• Initial Permafrost Engineering Research In Alaska

      Cysewski, Margaret Hope; Shur, Yuri (2013)
      Past permafrost engineering research and projects can aid modern permafrost engineering. The knowledge base of lessons learned among engineers is important, especially between generations of engineers, so history does not repeat itself Uncovering the history of permafrost engineering, and its compilation, summarization, and analysis, is beneficial for the Alaskan engineering community. This master's thesis is devoted to the early years of permafrost engineering in Alaska with projects carried out from the Gold Rush era to shortly after WWII. The projects include: thawing technology developed by gold miners, Alaska Highway road design and construction with its influence, and early comprehensive research by the Permafrost Division of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' St. Paul District, particularly the development of the test site, the Fairbanks Research Area, along Farmers Loop Road. Each of these projects has been successfully adapted to modern practices, laying the foundation of permafrost engineering.
    • Injury, survival and growth of rainbow trout captured by electrofishing

      Taube, Thomas Theodore (1992-05)
      Electrofishing injury studies in Arizona and Alaska revealed spinal injury rates of over 50% among large (>300 mm long) rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss captured by electrofishing with pulsed direct current (PDC). My goal was to identify an alternative waveform that would efficiently capture large rainbow trout with injury rates less than 15%. Experiments in homogeneous and heterogeneous electrical fields tested six waveforms; lower injury rates resulted with DC (17%), CPS™ (8%), and 20-Hz PDC at 75% duty cycle (25%). In field experiments with these three waveforms, PDC and DC gave higher capture rates than CPS™. However, injury rate was 60% with 20-Hz PDC and highly variable (0-47%) with DC. Long-term mortality of rainbow trout shocked with 60-Hz PDC at 50% duty cycle was 35% after 203 days. I recommend DC as an alternative to PDC waveforms for relatively safe and efficient capture of large rainbow trout.
    • Inland Tlingit of Teslin, Yukon: G̲aanax̲.Ádi and Kook̲hittaan clan origin stories for the immediate and clan family of Emma Joanne Shorty (nee Sidney)

      Shorty, Norma; Barnhardt, Ray; Taff, Alice; Leonard, Beth; Kaplan, Lawrence (2015-08)
      The purpose of my research is to learn the story of Mother's clan, and to document the processes of gathering knowledge about the clan connections between the G̲aanax̲.ádi and Kook̲hittaan from Teslin, Yukon, Canada. The objective of this thesis is to document the stories and the story-gathering processes of published and private holdings on my Mother's clan stories. The study includes published literature from indigenous and non-indigenous historians and oral history reviews, especially on those who have knowledge about the Kook̲hittaan and G̲aanax̲.ádi clans and have connections to the Inland Tlingit from Teslin, Yukon. This indigenous-led research focuses on my mother and her clan stories. I am an insider and an outsider to my culture. From an insider perspective I am privileged to hear, to learn, and to retell Mother's maternal clan stories. As a result of this research, Tlingit ways of documenting history are discovered and Tlingit research (literacy) frameworks are revealed. I learned that the Kook̲hittaan and G̲aanax̲.ádi clans are one. Our oral history is validated by face paint designs, petroglyphs and clan shirt designs. In their published work some non-indigenous ethnographers made changes to words and designs which distorted the indigenous record. This dissertation compares all possible information sources showing the heavier weight of evidence is provided by available indigenous sources. Colonization has greatly impacted the perpetuation of indigenous knowledge systems by referring to indigenous knowledge as "traditional" because the term tradition conjures up images of living in the past.
    • Inside out: an invisible illness explored through art

      Chamberlain, Jennifer; Brashear, James; Mason, Charles; Jones, Zoe Marie; Shannon, Teresa (2018-12)
      Inside Out: A Hidden Illness Explored Through Art is a thesis Project to fulfill the requirements of an MFA degree in visual arts. This project focused on ceramics and photography inspired by the unusual combination of medical imagery and heavily textured ocean landscapes. Through this body work, a better understanding of invisible illness is revealed. During my first year as an MFA student at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, I was invited to be an apprentice to Simon Levin, a woodfire potter specializing in functional wares fired in a Japanese style Anagama Kiln. One month into my apprenticeship I was diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis, an unpredictable and incurable autoimmune disease that disrupts the central nervous system causing progressive physical and cognitive deficits. My apprenticeship experience dramatically changed course as I began investigating and adapting to new ways of working in clay. I have had to redefine my identity as a ceramic artist as a result of this diagnosis and the impact it has had on my daily life. My interpretation of this new medical diagnosis has resulted in exciting, detailed surfaces and textures on my functional ceramics. Through this exploration, I have begun to form a connection between the textures and lines of medical imaging and my love for the subtle beauty of the ocean landscape. Exploring these subjects through their unusual and unexpected combinations has provided me with a healing and introspective experience that has greatly influenced my recent work.
    • Insight into the diet history of ice seals using isotopic signatures of muscle tissue and claws

      Carroll, Sara Shanae; Norcross, Brenda; Horstmann-Dehn, Larissa; Quakenbush, Lori; Wooller, Matthew (2012-05)
      Climate change and sea ice reduction in the Arctic may impact foraging of ice-associated predators. The goal of my thesis work was to examine interannual differences in the diet of ringed, bearded, spotted, and ribbon seals as described by stable nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios of muscle tissue and claws to assess foraging plasticity. Isotopic mixing models from muscle data were used to describe the proportional contribution of prey groups during 2003, 2008-2010. Results showed a higher proportional contribution of smelt (Osmeridae) and benthic prey to ringed and bearded seal diets in 2003 compared to 2008-2010. Seasonal keratin layers deposited in claws can document trophic history up to about 10 years. During 2007 (record ice minimum), proportionally more ringed seals fed at a lower trophic level, while spotted seal adults and young-of-the-year fed at a lower trophic level during 2006. Bearded seals may have been foraging more pelagically from 2008 to 2010. Ice seals may be taking advantage of more abundant pelagic crustaceans as the Arctic ecosystem changes to a pelagic-dominated food web. Interannual variations and high variability among species and individual diets illustrate the opportunistic nature and flexibility of ice seals to changes in prey composition.
    • Institutional structure and the optimal level of lying

      Hiser, Rodney F.; Logan, Robert R. (1999)
      This study is an interdisciplinary comparative analysis of two institutional structures and their relation to lying. The author examines institutional structure through an institutional continuum with contrasting ideal-types at opposing ends. These ideal-types are the "private property order" and the "bureau." The author models lying as a benefit-cost analysis and examines lying through a two-person model of society called the "information relation." Using the information relation, he shows the problem of lying is an agency problem between the informer and the informee. In two separate analyses, the author evaluates the ideal-types' tendencies to either allow or hinder lying. In the first analysis, the author identifies seven protection-from-lying strategies and compares their necessary requirements to the institutional constraints of the ideal types. In the second analysis, the author examines six social phenomena, within the institutional context of each ideal type, that affect people's benefit-cost ratio of lying. The author concludes that there exists a positive correlation between the degree of central planning and the optimal level of lying, as seen from the point of view of each individual in society. The author argues that a movement on the continuum away from the private property order toward the bureau tends to (1) breakdown community relations, (2) provide incentive for society members to adopt value relativism, (3) change the nature of competition, (4) lower society's overall material standard of living, and (5) create a social environment of mutual self-deception. The author sees important implications in this study for the economics of information, theories of government regulation, and the sociology of science.
    • Integrated experimental and computer modeling approach to understand permafrost thaw subsidence induced oil well instability for Alaska North Slope oil wells

      Suryawanshi, Saurabh Sheshrao; Patil, Shirish; Dandekar, Abhijit; Bray, Matthew; Khataniar, Santanu (2016-05)
      Hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Arctic region of Alaska have been developed by various oil and gas producers for several years. Most of them are overlain by massive layers of permafrost soils which extend to a thickness of up to 2300 feet. Production and injection wells in such regions have experienced design and operational challenges due to heat loss from the wellbore and subsequent thawing of the permafrost soils. Thawing is a phase change of ice to water resulting in volumetric reduction of the frozen soil due to pore space contraction and segregated ice thaw, causing a major problem of thaw subsidence. Thaw subsidence affects the stability of the well, causing buckling and structural distress along the length of the wellbore within the thaw susceptible permafrost zones, thus damaging the well casing. Two different experimental approaches, one-dimensional consolidation and three-dimensional physical scale test, were employed to study thaw subsidence mechanisms in three different types of soils; namely, clay, silt and sand. The main objective of these experiments was to understand the well-soil system and the changes occurring within it with time, which will further increase knowledge of the interaction between the wellbore and the soil in Arctic regions during progressive thaw. Due to a lack of data and information, several areas were selected for multiple experimental approaches, including lateral pressure development, soil strain and strain within well casing, to study the frictional effects along the wellbore and pore-pressure response within the soil. Along with the experimental work, two different models were built in COMSOL Multiphysics™. The first model focused on thermal analysis of the thawing and refreezing behavior of ice-rich permafrost for drilling and production operations, while the second model focused on mechanical analysis, to study and understand the generation of the vertical and horizontal loads and stress-strain characteristics of the ice-rich permafrost. Simulations focused mainly on obtaining data for lateral pressure development, well stress-strain and temperature.
    • The integrated hydrologic and societal impacts of a warming climate in Interior Alaska

      Jones, Charles E.; Kielland, Knut; Hinzman, Larry; Kane, Douglas; Prakash, Anupma; Schneider, William (2014-12)
      In this dissertation, interdisciplinary research methods were used to examine how changes in hydrology associated with climate affect Alaskans. Partnerships were established with residents of Fairbanks and Tanana to develop scientific investigations relevant to rural Alaskans. In chapter 2, local knowledge was incorporated into scientific models to identify a socialecological threshold used to model potential driftwood harvest from the Yukon River. Anecdotal evidence and subsistence calendar records were combined with scientific data to model the harvest rates of driftwood. Modeling results estimate that between 1980 and 2010 hydrologic factors alone were responsible for a 29% decrease in the annual wood harvest, which approximately balanced a 23% reduction in wood demand due to a decline in number of households. The community's installation of wood-fired boilers in 2007 created a threshold increase (76%) in wood demand that is not met by driftwood harvest. Modeling of climatic scenarios illustrates that increased hydrologic variability decreases driftwood harvest and increases the financial or temporal costs for subsistence users. In chapter 3, increased groundwater flow related to permafrost degradation was hypothesized to be affect river ice thickness in sloughs of the Tanana River. A physically-based, numerical model was developed to examine the importance of permafrost degradation in explaining unfrozen river conditions in the winter. Results indicated that ice melt is amplified by increasing groundwater upwelling rates, groundwater temperatures, and snowfall. Modeling results also suggest that permafrost degradation could be a valid explanation of the phenomenon, but does not address the potential drivers (e.g. warming climate, forest fire, etc.) of the permafrost warming. In chapter 4, remote sensing techniques were hypothesized to be useful for mapping dangerous ice conditions on the Tanana River in interior Alaska. Unsupervised classification of high-resolution satellite imagery was used to identify and map open water and degraded ice conditions on the Tanana River. Ninety-five percent of the total river channel surface was classified as "safe" for river travel, while 4% of the channel was mapped as having degraded ice and 0.6% of the channel was classified as open water (overall accuracy of 73%). This research demonstrates that the classification of high-resolution satellite images can be useful for mapping hazardous ice for recreational, transportation, or industrial applications in northern climates. These results are applicable to communities throughout the North. For people that rely upon subsistence activities, increased variability in climate cycles can have substantial financial, cultural, recreational, or even mortal consequences. This research demonstrates how collaborations between scientists and local stakeholders can create tools that help to assess the impacts of increased environmental variability (such as flooding) or to detect or predict unsafe conditions (such as thin or unpredictable ice cover). Based upon this research, I conclude that regional-scale adaptations and technological advances (such as modeling and remote sensing tools) may help to alleviate the effects of environmental variability associated by climate.
    • Integrating climate change with human land use patterns: archaeology of Butte Lake Northeast

      Wendt, Michael L.; Potter, Ben; Plattet, Patrick; Irish, Joel (2013-08)
      This research explores the effects of climate change throughout the Holocene by investigating a multi-component site at Butte Lake, Alaska. This research combines expectations generated from ethnographic models to evaluate site use conditioned by environmental constraints within the theoretical framework of human behavioral ecology. Analysis of lithic materials, faunal remains, and site structure are evaluated to determine site type by occupational component. The results of this research show that a period of low effective moisture during the early Holocene (9000 to 5000 cal BP), as well as a period of both low temperature and increased effective moisture associated with the Neoglacial (3500 to 1500 cal BP) had considerable impacts on the habitability of the site. This research also shows that a period of relatively abundant productivity associated with the Medieval Optimum (1500 to 750 cal BP) may have resulted in extensive trade with, and/or local occupation by Eskimo (Ipiutak/Norton) inhabitants. Most importantly, analysis has shown a sharp distinction between site use associated with the early and middle Holocene occupations, and the specialized and discrete activity loci associated with caribou processing during the late Holocene occupations, likely affected by both climate and water levels at Butte Lake during these respective periods.
    • Integrating comprehension instruction, multimodalities and co-construction into cultural learning

      Harrington, Christine; Hogan, Maureen; Martelle, Wendy; Patterson, Leslie (2018-12)
      This study explores the impact of a story-based approach to teaching reading strategies, and examines the implementation of and co-construction within multimodal activities. Eight third grade students participated in this study in a charter school focused on Alaska Native cultural learning. The phases of the PACE Model focused on transitional words and phrases in the context of a traditional story from the Tlingit, Haida, and Tsimshian cultures of Alaska. Their attention to the language feature was extended to summarizing and retelling as part of the Extension phase of the model. The results are consistent with previous studies that attributed focus on form to language development and accuracy in dual language and second language settings.
    • Integrating family systems into substance use treatment

      Burke, Danielle M.; Renes, Susan; Gifford, Valerie; Wilson, Hilary (2016)
      It is important to understand the powerful influence of loved ones in the recovery process. This influence can help encourage substance users to receive treatment, help them remain engaged in treatment, and allow those being treated to receive understanding from their loved ones they might not have received without this treatment component. Providing effective substance use treatment to families should take different aspects into consideration, including family dynamics, cultural aspects, and using the best treatment methods available. Treatment providers may not know how to incorporate social supports into specific treatment interventions. Providing information to providers and describing how to incorporate friends and family into an individual's treatment may enhance many substance use disorder treatment programs.
    • Integrating local and traditional knowledge and historical sources to characterize run timing and abundance of eulachon in the Chilkat and Chilkoot rivers

      Olds, Allyson Leigh; McPhee, Megan; Beaudreau, Anne; Carothers, Courtney; Ryan, Brad (2016-08)
      Eulachon smelt Thaleichthys pacificus are anadromous forage fish of the North Pacific Ocean that annually spawn in coastal rivers of North America in late winter and early spring. These spawning runs range from northern California to southwestern Alaska and provide important resources to nearby communities, indigenous cultures, and wildlife predators. However, eulachon life history is not well understood or documented throughout their range. In recent years, concerns for eulachon population abundances in the southern portions of their range have led to federal protection. Though there are no federal listings in Alaska, there have been local concerns documented for eulachon runs of the Chilkat and Chilkoot rivers since approximately 1990. However, eulachon run timing and abundance trends are difficult to detect due to limited available data and variability in eulachon runs. To document baseline information and explore patterns of eulachon runs of the Chilkat and Chilkoot rivers, we sought local and traditional knowledge from residents of nearby communities to document information about local uses, run timing, abundance, and wildlife observations related to eulachon runs. Observations of eulachon runs were integrated with historical records from newspaper articles and scientific reports to construct temporal trends in eulachon run timing and abundance. Based on the findings of this study, annual eulachon runs of the Chilkat and Chilkoot rivers generally occur for about a week or two between mid-April and mid-May. The arrival dates of eulachon runs often vary from year to year, but the timing appears to have shifted earlier, from mid-May to mid-April, over the past couple of decades. Abundance records were not sufficient to quantify trends. However, qualitative information regarding abundance did not suggest any clear trends in eulachon abundances of the Chilkat and Chilkoot rivers over the years, nor did there appear to be prominent local concerns about abundance declines. Many respondents suggested that eulachon populations were naturally too variable to be able to describe trends in abundance. Interviews also provided insight into local perspectives on eulachon life history and ecology. These results suggest that variability in eulachon run timing and abundance could be related to environmental conditions, including tidal height, river habitat, and water temperature. For a data-limited species like eulachon, integrating local observations and historical records offers a promising approach to documenting baseline information and improving the scientific understanding of eulachon runs and other environmental phenomena.
    • Integrating music activities into a school counselor's grief group with youth

      Lane, Teesha M.; Renes, Susan; McMorrow, Samantha; Hart, Debra (2017-12)
      The efficacy of Music Therapy interventions for young people experiencing grief is the focus of the project. A review of the existing literature on group work in schools demonstrates the importance of utilizing creative counseling methods with students who experience grief. Although research suggests that music-enhanced group counseling work can be effective, there are few resources available to school counselors who see a need for an effective group counseling curriculum that utilizes music for grieving youth. This project aims to provide school counselors with a music-enhanced curriculum that can assist a group of students through their grief process.
    • Intelligent platform management interface protocol security

      Clayton, Syler W.; Hay, Brian; Nance, Kara; Genetti, Jon (2014-04)
      The Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) is a protocol that allows administrators to manage servers remotely. Hardware vendors including Dell, HP, Supermicro, IBM, Lenovo, Fujitsu and Oracle support IPMI though a Baseboard Management Controller (BMC) which can either be integrated into the motherboard or purchased as a pluggable module. The BMC runs silently alongside other components of the server and provides a lower level of hardware access than the Operating System (OS). This allows support for features like power cycling the server, mounting virtual media and accessing a remote console. The failure of BMC vendors to produce a more secure product, along with the inherent flaws of the IPMI protocol, increases the need for these systems' security capabilities to be evaluated. The IPMI protocol and various vendor implementations of the BMC has been the subject of recent scrutiny, and initial investigation has raised concerns about the security properties of these components. This project focuses on evaluating specific IPMI supported hardware and software setup in an environment modeled to simulate real use, for the explicit purpose of evaluating the security of the system. This project presents: several methods by which unprivileged users can gain remote access to the system, a list of best practices for proper configuration, a guide to clearing configuration settings before decommission, and a basic Metasploit module to scan for BMC related services.
    • Intelligent traffic monitoring and control system

      Ch, Nabil Al Nahin; Raskovic, Dejan; Thorsen, Denise; Hatfield, Michael (2019-08)
      This thesis presents an intelligent system for monitoring and controlling traffic by sensing vehicles' attributes and using communication between vehicles and roadside infrastructures. The goal of this system is to improve the safety of the commuters and help the drivers in making better decisions by providing them with additional information about the traffic conditions. A prototype system consisting of a roadside unit (RSU) and an on-board unit (OBU) was developed to test the functionalities of the proposed system. The RSU consists of sensors for detecting vehicles and estimating their attributes and a radio for communicating with the OBU. The OBU also has a radio for communication purpose. Afterward, a vehicle was used to test the functionalities of the system and the communication between OBU and RSU was evaluated by emulating the presence of a vehicle. A protocol for exchanging messages between the RSU and the OBU was developed to support effective communication. The efficiency of the communication process was further improved by varying the transmission range of different messages. A format for the message was proposed to convey all the necessary information efficiently. The process of collecting vehicle data, processing them and extracting useful information from the data was discussed here along with some limitations of the proposed system.
    • Intentional Mentor Training: Supporting Adolescent Males Coping with Fatherlessness or Having an Absent Father by Equipping Male Mentors

      Tichenor, Benjamin; Renes, Susan L.; McMorrow, Samantha G.; Topkok, Sean A. (2016)
      This project answers the research question: How could male mentorship support adolescent males coping with fatherlessness or having an absent father? Through evaluating relevant research linked to fatherlessness and absent fathers and mentorship, an application component comprising of a video training and training manual were created for equipping male mentors to intentionally support adolescent males coping with fatherlessness or having an absent father. By utilizing the academic literature defining mentorship and father involvement and integrating the research on effective mentoring relationship practices, culturally relevant resiliency factors, and effective mentoring in foster care, this mentor training could improve the trajectory for reaching the academic, career, and life goals of adolescent males coping with fatherlessness or having an absent father.
    • Inter-decadal change in sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria, growth and maturity in the Northeast Pacific Ocean

      Howard, Katy B.; Adkison, Milo D.; Hillgruber, Nicola; Sigler, Michael F. (2008-08)
      Errors in growth and maturity estimates can drastically affect the spawner-per-recruit threshold used to recommend commercial fish catch quotas. Growth and maturity parameters for Alaskan sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria, have not been updated for stock assessment purposes for 20 years, even though sablefish aging has continued. In this study, the old length-stratified data set (1981-1993) was updated and corrected for bias. In addition, newer, randomly collected samples (1996-2004) were analyzed, and new length-at-age, weight-at-age, and maturity-at-age and length parameters were estimated. A comparison of the two datasets showed that in recent years, sablefish are growing larger and maturing later and that growth and maturity differ somewhat among regions. The updated growth information improves data fits in the sablefish stock assessment model. It also provides results that are biologically reasonable. These updated and improved estimates of sablefish growth and maturity help ensure the continued proper management of this commercially important species in Alaskan waters.
    • Inter-individual variation in gene expression in torpid and interbout euthermic Arctic ground squirrels

      Burman, Adlai Max (2006-12)
      Alaskan Arctic ground squirrels, Spermophilus paryii, hibernate about seven months per year. During two-week torpor periods, respiration, circulation, metabolism, and catabolism are dramatically decreased, except for brief periods of interbout euthermia. These divergent hibernation states provide a particularly compelling model for variance-based studies of global gene expression. A guiding hypothesis in this Thesis is that Arctic ground squirrels exit interbout euthermia and enter torpor with an invariant metabolic scaffolding of various metabolites that are erected to serve as a ready metabalome for the challenges of the next brief return to euthermia. To develop this hypothesis further, I performed an exploratory data analysis of high-density mouse cDNA micro arrays cross-hybridized with Arctic ground squirrel mRNA to measure transcriptomes in brown adipose, skeletal muscle, and liver tissues. The results revealed that variation in transcript expression profiles were tissue specific and may reflect the degree to which tissues are active during hibernation. These results are encouraging. They justify a more thorough evaluation of the utility of using global variation in transcript expression patterns. In combination with a priori biological knowledge, these patterns will guide future studies into more detailed analyses of hibernation-state dependent and functionally relevant transcripts.