• Auroral zone absorption of radio waves transmitted via the ionosphere

      Andersen, Soren; Leonard, Robert S. (Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska, 1955)
      A discussion of the design for a new antenna system for the transmitter stations is presented together with the measurements and power computation made on the old and new antennas. In the 12 mc back-scatter program at College, the technique used to measure the amplitude of each individual echo and reanalysis of the range distribution previously reported are discussed. Revisions in the techniques of observation of visual auroras and the methods of recording the data for analysis are described in detail.
    • Distribution of Radar Auroras Over Alaska

      Leonard, Robert S. (Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska, 1961-04)
      Analysis of data collected by five auroral radars located in Alaska shows the distribution of ionospheric disturbances as a function of time and location. The radars were operated during the IGY and were located in a nearly straight line running magnetically north-south across Alaska; these locations made it possible to observe disturbances continuously in the range, from 60 to 80 degrees geomagnetic latitude, which includes the visual auroral zone. An apparent radar auroral zone with a maximum at 67 degrees geomagnetic latitude is indicated by this study. The decrease in occurrence to the south of this maximum is verified, but the decrease to the north can not be accurately defined as the roll of aspect sensitivity is not fully understood. The radar auroral zone spreads to the south during increased magnetic disturbance, and some indication is found of a lessening of activity well north of the visual auroral zone. A conclusion is also reached that the layer causing radio wave absorption during aurora is not uniform but contains "holes" or regions of low absorption. The diurnal occurrence curves indicate two principal maxima. One is observed at all stations at times near local midnight. The time of the other maximum depends on the latitude of observation; it is later in the morning at the more northern locations. These two echoes exhibit differing degrees of aspect sensitivity, the morning echoes having a narrower scattering polar diagram.