Browsing School of Arts and Sciences by Subject "ecology"
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Ecosystem response persists after a prolonged marine heat waveSome of the longest and most comprehensive marine ecosystem monitoring programs were established in the Gulf of Alaska following the environmental disaster of the Exxon Valdez oil spill over 30 years ago. These monitoring programs have been successful in assessing recovery from oil spill impacts, and their continuation decades later has now provided an unparalleled assessment of ecosystem responses to another newly emerging global threat, marine heatwaves. The 2014–2016 northeast Pacific marine heatwave (PMH) in the Gulf of Alaska was the longest lasting heatwave globally over the past decade, with some cooling, but also continued warm conditions through 2019. Our analysis of 187 time series from primary production to commercial fisheries and nearshore intertidal to offshore oceanic domains demonstrate abrupt changes across trophic levels, with many responses persisting up to at least 5 years after the onset of the heatwave. Furthermore, our suite of metrics showed novel community-level groupings relative to at least a decade prior to the heatwave. Given anticipated increases in marine heatwaves under current climate projections, it remains uncertain when or if the Gulf of Alaska ecosystem will return to a pre-PMH state.
Oceanographic Determinants of the Abundance of Common Dolphins (Delphinus delphis) in the South of Portugal.Off mainland Portugal, the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) is the most sighted cetacean, although information on this species is limited. The Atlantic coast of Southern Portugal is characterized by an intense wind-driven upwelling, creating ideal conditions for common dolphins. Using data collected aboard whale-watching boats (1929 sightings and 4548 h effort during 2010–2014), this study aims to understand the relationships between abundance rates (AR) of dolphins of different age classes (adults, juveniles, calves and newborns) and oceanographic [chlorophyll a (Chl-a) and sea surface temperature (SST)] variables. Over 70% of the groups contained immature animals. The AR of adults was negatively related with Chl-a, but not related to SST values. The AR of juveniles was positively related with SST. For calves and newborns, although the relationship between SST and AR is similar to that observed for juveniles, the effect could not be distinguished from zero. There was no relationship between Chl-a levels and the AR of juveniles, calves and newborns. These results corroborate previous findings that common dolphins tend to occur in highly productive areas demonstrating linkages between their abundance and oceanographic variables, and that this region may be a potential nursery ground.