the less structured world of work or post-secondary education, a myriad of skills, supports, and coordinated efforts are needed for optimal outcomes. As the number of students qualifying for services continues to rise, analysis of the shortcomings and successes of the current special education transition strategies is becoming increasingly important. This meta-synthesis of the literature on transitioning secondary LD students investigates the realities of secondary transition planning and the difficulties in implementation.