Now showing items 1371-1390 of 3321

• Historical trauma and approaches to healing among Choctaw American Indians

Native Americans have experienced a number of historically traumatic events that are believed to contribute to the development of behavioral health symptoms that negatively affect Native American quality of life across generations. Despite the trajectory of trauma experienced in some Native American communities, Native Americans exhibit extraordinary resilience and cultural strengths. Stress and coping models have been developed to explain how historical trauma is related to current health disparities among Native Americans and how enculturation may serve as a buffer against the negative effects of historical trauma. However, these models apply meta-theories to understanding historical trauma rather than tribally specific conceptualizations of historical trauma and historical trauma responses. Therefore, it is important to understand tribally specific manifestations of historical trauma so that intervention and prevention efforts are culturally appropriate. Choctaws are one of the largest Native American groups in the United States. They have experienced a history of forced removal and relocation from traditional homelands, yet the Choctaw Nation itself exhibits continuous growth and success as a tribe. This study used a qualitative, phenomenological, and community based participatory research (CBPR) approach to explore how Oklahoma Choctaw American Indians experience historical trauma and define well-being and enculturation. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with Choctaw American Indians in three different age categories 18-29; 30-49; and 50 and over to examine generational differences in how concepts of historical trauma, enculturation, and well-being are conceptualized. The theoretical construct of historical trauma was informed by themes of assimilation and colonization; resurgence of the Choctaw identity; awareness of historical losses and affective responses; forms of coping; current barriers to accessing Choctaw Nation services; and varying degrees of cultural involvement among tribal members. The theoretical construct of well-being was described in terms of physical health, faith, family, and culture. The theoretical construct of enculturation included pride in heritage, having Choctaw blood, being involved, and social connectedness. Choctaw participants reported social problems related to substance abuse and a sense of diminishing social connectedness to other tribal members. Recommendations on how to upscale behavioral health treatment and strengthen community ties are described. Adapted measures of historical trauma and enculturation for use in future research endeavors with Oklahoma Choctaw American Indians are also provided.
• A history and analysis of the efforts of the Ahtna people of South-Central Alaska to secure a priority to hunt moose on their ancestral lands

The purpose of this study is to document the decades-long struggle of the Ahtna people of south-central Alaska to secure the priority to hunt moose in their ancestral lands. The study details the changes in moose hunting regulations in Game Management Unit 13 from the first permit hunt in 1960 to the current era as well as the changes in the number of hunters, number of moose harvests, and success of hunters by area of residence (local vs. non-local). This study summarizes changes in regulations regarding rural preference for subsistence hunters and the court cases challenging those provisions. It outlines the strategies the Ahtna have used over the years to try to secure a priority to hunt moose. It also discusses the importance of moose hunting to the culture of the Ahtna people and the cultural impacts of changes in subsistence harvest regulations. The results demonstrate that under the current management and regulatory structure, Ahtna people and other local residents of the Copper Basin are not getting enough moose and they persistently feel the pressure from non-local hunters. The Ahtna counter this by continually engaging the natural resource management and regulatory process, maintaining subsistence lifestyles, and increasing their wildlife management capacity so that in the future they will have more moose on their land and a greater ability to control this important aspect of their culture. The study also provides recommendations regarding future subsistence moose hunting regulations in the region.
• History of Asian cannery workers in the Pacific Northwest

From the mid 1860s to the eve of World War II, Asian workers, predominantly Chinese, Japanese, and Filipinos, constituted a significant part of the labor force in the Pacific Northwest cannery industry. In contrast to the prevalent notion of Asian workers' exploitation, their struggles in the industry have long been marginalized. Asian workers endured cruel working conditions and attempted to find ways to achieve their individual ambitions. Despite the hardships they faced in the course of their participation in West Coast capitalism, the Asian workers in the Pacific Northwest began adapting to the new environment, and their social status grew at the same time. Development of the labor contract system and its conflict with unionization were Asian workers' ways to sustain their places in the labor market. Outside of the cannery industry, the demographical dynamism of Asian immigrants also complexly influenced those in the industry. As Asian immigrants developed their own communities, they significantly shaped their distinctive identities in the U.S. and created ethnic solidarity, which led to ethnic labor competition in the cannery industry. Hence, history of Asian cannery workers in the Pacific Northwest demonstrated ways of Asian workers' responses toward the demands of capitalism on the West Coast.
• History of the Chukchi borderland and the Amerasia basin, Arctic Ocean

Structural and stratigraphic interpretation of 2D multi-channel seismic (MCS) reflection profiles through recognition of the sub-surface reflection patterns and integration of the seismic interpretation with the other geophysical and geological data reveal the history of the Chukchi Borderland. This investigation provides new constraints for the tectonic development of the Amerasia Basin. North-striking normal faults of the Chukchi Borderland dissect the continental basement into the Chukchi Plateau, Northwind Basin and Northwind Ridge from west to east. A well-developed angular unconformity (Au) separates the stratigraphic section into sub and super-Au seismic units. Sub-Au units include: (1) seaward dipping reflections (SDRs) observed in the juncture between the North Chukchi-Toll Basins and Chukchi Plateau; (2) growth and folded strata in the Northwind Basin; (3) thrust faults in the Northwind Basin and over the Northwind Ridge; and (4) a clinoform sequence that downlaps onto the extended continental crust of the Canada Basin, supported by presence of SDRs and diapiric reflections within the crust. Au is inferred to correlate to the Hauterivian (LCu) and the Middle Jurassic (Ju) unconformities of the Alaska North Slope. The SDRs indicate that the southwestern margin of the Chukchi Borderland may be a rifted continental margin. Loosely constrained age control of a super-Au unit (inferred condensed section, perhaps correlative to Hauterivian pebble shale or the Jurassic upper Kingak shale units of Alaska North Slope) implies that the rifted margin subsided no later than the earliest Cretaceous, providing a plausible time constraint for Middle Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous rifting in the North Chukchi Basin. The growth strata and north-striking normal faults of the Northwind Basin are continuous with the extensional structures of the Mississippian Hanna Trough, providing a geologic linkage between the two. The folding and thrust faults reveal a phase of contraction confined to sub-Au units of the south and eastern Northwind Basin and Northwind Ridge. The clinoform sequence of the Northwind Ridge-Canada Basin is inferred to correlate with the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Kingak shale unit of Alaska North Slope, implying that the extension of the crust beneath the western Canada Basin occurred no later than the Middle Jurassic. Super-Au strata (~16 km) onlap the condensed section, SDRs, growth and passive margin strata from west to east, tapering down to a few kilometers north and eastward across the seismic grid. These are part of the Aptian through Cenozoic Brookian megasequence, a series of clinothems, deposited across the foreland of the Chukotka and Brooks Range orogens. These strata were deposited by northward-migrating depositional systems that progressively filled the North Chukchi Basin and buried the southern flank of the Chukchi Borderland, and deposited along the Northwind margin of the Canada Basin. Another unit of growth strata is observed in the Northwind Basin, indicating another phase of extension of the Boderland. The Upper Cretaceous section of the Brookian megasequence is displaced by normal faults over the Chukchi Plateau and inferred age-equivalent strata over the Northwind Ridge. These constrain the second phase of extension of the interior Borderland to the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene. The recognition of the sub-Au units and continuity of the super-Au units across the area, north-striking normal faults, and the absence of east-directed thrust faults between the Northwind Ridge and Canada Basin invalidate one model proposed for tectonic development of the Amerasia Basin. Models that require significant relative motion between the Chukchi Shelf and Borderland since the Middle Jurassic are precluded by these observations.
• The history of this house

'The History of this House' is a collection of personal essays focusing on one woman's attempt to explain her profound need to preserve and understand cultural and family history. The collection explores this theme as the narrator excavates a Native American burial mound and postulates that her chosen profession makes symbolic headstones in an endeavor to celebrate and immortalize the past. Her need to identify with the past is also apparent in other essays as she assists with an autopsy, investigates her sexuality through religion, searches for her biological mother, and comes to terms with her position as a female athlete in a family of male baseball players. She realizes at a family auction that though her family tries to keep the past alive by buying and selling tangible goods; she can never live in the past, but can only preserve and learn from it.

• Holding

'Holding' is the first-person account of a young woman coming to terms with her father's illness, her cousin's death, and her family's dysfunction. The novel explores the developing need of the narrator to understand a sexual relationship she shared with her cousin. At the beginning of the novel, the narrator romanticizes this relationship, but as she confronts layers of disillusionment-denial, self-destruction, codependence-her perception transforms into a more realistic view of the past. The narrator uses pop songs as a metaphor for her idealized definition of love. To her, love is an absolute, a perfect bond. Over the course of the novel, she comes to a more mature definition of love. In the end accepting and admitting that what she perceived as love was actually abuse doesn't erase her problems, but proves the first step in the process of recovery.
• Holocene volcanism and human occupation in the middle Susitna River Valley, Alaska

Archaeological and stratigraphic evidence from the middle Susitna River Valley, Alaska, reveals a rich record of human occupation during the Holocene, punctuated by volcanic ash deposits locally referred to as the Devil, Watana, and Oshetna tephras. Deposition of tephra in the middle Susitna River Valley had the potential to affect subsistence resources and lifeways of prehistoric peoples; however, ambiguities remain in dating both tephra deposits and cultural occupations, and in characterization of the tephra deposits. In addition, there has been little formal consideration of how deposition of tephra may have affected prehistoric hunter-gatherers using the middle Susitna River Valley (mSRV) during the Holocene and this research seeks to fill that gap. Electron probe microanalysis is used to geochemically characterize the middle Susitna River Valley tephra, enabling correlation to reference tephra from Hayes Volcano and aiding in determining the number of volcanic events present in the stratigraphic record of the middle Susitna River Valley. Assimilation of existing radiocarbon dates from multiple sources with new AMS radiocarbon dates produced as part of this study allows for estimating the timing of tephra deposition and evaluating the timing of cultural occupation of the area with greater precision. Characteristics of archaeological assemblages bounded by tephra deposits are also evaluated relative to existing frameworks for understanding prehistoric hunter-gatherer behavior in interior Alaska. Interpretation is aided by consideration of other tephra depositional events and their environmental and ecological effects. Results suggest that at least four tephra depositional events took place in the middle Susitna River Valley. The Devil tephra was deposited between 1625-1825 cal yr B.P. (calibrated years before present). The Watana tephras, which correlate to the Hayes Volcano tephra set H, were deposited between 3360-4400 cal yr B.P., with the upper and lower portions of this tephra deposited either in rapid succession or separated in time by only a few hundred years. The Oshetna tephra was deposited between 6570-7970 cal yr B.P. While the Devil, upper and lower Watana tephras represent discrete volcanic events, the Oshetna tephra has multiple glass compositions and therefore it is unclear whether this tephra represents an eruption with a heterogeneous composition or multiple discrete tephrafalls compounded in the mSRV. Potential hiatuses in cultural occupation of the mSRV occur following deposition of these tephras, but characteristics of archaeological assemblages in the mSRV are in accordance with general transitions in central interior Alaskan archaeology. Information from other volcanic events suggests that tephra deposition in the middle Susitna River Valley would have affected resource procurement in the area and therefore likely contributed to cultural hiatuses, especially following deposition of the Watana tephra. This project has clarified the Holocene stratigraphic sequence of the middle Susitna River valley, Alaska, and provided a more complete context for interpretation of the archaeological record.
• Home range, habitat selection, and movements of lynx (Lynx canadensis) in eastern interior Alaska

Lynx home ranges, habitat selection, and daily track deposition rates were determined in interior Alaska. Male home ranges averaged 167 km2 in 1991-92 and 127 km2 in 1992-93, but varied (14-270 km2); females averaged 33 km2 in 1991-92 and 48 km2 in 1992-93. Nomadic lynx displayed erratic movements and large ranges, whereas others dispersed from the study area. Lynx with small home ranges may use snowshoe hare refugia whereas other lynx may range over expanded areas to acquire food. Lynx preferred broadleaf and mixed forests and avoided dwarf shrub/tundra. Lynx used a 1959 burn more than expected; more recent burns (<11 years) were used less than expected. Track deposition was significantly related to snowfall, temperature and barometric pressure change (P< 0.001), the overall model, however, explained only 16% of the variation in deposition (R2 = 0.162). Temperature was most related to track deposition; as temperature increased, track deposition became more variable.
• Home Schooling In Alaska: Extreme Experiments In Home Education

This study explores the history of home schooling in Alaska. The 49<super> th</super> state offers an unusual degree of freedom from regulation that allows diverse and innovative experiments in home education to flourish. Currently, Alaskan home schoolers enjoy more freedom to practice their craft than in any other state of the United States. <p> Alaska has never had enough money to deliver quality education to its children. Trying to establish an education system, to serve a small population scattered over more than half-a-million square miles, required the development of innovative methods: one of these was home schooling. Home schooling provides a low cost answer to educate Alaska's children, and became an accepted institution in Alaskan education. Today home schooling continues to deliver lower cost education to both the remote and urban student, in the North, but also offers myriad options for parents who demand more and greater flexibility in educating their children. <p>
• Homeland security and emergency management education: an investigation into workforce needs

The U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) was created in the wake of the September 11th 2001 terrorist events. DHS's formation, the largest reorganization of a governmental agency in over 50 years, brought a new emphasis on the protection of the nation, its citizens and its infrastructure to government emergency management policy. Previously, the locus of emergency management had lain with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), which had strongly emphasized natural disaster response. The rise of FEMA and DHS were only the latest iterations in a long history of policy shifts in this space driven by the perceived threats and prevailing political dynamics of the day. Arguably, the complex and intertwined nature of contemporary hazards calls for a dual emphasis in the homeland security and emergency management (HSEM) enterprise; that is, awareness and capabilities that span both fields. As applied disciplines, scholarship in homeland security and emergency management has always had strong links to the evolving practice of the HSEM enterprise. In addition to providing research to guide practice, baccalaureate programs in both homeland security and emergency management have emerged to address the operational and educational capabilities required by practitioners. In the post-9/11 environment, the increasingly complex demands placed upon our homeland security and emergency management enterprise require a better-integrated education. This study serves to demonstrate consensus regarding the significance of an integrated curricula in homeland security and emergency management meeting the needs of the workforce.
• Homeschooling in Alaska: parent perceptions and homeschool regulations

Homeschooling is a growing trend in the United States and Canada. States vary as to what regulations are required to homeschool a child. Current studies from the United States and Canada focus on the academic achievement of students who are homeschooled, the homeschooling styles that were used, along with education levels and income levels of those who teach at home. The studies only include students who are known to be homeschooled and do not account for the ones that are not required to participate in standardized testing. Research was conducted, first using online surveys completed by families that homeschool in Alaska, then with interviews that had more open-ended questions to allow for more detailed input. In Alaska, parents can choose to homeschool through a correspondence program or homeschool independently without having to notify the state. This research revolved around the following three questions: What does homeschooling look like for families in Alaska? What are parents' perceptions on homeschool regulations in Alaska? Why do parents choose to homeschool with a correspondence program that has more regulations than if they homeschool independently? Findings suggest that parents tend to have an eclectic approach in their teaching and student progress is measured by curriculum assessments, observation and discussion, much like is seen in a public school classroom. Parents may not fully understand the difference between homeschool regulations and regulations for correspondence programs in Alaska. Funding seems to be a top reason to enroll in a correspondence program. As the sample for this study was limited, it would be beneficial to have additional research regarding homeschooling in Alaska.
• Homology and cohomology of diagrams of topological spaces

Homology and cohomology of objects other than ordinary topological spaces have been investigated by several authors. Let X be a G-space and ${\cal F}$ be a family of all closed subgroups of G. The equivariant cellular structures are obtained by attaching n-cells of the form G/H $\times$ B$\sp{\rm n}$, where B$\sp{\rm n}$ is the unit n-ball and H $\in\ {\cal F}$. A construction of the equivariant singular homology and cohomology for X and ${\cal F}$ was given by Soren Illman. In this thesis ${\cal F}$ is replaced by a small topological category and the G-space X is replaced by a functor taking values in k-spaces and called a diagram of topological spaces. The cellular structures for diagrams are obtained by attaching cells D$\sb{j}\times\rm B\sp{n}$ where D$\sb{j}$ is a representable functor. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate homology and cohomology for diagrams. We review the foundation of homotopy theory and cellular theory for diagrams. We propose axioms for homology and cohomology modeled on Eilenberg-Steenrod system of axioms and prove that they, as in the classical case, determine uniquely homology and cohomology for finite cellular diagrams. We give the generalization of Illman's equivariant singular homology and cohomology to diagrams of topological spaces and we prove that this generalization satisfies all introduced axioms. Also we prove the comparison theorem between the sheaf cohomology for diagrams developed by Robert J. Piacenza and the singular cohomology for diagrams developed in this thesis.
• Honda country: relocalization through technology in Nanwalek Alaska

It should not be assumed that the introduction of a new technology automatically wipes out past cultural practices. Instead, it is often the case that these offerings are integrated into a current routine. For the Sugpiat of Nanwalek, Alaska, there is a constant need to negotiate between what to change and what to preserve. My research explores how a cultural group judges a new technology based upon shared boundaries and understandings. I examine how the decision to accept all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) has allowed for increased participation in subsistence practices, effective resource management, and material and emotional reunification with those things that went before. Many of the activities and "places that count" are no longer merely fragments of memory for many in the village; rather, they are physical and contemporary in their importance. In my dissertation, I define relocalization and demonstrate how relocalization was made possible through purposeful decision-making and adaptive traditions and did not simply occur because of the existence of ATVs and their random internalization.
• Hormonal regulation of alternative reproductive strategies

Variation in reproductive behavior permits individuals to optimize fitness given their genetics, physiological condition, social status, age and current environmental conditions. For species with alternative reproductive strategies, behavioral differences are driven by natural and sexual selection and further mediated by the endocrine system. In this study, I explore endocrinological mechanisms associated with alternative reproductive strategies in the ruff (Philomachus pugnax). Ruffs breed on leks, where males use one of three genetically determined alternative reproductive strategies or phenotypes. Resident males rely on male-male aggression, colorful plumage, large body size and intensive display activity to establish courts on a lek and attract females. Satellite males operate outside the dominance hierarchy of the lek, relying on semi-cooperative displays with residents, lighter display plumage coloration and agility to access receptive females. Males using the third male strategy, considered 'sneakers' or 'female mimics', completely forgo typical male breeding plumage, territoriality and obvious display behaviors to obtain clandestine access to females. The differences in level of aggression and display behaviors among phenotypes suggest predictable differences in steroid hormone concentrations, which play a critical role in breeding behavior in birds. I therefore examined seasonal hormone profiles of male ruffs and applied predictions from the challenge hypothesis, which posits circulating androgen concentration will vary in relation to intensity of male-male competition during the breeding season. Consistent with the challenge hypothesis, androgen levels were higher during periods of lek instability in territorial resident ruffs. In contrast, when housed in large flocks, androstenedione was elevated during the breeding season in satellite ruffs and followed the pattern typically observed for testosterone in polygamous birds. In response to distinctly different seasonal androgen and androstenedione profiles, I further examined the activational role of androstenedione on satellite male breeding behavior. Androstenedione stimulated both resident and satellite typical behaviors consistent with genetic morph, and thus did not specifically activate the satellite phenotype.
• Host-parasite ecophysiology of overwintering

To survive extreme winters, parasites must overwinter either in a host, as free-living larvae, or be reintroduced yearly through migratory hosts. This thesis examines interrelations between host parasite overwintering physiology and behavior in Alaska between the trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae and their host, wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus). The first chapter examines overwintering physiology and behavior of wood frogs in the field. The second chapter creates a laboratory method for determining physiological responses of wood frogs to environmental transitions from summer to fall. The third chapter examines if and how R. ondatrae survive within a frozen wood frog. Free-living wood frogs investigated over two winters in Fairbanks, AK remained frozen for up to 7 months and survived temperatures as low as -18°C, values much more extreme than those previously reported (Chapter 1). Alaskan wood frogs also synthesized and released approximately one order of magnitude greater concentrations of cryoprotectant (glucose) in multiple tissues than levels previously reported. Wood frogs in the field did not experience the same slow and continuous cooling that researchers routinely subject frogs to under experimental conditions. Instead they cooled at rates of up to -1.5°C h⁻¹ for short periods in a diurnal freeze-thaw pattern repeated over one to three weeks until remaining frozen for the rest of winter. Since wood frogs only produce glucose at the initiation of freezing, I hypothesized that freeze-thaw cycling within hibernacula allowed for incremental increases of glucose resulting in higher concentrations in field wood frogs than found in laboratory frozen wood frogs. I compared patterns of diurnal freeze-thaw cycling with the standard laboratory freezing protocols for wood frogs. Wood frogs that experienced multiple freeze-thaw events responded with significant increases in glucose concentration in liver, leg, and heart tissues at each freezing with no significant losses in glucose with each following thaw period (Chapter 2). This incremental increase in glucose within wood frogs may also assist in parasite survival. Trematode metacercariae may be absorbing host glucose and using this cryoprotectant to enhance their survival (Chapter 3). This result provides evidence that host physiology in winter may both hinder (through freezing) and facilitate (through cryoprotectant production) parasite survival.
• Hot flow anomalies at earth's bow shock and their magnetospheric-ionospheric signatures

Hot flow anomalies (HFAs) are typically observed upstream of bow shocks. They are characterized by a significant increase in particle temperature and substantial flow deflection from the solar wind flow direction coinciding with a decrease in density. HFAs are important to study and understand because they may play an important role in solar wind-magnetosphere coupling. They may drive magnetopause motion, boundary waves, and flux transfer events. They can excite ultra low frequency waves in the magnetosphere, drive magnetic impulse events in the ionosphere, and trigger aurora brightening or dimming. Studying HFAs will aid in the understanding of fundamental processes that operate throughout the heliosphere such as particle energization and shocks. This dissertation presents statistical and case studies of hot flow anomalies identified in Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions During Substorms (THEMIS) satellite data from 2007-2009. The characteristics and occurrence of HFAs, their dependence on solar wind/interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions and location, and their magnetospheric-ionospheric signatures, have been investigated using in-situ spacecraft observations and ground based observations. THEMIS observations show that HFAs span a wide range of magnetic local times (MLTs) from approximately 7 to 16.5 MLT. HFAs were observed up to 6.3 Earth radii (RE) upstream from the bow shock. It has been found that the HFA occurrence rate depends on solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions as well as distance from the bow shock. HFA occurrence decreases with distance upstream from the bow shock. HFAs are more prevalent when there is an approximately radial interplanetary magnetic field. No HFAs were observed when the Mach number was less than 5, suggesting there is a minimum threshold Mach number for HFAs to form. HFAs occur most preferentially for solar wind speeds from 550-600 km/s. Multiple THEMIS spacecraft observations of the same HFA provide an excellent opportunity to perform a spatial and temporal analysis of an HFA. The leading edge, tangential discontinuity inside the HFA, and trailing shock boundaries for the event were identified. The boundaries' orientations and motion through space were characterized. The HFA expansion against the solar wind was 283 km/s. The spatial structure of the HFA was deduced from multiple spacecraft observations. The HFA is thicker closer to the bow shock. The magnetospheric-ionospheric signatures of an HFA have been investigated using in-situ spacecraft observations and ground based observations. Magnetic field perturbations were observed by three GOES spacecraft at geostationary orbit and high-latitude ground magnetometers in both hemispheres. Observations from magnetometers located at different MLTs showed that the perturbation propagates tailward at 0.32°/s or 9 km/s (1.27°/s or 21 km/s) for the northern (southern) hemisphere, which is consistent with an HFA propagating tailward along the dawn flank. SuperDARN radar observations showed a change in plasma velocity shortly after the HFA was observed by THEMIS.
• Hotspots and behavioral patterns of southern Alaska resident killer whales (Orcinus orca)

The resident killer whale (Orcinus orca) is a genetically and behaviorally distinct ecotype of killer whale that feeds primarily on Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). Long-term monitoring over 30 years of study has enabled detailed investigation into pod-specific, seasonal, and compositional differences in space use and behavior. To investigate use of habitat, 33 resident killer whales representing 14 pods in the northern Gulf of Alaska were tagged with satellite transmitters during all years from 2006 to 2014, and transmissions were received during the months of June to January. Core use areas were identified through utilization distributions using a biased Brownian Bridge movement model. Tagging results indicate different core use areas between pods, which could be due to cultural transmission within matrilineal groups. To investigate differences in behavior, 1337 hours of behavioral data were collected from 2006 to 2015. For these observations, chi squared tests were used to determine significant differences in behavior budgets between seasons, regions, haplotypes, and numbers of pods. The presence of 'rarely sighted' pods (sighted in less than 5% of encounters) had a large influence on the frequency of social behavior, which increased from 18.5% without their presence to 31.4% with it (X² = 17.3, df = 1, P < 0.001). Frequency of social behavior was also significantly affected by the number of pods present (X² = 72.8, df = 3,P < 0.001), and increased from 4.7% to 31.2% with one pod to more than four pods present. Strong seasonal and pod-specific differences were found in core use areas, possibly driven by the availability of seasonal salmon migration. Social behavior, and to some extent foraging and resting behaviors, appear to be driven by group composition and numbers of pods throughout the spring to fall seasons. Overall, these findings help clarify spatial and behavioral patterns observed for resident killer whales.
• The hound at the end of the road: stories

The Hound at the End of the Road is a collection of fictional stories that examines loneliness, isolation, and loss through a lens that is by turns magical and horrific. The stylistic choices in these stories are magic and lyricism, used to amplify the powerful imaginations of their characters to present a world that is as familiar as it is unfamiliar. A father deals with his teenage daughter's transformation into a beast; two children get lost in the woods on a vital winter hunt; and a woman is willing to endure anything to keep her late-in-life pregnancy. The stories choices in this thesis are meant to make the wonderful out of the ordinary. They illuminate the strange to remind us that being human means being fallible, and that being human is often mystifying and rewarding.