• Latitudinal patterns of amino acid cycling and plant N uptake among North American forest ecosystems

      McFarland, Jack W.; Ruess, Roger; Boone, Richard; Chapin, Stuart F. III; Kielland, Knut; Hendrick, Ronald L. (2008-12)
      Interest in the role of organic nitrogen (N) to the N economy of forest ecosystems is gaining momentum as ecologists revise the traditional paradigm in N cycling to emphasize the importance of depolymerization of soil organic matter (SOM) in controlling the bioavailability of N in forest soils. Still, there has yet to be a coordinated effort aimed at developing general patterns for soil organic N cycling across ecosystems that vary in climate, SOM quality, plant taxa, or dominant mycorrhizal association: ectomycorrhizae (EM) vs. arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM). In this study, experimental additions of 13C15N-glycine and 15NH4+ were traced in situ through fine root and soil N pools for six North American forest ecosystems in an effort to define patterns of plant and microbial N utilization among divergent forest types. Recovery of 15N in extractable soil pools varied by N form, forest type, and sampling period. At all sites, immobilization by the soil microbial biomass represented the largest short-term (<24 h) biotic sink for NH4+ and amino acid-N, but differences in microbial turnover of the two N forms were linked to cross-ecosystem differences in SOM quality, particularly the availability of labile carbon (C). At the conclusion of the experiment, microbial N turnover had transferred the majority of immobilized 15N to non-extractable soil N pools. By comparison, fine root uptake of NH4+ and glycine-N was low (<10% total tracer recovery), but 15N enrichment of this pool was still increasing at the final sampling period. Since there was no significant loss of 15N tracer within the bulk soil after 14 days for any forest type except sugar maple, it suggests plants have the capacity to capitalize on multiple N turnover events and thus represent an important long-term sink for ecosystem N. Plants in all stands had some capacity to absorb glycine intact, but plant N preference again varied by forest type. Relative uptake of amino acid-N versus inorganic N was lowest in tulip poplar and highest in red pine and balsam poplar, while white oak, sugar maple, and white spruce stands were statistically near unity with respect to the two N forms. However, N uptake ratios were threefold higher in EM-dominated stands than in AM-dominated stands indicating mycorrhizal association in part mediated plant N preference. Thus, amino acids represent an important component of the N economies of a broad spectrum of forest ecosystems, but their relevance to plant nutrition likely varies as a function of microbial demand for C as well as N.
    • Launch environment data logger design and implementation for CubeSats

      Johnson, Morgan; Thorsen, Denise; Hawkins, Joe; Raskovic, Dejan (2016-12)
      Designing to the CubeSat standard has allowed many universities the ability to launch satellites missions to space. These small satellites are secondary, or even tertiary, payloads on launch vehicles. In fact, these ride-share payloads are frequently used as ballast for weight and balance of the launch vehicle and are often mounted near the engines. The environment experienced by these CubeSats is not well known. The Launch Environment Data Logger was designed to measure temperature and vibrations of the launch vehicle to better understand what kind of environment these small satellites must survive on their ride to space. Through this thesis the requirements of the Launch Environment Data Logger system are established and the initial design developed.
    • Layout and fabrication process from generic to high speed printed circuit boards (PCBS)

      Reddy, Indrani (2005-12)
      Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are exceeding the limits of the classic board design. The goal of this thesis is to inform the reader about the layout and fabrication of PCBs from generic to high speed designs. In chapter 2, Basic Design and Layout, I provide the generic PCB design that will give a basic understanding of board layout and fabrication using Cadence® software tools, which will simplify understanding of the high speed PCB design. Cadence® provides a path to designing PCBs, but to rapidly prototype the design we need to implement simulations. We accomplished the simulations using the Advanced Design System (ADS) tool which is used for designing high frequency PCBs. In this thesis the reader will see examples developed to illustrate high speed issues in digital designs using ADS and correlated simulated and measured values.
    • Leading and following at a 21st century university: identifying desired outcomes for a student leadership program

      Trabant, Tonya Denise (2004-05)
      Leadership has been discussed, debated, practiced, and researched for millennia. In the 20th century alone, no less than ten types of leadership were defined and empirically studied. In the higher education context, student leadership development is addressed from a wide variety of theoretical and programmatic approaches and co-curricular leadership programs have been one of the fastest growing areas in higher education in the past decade. The University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) Leadership Program was initially structured as adaptations of other models. Critical to the future success of the program is the reformation of elements to fit UAF's unique context and an adequate outcomes assessment plan to determine that elements are functioning as intended. In order to develop an understanding of leading and following at UAF, program stakeholders participated in focus group interviews, individual interviews, and a written assessment. Participant observation was also used to gather rich data about the institutional culture of leadership at UAF. Data was thematically analyzed as well as categorized using national standards. One final result is a model of desired student leadership competencies for the UAF Leadership Program.
    • Leadlight

      Dyer, Daniel; Burleson, Derick; Hirsch, Alexander; Coffman, Chris; Carr, Richard (2016-05)
      This collection of poems explores the spiritual experience of trauma and the diverse stimuli, such as violence, sexual abuse, loss, witness, and epiphany that may instigate fragmentation and repressions in the subconscious. The many allusions throughout the collection, from Homeric and Shakespearean characters to eastern religious figures, serve to imbue the work with a sense of variegation while also gentrifying and consecrating trauma. The poems take much inspiration from Jacques Lacan’s work on trauma, language, and the gaze, the writings of existentialists Sartre and Kierkegaard, and, of course, the poet’s own biography, and are arranged so as to suggest a coherent, albeit fragmented, narrative profluence. The collection as a whole attempts to emphasize the similarities between religious and traumatic experience and the ways in which language may or may not serve to reorient the traumatize mind.
    • Learning from the local scale: identifying and addressing local blind spots in Arctic environmental governance

      Curry, Tracie; Meek, Chanda; Trainor, Sarah; Berman, Matthew; Lopez, Ellen; Streever, Bill (2019-08)
      Environmental governance in the context of climate change adaptation brings together diverse actors and stakeholders to develop and enact policies across a broad range of scales. However, local needs and priorities are often mismatched with those pursued by entities at different levels of decision-making. This mismatch is perpetuated, in part, by the dominating influence of the Western worldview in knowledge processes involving the creation, sharing, and use of environmental knowledge. Persistent biases that favor Western science and technical information while marginalizing other important sources like local and Indigenous knowledge create blind spots that may adversely affect adaptation outcomes. In this research, a case study of the Native Village of Wainwright, Alaska is used to explore the topic of information blind spots in environmental governance resulting from 1) low resolution tools employed within broad scale adaptation initiatives; 2) preferences for easily quantifiable information; and 3) the challenge of communicating context-rich details to outside decision makers, given disciplinary biases and organizational conventions. This dissertation comprises manuscripts based on three studies undertaken to address the above blind spots in specific areas of adaptation planning. The first manuscript furthers conventional methods of adaptation classification through a place-based approach that uses directed content analysis to identify aspects of local adaptation not readily captured by low resolution frameworks. The second manuscript employs contextual analysis and extends Ostrom's Institutional Analysis and Development framework to characterize the role of local informal institutions in adaptation and provide insights into how difficult-to-quantify social and cultural norms might be leveraged in planned adaptation initiatives. The third manuscript reports on a formative endeavor that looked practically at conventions for communicating environmental change to public sector decision-makers, and tested a survey that explored the potential for context-rich visuals and other reporting strategies to effectively convey information about local observations and experiences of change.
    • Learning To Teach Where You Are: Preparation For Context-Responsive Teaching In Alaska's Teacher Certification Programs

      Vinlove, Amy Louise; Richey, Jean; Hornig, Joan; Hirshberg, Diane; Rickard, Anthony; Roehl, Roy (2012)
      Context-responsive teaching is defined in this project as teaching that responds to individual student needs and interests, linguistic backgrounds and family characteristics, the local community and the local natural environment. Context-responsive teaching, as defined in Chapter 1 of this dissertation, consolidates into one concept the pedagogical knowledge, skills and dispositions associated with culturally responsive teaching, place-based teaching, differentiated instruction, and purposeful collaboration with parents, families and communities. The research completed for this project examines current practices relative to preparing context-responsive teachers in Alaska's elementary and secondary teacher certification programs. A survey examining context-responsive teacher preparation experiences was developed and distributed to practicing teachers in Alaska who received their initial teaching certification from the University of Alaska Anchorage (UAA), the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), or the University of Alaska Southeast (UAS), and who graduated in 2006, 2007 or 2008. The experiences of the graduates were juxtaposed with information on the three programs gathered through interviews with teacher educators currently working at UAA, UAF and UAS. Current practices at the three institutions are examined in relation to a literature-based framework of "best practices" in context-responsive teacher preparation. Following a presentation of the data gathered in this mixed-method investigation, nine research-based recommendations are offered for strengthening context-responsive teacher preparation in the state of Alaska.
    • Learning to work and think for life

      Sprankle, Elizabeth; Daku, Mike; Duke, J. Robert; Boldt, Frank (2019-08)
      This paper explores literature related to the use of restorative discipline and restorative practices in school communities. It draws heavily on the ideas presented in Ron and Roxanne Claassens’ book, Discipline that Restores, in order to illustrate why students, staff, administrators, families and the community connected to a traditional public high school, such as West Valley High School, in Fairbanks, Alaska, would benefit from shifting to a restorative approach to discipline. The paper also examines numerous sources to demonstrate why embedding lessons related to social justice and restorative practices into content areas is logical and beneficial and attainable and that both these embedded courses and this approach to discipline support and foster content related to a Career Technical Education pathway focused on Education, Public & Human Services.
    • Leaving Centralia and other stories

      Small, Sarah; Brightwell, Geri; Kamerling, Leonard; Harney, Eileen (2018-05)
      In the eight short stories within this collection, we encounter characters against a variety of backdrops, from the mundane--middle school shop class, and a short road trip--to the more bizarre--a town with an underground fire predicted to burn for two hundred years, and a forbidden island potter's field. Many of the protagonists are adolescents, positioned between their childhood, when they played a more passive role in their own lives, and adulthood, when they more deliberately make decisions about their own actions and lives. However, in all of these settings and regardless of age, the characters find that it is not under exceptional circumstances but through the course of the ordinary moments in their daily lives that they encounter testing points for their maturity and integrity.
    • Leaving King Island: The Closure Of A Bureau Of Indian Affairs School And Its Consequences

      Braem, Nicole M.; Schneider, William (2004)
      By 1966, the King Island Inupiat had moved from their island village and lived at Nome. Little has been written about the de facto relocation of the King Islanders---and how and why it happened. What follows is an ethnohistory of the relocation based on the anthropology and history of the Bering Strait region, archival records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and interviews with King Islanders in Nome. The heart of the matter was the village's school. Based on the evidence, the BIA closed the school because of the expense and inconvenience of operating at King Island. This accomplished what the BIA had been unable for decades to do by persuasion---to move the village to the mainland. The immediate result of the closure, the resettlement of the villagers in Nome, fits within the established pattern of BIA policy over time, one that had assimilation as its ultimate goal.
    • The legacy of shamans? Structural and cognitive perspectives of prehistoric symbolism in the Bering Strait region

      Qu, Feng; 曲, 枫; Potter, Ben; Schweitzer, Peter; Plattet, Patrick; Koester, David (2013-08)
      This research explores the meanings of prehistoric artistic artifacts discovered in the Bering Strait region. The research focuses on the prehistoric period between AD 100 and 1700, including Okvik culture, Old Bering Sea culture, Punuk Culture, Birnirk Culture, Thule culture, and Ipiutak Culture. My archaeological data in this research were collected from the archaeological collections of the Okvik site on Punuk Islands, the Kukulik site on St. Lawrence Island, and the Nukleet site at Cape Denbigh at the University of Alaska Museum of the North. Based on abundant ethnographic records from the Bering Strait region, this research relies on ethnographic analysis as methodology to approach prehistoric symbolism. Applying ethnographic analysis results in diverse interpretations of the archaeological artifacts, which bear potential spiritual or secular meanings. Theoretically, the research provides an assessment of contemporary archaeological theories such as cognitive archaeology, structural archaeology, and shamanism theory (general shamanism theory and the neuropsychological model) in order to examine the reliability of these theories in the study of prehistoric art. Due to the problems of cognitive, structural, and shamanism theories, the conclusion of this research builds on practice theory and animist ontology to interpret the variants of art productivity, cosmological structures, and relationship between humans and materials.
    • Length-based models and population analyses for northern shrimp Pandalus borealis Krøyer

      Fu, Caihong (2000-08)
      The lack of basic knowledge on stock dynamics o f northern shrimp Pandalus borealis, a protandric hermaphrodite, has caused difficulty in regulating fishing effort on a scientific basis and in understanding potential causes behind population fluctuations and collapses. Previous length-based population models (LBMs), developed for other species, are undesirable primarily for two reasons: (1) individual cohort dynamics are masked; (2) variations in annual natural mortality (M) are ignored. This research was primarily aimed at developing a more advanced LBM that provides estimates of parameters such as recruitment (R), fishing mortality (F) and especially annual M. Simulation-estimation experiments were conducted to evaluate model performance. Despite model complexity, annual M can be well estimated provided measurement errors in survey biomass estimates are low. The common assumption of constant M created biased parameter estimates. Estimated M of P. borealis in Kachemak Bay, Alaska increased steadily in the 1980s. Retrospective projections showed that the increasing trend in M in the 1980s resulted in the population collapse. The ultimate goal o f stock assessment is to develop sound harvest strategies. With the widely observed abundance fluctuations in shrimp populations, it is impossible to manage solely based on conventional methods, such as maximum sustainable yield (MSY). Thus, harvest strategies were compared under various situations o f M and R. With M increasing over time, it is important to execute threshold management, i.e., closing the fishery at population levels below a threshold value. Simulations indicated that overfishing caused by underestimated M or overestimated R can be greatly alleviated if the population is sampled once every year. Life history aspects of sex change, growth, M, and their seasonal variations were also incorporated into the LBM. Populations with protandrous animals are likely to be subject to recruitment overfishing; merely protecting older females while allowing high exploitation on younger males can lead to population collapse. Fishing after spring egg hatching is superior to fishing after mating and egg extrusion in fall when F is high. In summary, the length-based model developed here provided a convenient framework for understanding population processes and harvest strategies and should be useful for a variety of hard-to-age species.
    • Lesson plans for the seventh grade Alaska State standards in language arts

      Gieser, Kenneth E. (2014-04)
      The SBE (standards-based education) reform movement calls for clear, measurable standards for all school students. Rather than norm-referenced rankings, a standards-based system measures each student against the concrete standard. Curriculum, assessments, and professional development are aligned to the standards. However, many teachers find standards burdening and restrictive, and it has been challenging for teachers to infuse them with her, or his personal passions. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate that not only can these new standards be taught effectively, but that teachers can find them accommodating enough for their passions. This project's outcome will include lesson plans, activities, and assessments, along with my personal reflection as to the efficacy of using these new standards without losing the passion for teaching with them.
    • "Let us die trying": a post-colonial reading of Velma Wallis

      Myers, Seth G. (2006-05)
      This essay explores the work of Velma Wallis from the perspective of post-colonial theory. Her works, Two Old Women and Bird Girl and the Man who Followed the Sun are read within this theoretical framework as volatile and resistant texts, in opposition to readings that might limit their meaning as ethnographic or otherwise. I outline the generalities of my theoretical framework with reference to Edward Said and Homi K. Bhabha, before I approach a discussion of Native American literature and Velma Wallis specifically. Within this theoretical framework, I find that Wallis resists, not only generic definition, but the larger structures of colonialism, through an exploration of resistance within so-called colonized groups. She performs this resistance by demonstrating the power of language, that survival is itself resistant, the resistance of feminism, and the importance of positive dialogue in a world of cultural contact.
    • Leveraging Alaska North Slope satellite oil field design with networked instrumentation and control systems architecture - Foundation Feldbus

      Chouinard, Brian A. (2000-05)
      Since 1988, oil production rates on Alaska's North Slope have faded. The West Sak oil field in the Greater Kuparuk Area was a satellite field targeted to help slow the production decline. The nature of West Sak oil made it prohibitively expensive to produce using conventional methods. Drastic changes in field production design and operational philosophy were required to make West Sak oil economically viable. The instrumentation and controls network architecture leveraged the implementation of this new design and philosophy. This paper examines the technological requirements, establishes evaluation criteria, compares competing options, outlines the design and implementation, and discusses future prospects. In addition, a functional description of the selected technology, Foundation Fieldbus, is presented from the users perspective.
    • Liberation dreamin’ (a good time holiday eight-track for the real American)

      Sanders, Craig S.; Brightwell, Geraldine; Farmer, Daryl; Schell, Jennifer (2016-05)
      The eight short stories that make up Liberation Dreamin’ follow protagonists who yearn to be heroes, saviors, caretakers, and liberators. These are characters fueled by the power of metaphor, lost in the idea of America as they expose the fabulism of reality itself through their absurd attempts to realize their often idealistic wishes and longings. They hunt treasure in the forest of northwestern Pennsylvania, shoot hot air balloons out of the sky, run major celebrities down with their cars on nights of blinded judgment, and even kidnap roadrunners. They stage protests for bigots’ funerals, wage strange wars with dairy farm animals, have misguided epiphanies in checkout lanes, and write urgent letters to Santa Claus himself. These pieces seek to render the biblical commonplace and highlight the profundities of everyday trivialities. As is suggested by the collection’s parenthetical subtitle, A Good Time Holiday Eight-Track for the Real American, these are stories that strive to be musical. In this book of satire and ridiculous narratives, imaginary human beings are at home in their preoccupation with holidays and anniversaries. A sociopolitical commentary on the American Dream and dreams in general, Liberation Dreamin’ runs on anger, humor, foreign policy, and ultimately hope.
    • Lichen Availability on the Range of an Expanding Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) Population in Alaska

      Fleischman, Steven J.; Klein, David R.; Thompson, Steven K.; Viereck, Leslie A.; White, Robert G.; Regelin, Wayne L. (1990-05)
      Terrestrial lichen abundance, lichen availability as affected by snow, and winter fecal composition were investigated for the Delta Caribou Herd (DCH), which recently quadrupled in size and expanded its early winter range. Mean lichen abundance was relatively low (10-85 g/m2). However, even on heavily-used range, caribou ate only 7% of lichen standing crop annually. Snow affected lichen availability only slightly on peripheral tundra ranges, since lichens predominated on xeric sites with little snow. On traditional ranges, lichens were shorter and rarely found in high-density patches; disproportionate grazing and trampling of exposed lichens had caused reduced lichen availability. This was reflected in lower fecal lichen for caribou on traditional ranges, however DCH population growth or seasonal movements probably were not substantially affected. A model of caribou cratering energetics indicated that loss of potential foraging time may influence energy balance more than does cratering energy expenditure.
    • Lidar and radar studies of turbulence, instabilities, and waves in the Arctic middle atmosphere

      Li, Jintai; Collins, Richard L.; Newman, David E.; Simpson, William R.; Thorsen, Denise L.; Williams, Bifford P. (2019-08)
      This dissertation presents new studies of gravity waves and turbulence in the Arctic middle atmosphere. The studies employ lidars and radar to characterize wave activity, instability and turbulence. In the lidar-based studies, we analyze turbulence and wave activity in the MLT based on lidar measurements of atmospheric temperature, density and sodium density, temperature and wind. This combination of measurements provides simultaneous characterization of both the atmospheric stability as well as material transport that allow us to estimate the eddy diffusion coefficient associated with turbulence. We extend the scope of previous studies by developing retrievals of potential temperature and sodium mixing ratio from the Rayleigh density temperature lidar and sodium resonance density lidar measurements. We find that the estimated values of turbulent eddy diffusion coefficients, K, of 400-2800 m²/s, are larger than typically reported (1-1000 m²/s) while the values of the energy dissipation rates, ε, of 5-20 mW/kg, are more typical (0.1-1000 mW/kg). We find that upwardly propagating gravity waves accompany the instabilities. In the presence of instabilities, we find that the gravity waves are dissipating as they propagate upward. We estimate the energy available for turbulence generation from the wave activities and estimate the possible turbulent energy dissipation rate, εGW. We find that the values of εGW are comparable to the values of ε. We find that the estimate of the depth of the layer of turbulence are critical to the estimate of the values of both ε and εGW. We find that our method tends to overestimate the depth, and thus overestimate the value of ε, and underestimate the value of εGW. In the radar-based study, we conduct a retrieval of turbulent parameters in the mesosphere based on a hypothesis test. We distinguish between the presence and absence of turbulence based on fitting Voigt-based and Lorentzian-based line shapes to the radar spectra. We also allow for the presence and absence of meteoric smoke particles (MSPs) in the radar spectra. We find examples of Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) spectra showing both the presence and absence of turbulence and the presence and absence of MSPs in the upper mesosphere. Based on the analysis, we find that relatively few of the radar measurements yield significant measurements of turbulence. The significant estimates of turbulence have a strength that is over a factor of two larger than the average of the estimates from all of the radar measurements. The probability of true positives increases with the quality factor of the spectrum. The method yields significant measurements of turbulence with probabilities of true positives of greater than 30% and false positives less than 0.01%.
    • Life after CHOPS: the Alaskan heavy oil reservoir perspective

      Mathur, Bakul; Dandekar, Abhijit; Khataniar, Santanu; Patil, Shirish (2017-05)
      The heavy oil reservoirs in Alaska offer major production challenges, including proximity to the permafrost layer, very high viscosity oil and low mechanical strength pay zones. The Ugnu deposits of the Alaska North Slope (ANS) hold more than 6 billion barrels of oil. The dead oil viscosity at reservoir temperature ranges from 1,000 to 1,000,000 cp1. In an effort to sustain well life, this research focuses on the unique set of challenges occurring in the Ugnu reservoir and presents the best possible way to maximize production. The present research accentuates observations derived from the field data, which shows that deliberate sand production with the hydrocarbon stream while employing a Progressive Cavity Pump (PCP) as an artificial lift method has a favorable effect on primary oil recovery. The developments have led to the advent of a technique called Cold Heavy Oil Production with Sand (CHOPS) as an initial production method for shallow heavy oil reservoirs. Sand production leads to the formation of high porosity channels or wormholes that can range up to hundreds of meters. The co-mingling of heavy oil and sand develops foamy oil by creating a bubbly flow inside the reservoir. The combination of these wormholes with the foamy oil behavior are the primary factors that result in enhanced production during CHOPS. One of the major hindrances to its successful application is the selection of the post-CHOPS production method, which is addressed in this study with the help of modeling and simulation. Alternative recovery techniques following the primary cold production include water flooding, polymer injection, miscible gas injection and thermal recovery methods. Water flooding is unviable because of the mobility contrast between the highly viscous oil and water. The high permeability zones provide a bypass for water, consequently producing elevated water cuts. Another aspect unique to Alaskan heavy oil reservoirs is the proximity to the permafrost layer, with the hydrocarbon bearing zone making thermal recovery methods unappealing. Polymer injection and miscible gas injection become the favorable non-thermal secondary and tertiary recovery methods in this case. This study is based on modeling one of the wells drilled into the M80 sands of the Ugnu formation followed by the analysis of post-CHOPS recovery for the well. The CHOPS well modeling is done with the help of a wormhole fractal pattern and a foamy oil model. Simulation of the polymer injection is then employed from a nearby well. The results indicate almost 12% increment in recovery with polymer flooding as compared to the natural depletion. The recovery obtained from the simulations have been analyzed to provide a basis for designing the polymer injection job as an Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) method after CHOPS. With the promising results of this study, it can be determined that the Ugnu reservoir sands can be exploited for heavy oil with the help of polymer flooding. It can also be combined with miscible gas flooding or alkali-surfactant flooding to obtain even higher hydrocarbon recoveries.
    • Life history and management of the grayling in interior Alaska

      Wojcik, Frank J. (1955-04)
      Field work on the Arctic grayling was conducted from September, 1951, to May, 1953; data on movements, spawning, food habits, sex ratios, and population dynamics were obtained. Returns on 1,222 tagged grayling varied from 0 to 20 per cent with areas. No returns were obtained from 165 fin-clipped fish. Fish entered the streams in the spring as soon as water started flowing, the dates varying from March 15 to May 9, 1952. Spawning in the Little Salcha River during 1952 is believed to have occurred between June 12 and June 16, Of 262 grayling checked for maturity, 18.7 per cent were mature in their fourth summer, 45 per cent in their fifth summer, and all by their sixth summer. Sex ratios obtained for adults varied with areas. The average sex ratio found for all areas was 79 males per 100 fem ales. The rate of growth was determined for grayling from six areas. The average increment for class V fish varied from 2.7 to 4.6 cm. per year. Aquatic insects were the main food organisms taken by grayling. Some terrestrial insects, fish, fish eggs and vegetable, matter were also taken. In view of the findings made in this study, overfishing appears to be the major cause of the decline in the sizes of grayling populations along the highways in the Fairbanks area. A twelve-inch minimum size limit is apparently the best management procedure, although an area closure is advisable for overfished spawning runs.