• Life history characteristics, management strategies, and environmental and economic factors that contribute to the vulnerability of rockfish stocks off Alaska

      Patt, Jacqueline; Criddle, Keith; Gharrett, Anthony; Love, Milton; Heifetz, Jonathan (2014-12)
      This study explored the extent to which variations in biological characteristics, environmental and economic factors, and management strategies have affected the tendency for rockfish to become overfished. The analysis used data on 5 species of rockfish that account for more than 95% of commercial catch of rockfish in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) and Bering Sea and Aleutian Island (BSAI) management regions. These species are: Shortraker Rockfish (Sebastes borealis), Pacific Ocean Perch (Sebastes alutus), Northern Rockfish (Sebastes polyspinis), Dusky Rockfish (Sebastes variabilis), and Shortspine Thornyhead (Sebastolobus alascanus). Fishery management models often treat BMSY, the biomass level that maximizes sustainable yield, as a critical reference point; whenever the biomass of a federally managed fish or shellfish stock is estimated at less than 0.5×BMSY, the stock is declared "overfished" and managers are required to develop a recovery plan that will restore stock abundance above BMSY within about one generation length. Because estimates of BMSY are unavailable for some GOA and BSAI rockfish stocks included in this analysis and because we were interested in developing a model that could be applied to data-poor stocks, we explored two proxies for BMSY. The mean of past estimates of exploitable biomass (avgExpB) was used as a proxy for BMSY for the better-studied stocks. The mean of past catch (avgC) was used as a proxy for BMSY for data-poor stocks. These values were used to scale time series estimates of exploitable biomass (ExpBt) or catch (Ct). A systems estimation approach, seemingly unrelated regression (SUR), was used to estimate parameters of linear and nonlinear models that included available numerical and categorical variables (biological, management, environmental, and economic factors) thought to contribute to increases or decreases in ExpBt / avgExpB or Ct / avgC. Goodness-of-fit statistics and tests of individual coefficients and groupings of coefficients were used to guide model refinement. The modeling approach worked well for better-studied stocks but not for data-poor stocks. The preferred 5-stock model (Pacific Ocean Perch in the GOA and BSAI, Northern Rockfish in the GOA and BSAI, and Dusky Rockfish in the GOA) had an excellent fit to the overall system (R² = 0.922, P << 10⁻⁶) and statistically significant coefficient estimates of the variables included. The model indicated that the past values of ExpBt / avgExpB can be accounted for through time and across stocks by nonlinear variation in: spawning biomass, intrinsic growth rates (k), maximum age, exploitation rates, habitat preferences, Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and ex-vessel price. Because some of these factors are subject to management control and others are predictable, it should be possible to take account of anticipated changes in these factors when setting harvest targets and harvest limits, selecting spatial management strategies, or considering changes to harvest control rules or fisheries governance systems.
    • The life history of Effie Kokrine through personal recordings

      Freiburger, Annette J.; Schneider, William S.; Morrow, Phyllis; Mangusso, Mary C. (2013-08)
      This thesis is a combination of tape transcriptions and research to document the life history of Athabascan leader Effie Folger Kokrine. Effie Kokrine was well known in the Interior of Alaska, but her impact reached much farther, and in many directions, as she loved to travel and share her stories with people in many different states and in several other countries. Sharing stories was only one of her many talents. She was an Alaska Native culture educator, a champion dog musher, an expert seamstress, skin sewer and beader, hunter, fisher, cook and bottle washer. Effie stayed active and busy right until her sudden death from heart failure. She believed that every person should contribute to the well-being of the community, and she did her part by volunteering with the Junior Dog Musher's Association, the American Legion Post #11 Women's Auxiliary, the Badger Lion's Club, and speaking to almost every group that invited her, which was many. The only reason that she would turn someone down who invited her to speak was if she had a prior commitment. She was a favorite speaker of various groups, especially those involving children, because of her history, and because of her humor. The intent of this thesis is to attempt to capture some of that history and share some of the stories.
    • The life history of the intertidal barnacle, Balanus balanoides (L.) in Port Valdez, Alaska

      Rucker, Tami Louise (1983-09)
      The life history of the boreo-arctic barnacle Batanus balanoides was examined at three study sites in Port Valdez. Ovarian tissue development began in early summer. Fertilized eggs, evident by September, were brooded throughout the winter. Larval release was synchronous with the spring phytoplankton bloom. Settlement was observed in April and continued until June. Maximal shell growth occurred immediately subsequent to assimilation of organic material from the spring bloom. Seasonal fluctuations in body weight were noted and reflect feeding, spermatogenesis, and energy transfer to other biological processes (i.e., shell growth and reproduction). Mortality, greater for juveniles than adults, resulted from seasonal stresses (lowered salinity and heightened sedimentation), spatial competition, predation, and pollutants (hydrocarbons). Once life-history events were confirmed for barnacles in Port Valdez, comparisons of trends observed at the three sites were possible. Differences between populations were evident and were attributed to the unique micro-habitats of the study sites.
    • Life History, Demography, And Ecology Of The Spiny Dogfish "Squalus Acanthias" In The Gulf Of Alaska

      Tribuzio, Cindy A.; Kruse, Gordon; Fujioka, Jeff; Gallucci, Vince; Hillgruber, Nicola; Lowe, Chris; Woodby, Doug (2010)
      The spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) is a small, cosmopolitan shark species, common in sub-tropical and sub-arctic waters. The species is often targeted commercially in most areas of the world throughout its range, and in some cases it is overfished or the subject of conservation concern. In the Gulf of Alaska, spiny dogfish are not targeted and not generally retained, but incidental catches can be high for this schooling species. Previously, biological parameters for spiny dogfish in the Gulf of Alaska were assumed from estimates for this specie's neighboring areas, including British Columbia and Washington State. The purpose of this study was to examine spiny dogfish in the Gulf of Alaska and estimate important parameters for stock assessment in four stages: (1) general biology, distribution, and life history; (2) modeling age and growth; (3) population demographic modeling; and (4) ecological interactions revealed by diet analysis. Spiny dogfish are similar in length in the Gulf of Alaska to neighboring regions, but mature at larger sizes and have a greater fecundity than reported elsewhere. There is high natural variability in estimated ages for the species, which is reflected in the poor fit of the growth models, possibly owing to measurement error from using the dorsal fin spine as the aging structure. A two-phase growth model provided the statistical best fit. However, questions were raised about the biological interpretation of the model and whether more traditional models (e.g., von Bertalanffy and Gompertz) may be more appropriate. Using the life-history and growth data, Leslie matrix type age- and stage-based demographic models were created to estimate sustainable fishing mortality rates and to examine the risk of harvest scenarios. Female Gulf of Alaska spiny dogfish can support up to a 3% annual harvest rate; fisheries that target juveniles have the greatest risk of population decline below threshold levels. Spiny dogfish are generalist opportunistic feeders that feed on whichever prey is available, however shrimp are the most important prey type, followed by cephalopods. Results of this study will be used in future ecosystem modeling and stock assessments for this species. Taking into account the history of targeted fisheries for the species on the U.S. east coast and in British Columbia and Washington, as well as the susceptibility of the species to overfishing, fishery managers will need to take a cautious approach should a target fishery develop in the Gulf of Alaska.
    • Life on two continents: understanding different roles of Chinese grandparents who have grandchildren born in the U.S.

      Qiao, Tianyu; 乔天钰; DeCaro, Peter A.; Taylor, Karen M.; Kan, Rosalind (2014-05)
      The present research explored the roles Chinese grandparents play regarding their grandchildren born in the United States. Due to the differences in language, cultures and family values in China and the U.S., these Chinese grandparents balance their lives between two continents and experience possible disconnect in communication with their U.S.-born grandchildren. In order to understand the lived experiences of these Chinese grandparents and to develop co-constructed meaning of their intercultural interactions, this research employs qualitative narrative analysis as the primary method. Eight conversational interviews were conducted and four emergent themes were discussed. This research shows that Chinese grandparents do encounter difficulties, cultural conflicts and disconnect with their grandchildren because they split their time between living in China and the U.S. There are insights provided to mitigate these problems.
    • Life, Auto, Fire

      Divers, Gregory Robert (1980)
    • Life-History Patterns Of North American Elk: Effects Of Population Density On Resource Partitioning, Reproduction, And Plant Productivity

      Stewart, Kelley Merlet; Bowyer, R. Terry (2004)
      I examined density dependence in North American elk (Cervus elaphus ) and effects of density dependent processes on resource partitioning, physical condition, reproduction, and ecosystem processes. Specifically, I examined spatial, temporal, and dietary niche partitioning among elk, mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and cattle (Bos taurus ). I tested hypotheses related to density-dependent processes in elk by creating populations at high (20.1 elk/km2) and low (4.1 elk/km2) density. I hypothesized that physical condition and fecundity of females would be lower in an area of high population density than in the low-density area. Simultaneously, I tested hypotheses relating to herbivore optimization in response to varying levels of herbivory. I observed differences among elk, mule deer, and cattle in diets and use of space, particularly elevation, slope, and use of logged forest. Those 3 herbivores showed strong avoidance over a 6-h temporal window, but that effect was weaker for the previous 7 days. Changes in habitat use by elk and mule deer in response to addition and removal of cattle indicated competitive displacement. Results of the experiment to examine density dependence in elk indicated reduced physical condition and reproduction in the high-density population compared with low-density population. Pregnancy rates were most affected by body condition and mass of females. Density dependence in elk also had strong effects on plant communities; net aboveground primary productivity (NAPP) increased from no herbivory to moderate grazing intensity, and then declined as grazing intensity continued to increase. Compensatory responses by plants likely are more difficult to detect when responses to herbivory are subtle and occur at relatively low grazing intensity. I observed strong effects of density dependence on physical condition of elk and reductions in NAPP of plant communities with high levels of grazing intensity. At high-population densities resources for elk declined and NAPP was reduced. At low-population density elk were in good physical condition with high rates of reproduction, and NAPP increased, indicating compensatory responses by plants. Density-dependent feedbacks in populations of large herbivores help regulate population dynamics, and those same processes have substantial effects on ecosystem functioning.
    • Light adaptations of plants: a model based on seagrass Zostera Marina L.

      Dennison, William (1979-12)
      Adaptations to light by a temperate seagrass, Zostaro: marina L. (eelgrass), were investigated along a depth transect representing a gradient of plant development. Various light adaptive strategies are proposed in a conceptual model and tested along the natural gradient and under in situ light manipulation experiments. The major light capturing strategy which Zostera employs is that of changing leaf area. Chlorophyll a to b ratios and amounts, measures of adaptation to light quality and quantity, demonstrated little or no adaptive trends when integrative samples were used. The altered light experiments did not affect chlorophyll content but did affect leaf production rates. Although the relative vertical distribution of leaf area is constant along the transect, the absolute leaf area varies, as measured by leaf area index (LAI = area of leaves/area of bottom). A measured maximum LAI of 17 is higher than other aquatic and most terrestrial ecosystems.
    • Liitukut Sugpiat'Stun (We Are Learning How To Be Real People): Exploring Kodiak Alutiiq Literature Through Core Values

      Drabek, Alisha Susana; Barnhardt, Ray (2012)
      The decline of Kodiak Alutiiq oral tradition practices and limited awareness or understanding of archived stories has kept them from being integrated into school curriculum. This study catalogs an anthology of archived Alutiiq literature documented since 1804, and provides an historical and values-based analysis of Alutiiq literature, focused on the educational significance of stories as tools for individual and community wellbeing. The study offers an exploration of values, worldview and knowledge embedded in Alutiiq stories. It also provides a history of colonial impacts on Alutiiq education and an in-depth study of the early colonial observers and ethnographers who collected Alutiiq oral literature, clarifying the context in which the stories have been retold or framed. Collections of traditional Indigenous literatures are valuable on many levels. This collection is of historical and personal significance for local Kodiak Alutiiq tribal members' identity as it makes these resources more accessible for community members and educators, and therefore accessible to younger and future generations. The conclusion also provides recommendations for next steps for developing curriculum and revitalizing Alutiiq oral traditions. The book is intended to contribute to an understanding of the evolution of cultural traditions in Alaska, and to serve as a model for similar cultural reclamation and education efforts.
    • Lime treatment of Interior and South-Central Alaskan soils

      Billings, Matthew E.; Metz, Paul; Darrow, Margaret; Huang, Scott (2013-08)
      Lime treatment of soil is the practice of introducing lime to soil to improve subgrade conditions or to improve a soil's properties to meet construction aggregate qualifications. Lime treated soils commonly exhibit improvements in moisture-density, strength, and thaw performance. Although lime treatment has been practiced in many regions of the United States and Canada for several decades, it is not practiced in Alaska. The purpose of this study was to determine potential of improving commonly encountered Alaskan soils with lime treatment. The two soils analyzed during this study were a silt from the Fairbanks area and a silty gravel from the Anchorage area. These soils were analyzed due to their similarity with soils encountered within regions of Alaska that are currently developed, and have potential for future development. Several laboratory tests were conducted to analyze the effect lime has on the engineering properties of both studied soils. The properties analyzed included moisture-density, strength, frost susceptibility, and thaw strength. The results of this study show lime treatment has potential to improve the engineering properties of commonly encountered Alaskan soils. The results of this study also show potential to improve Alaskan soil with low concentrations of lime during cool and short construction seasons.
    • The limitations of service members' constitutional rights

      Leonard, Dene Ray (2003-12)
      This thesis reviews the constitutional rights of service members and how they are limited by the military. These affected rights include the First Amendment's rights to free speech, religious exercise and the ability to petition the government for redress of grievances; the Fifth Amendment's due process clause; and the Sixth Amendment's right to a jury of one's peers. The discussion section of this thesis argues two justifications used by the military for limiting service members' rights. The first justification is in support of good order, discipline and morale. The second justification is in support of uniformity. The latter discussion also identifies the U.S. Supreme Court's treatment of the military as a separate community and how the military is guided by a different standard. To support the separate community justification the U.S. Supreme Court has deferred most of its rulings on the rights of service members back to military leaders. At the conclusion of the discussion section an application of previous U.S. Supreme Court cases and military court cases is used to anticipate the future of the military's body art policy.
    • The limnology of Lake Clark, Alaska

      Wilkens, Alexander Xanthus (2002-12)
      This study gathered baseline limnological data to investigate the thermal structure, water quality, phytoplankton, and zooplankton of Lake Clark, Alaska. Results indicate Lake Clark is oligotrophic and mixes biannually, but stratification is weak and thermoclines are deep. Longitudinal gradients were seen in measurements of temperature, suspended solids, turbidity, light penetration, algal biomass, and zooplankton density. Wind and tributary inputs determine the thermal regime. Glacially-influenced tributaries drive turbidity and light gradients by introducing suspended solids to the inlet end of the lake. Suspended solids likely create the algal biomass gradient by limiting the light available for photosynthesis in the inlet basin. Algal biomass and turbidity gradients may interact to create an area of high productivity and low predation risk, causing high zooplankton concentrations in the central basin. Oxygen supersaturation was discovered in the hypolimnion but remains unexplained. Because tributaries are glacially influenced, Lake Clark could be sensitive to global warming.
    • Linay'sdulkaas de': let's start sewing

      Shaginoff-Stuart, Sondra; Ts'akae, Kaggos; Siekmann, Sabine; Peter, Hishinlai'; Tuttle, Siri (2016-12)
      This paper proposes Task Based Language Teaching (TBLT) as a teaching method for Ahtna language learners. TBLT focuses on engaging learners in meaningful activities or tasks which they accomplish through using the target language, learning Ahtna in the process. TBLT incorporates deeper understandings and meaning by teaching students the language in a cultural context. For this paper, the focus activity will be making a beaded necklace. Beading has been an important activity for me, from the time of learning about my culture and people from my Aunt Katie Wade. The website accompanying the project and be found at: http://www.ourlanguagecameback.com/.
    • Linear partial differential equations and real analytic approximations of rough functions

      Barry, Timothy J.; Rybkin, Alexei; Avdonin, Sergei; Faudree, Jill (2017-08)
      Many common approximation methods exist such as linear or polynomial interpolation, splines, Taylor series, or generalized Fourier series. Unfortunately, many of these approximations are not analytic functions on the entire real line, and those that are diverge at infinity and therefore are only valid on a closed interval or for compactly supported functions. Our method takes advantage of the smoothing properties of certain linear partial differential equations to obtain an approximation which is real analytic, converges to the function on the entire real line, and yields particular conservation laws. This approximation method applies to any L₂ function on the real line which may have some rough behavior such as discontinuities or points of nondifferentiability. For comparison, we consider the well-known Fourier-Hermite series approximation. Finally, for some example functions the approximations are found and plotted numerically.
    • LingitX Haa Sateeyi, We Who Are Tlingit: Contemporary Tlingit Identity And The Ancestral Relationship To The Landscape

      Martindale, Vivian F.; Barnhardt, Ray (2008)
      Divergent views on the Tlingit ancestral relationship to the landscape of Southeast Alaska often leads to conflicts between Western-orientated government agencies, public entities, and the Tlingit people themselves. To better understand this subject, I collected nine personal narratives from research participants from within the Tlingit nation. The narratives provide insight into the dynamics at the intersection of conflicting worldviews, and the role this plays in shaping contemporary Tlingit identity. The results of exploring these diverging worldviews has illuminated three factors influencing contemporary Tlingit identity: the loss and struggle with maintaining the Lingit language, implementation of subsistence regulations and resultant conflicts, and diminishment of the ceremony called a koo.eex' (a memorial party). In addition, within the Tlingit worldviews there are oral histories, traditional values, and concepts such as balance, respect, and at.oow, which define ancestral relationships and identity. These findings also reveal that the means of imparting cultural knowledge and worldviews have changed. The narratives are organized into themes reflecting common factors: Residing in the ancestral landscape, Lingit language and thinking, the Tlingit artist and the ancestral relationship to the landscape, and contemporary Tlingit identity. The results demonstrate the significance of identity markers, such as the Lingit language, as a means for healing social trauma. Moreover, the lives of the Tlingit artists illustrate that maintaining an ancestral relationship utilizes both traditional and contemporary methods. In addition, the narratives provide documentation concerning the changes in a subsistence lifestyle that affect the social lives of the Tlingit in contemporary society.
    • Linkages between protein ubiquitination, proteasome activity and the expression of oxygen-binding proteins in Antarctic notothenioid fishes

      Oldham, Corey A.; O'Brien, Kristin; Dunlap, Kriya; Taylor, Barbara (2015-12)
      Antarctic icefishes lack hemoglobin (Hb), and some species lack cardiac myoglobin (Mb). As iron-centered proteins, Hb and Mb can promote the formation of reactive oxygen species that may damage biological macromolecules. Consistent with this, we find higher levels of oxidized proteins in some tissues of red-blooded notothenioids than in icefishes. Oxidized proteins are marked for degradation by the conjugation of the protein ubiquitin. I hypothesized that levels of ubiquitinated proteins and 20S proteasome activity (which degrades oxidized proteins) would be higher in +Hb and +Mb notothenioids than icefishes lacking the proteins. Levels of ubiquitinated proteins and rates of proteasome activity were measured in the heart ventricle, pectoral adductor, and liver of six species of notothenioids differing in Hb and Mb expression. Previous studies in notothenioids suggest that oxidative stress declines following acclimation to 4°C. I also hypothesized that levels of ubiquitinated proteins and 20S proteasome activity would decline in response to acclimation to 4°C. Levels of ubiquitinated proteins and rates of proteasome activity were measured in the heart ventricle, pectoral adductor, and liver of the red-blooded Notothenia coriiceps held at ambient temperature and acclimated to 4°C for 3 weeks. Levels of ubiquitinated proteins were higher in tissues of the red-blooded N. coriiceps compared to icefishes, but the activity of the 20S proteasome did not follow a similar trend, suggesting that icefishes do not incur an energetic benefit resulting from reduced rates of protein degradation. Levels of ubiquitinated proteins were equivalent in heart ventricle and oxidative skeletal muscle, and proteasome activities were equivalent in all tissues between acclimated N. coriiceps and those held at ambient temperature, suggesting that protein damage and rates of protein degradation are not altered in notothenioids by long-term exposure to 4°C.
    • Linked disturbance interactions in South-Central Alaska: implications for ecosystems and people

      Hansen, Winslow D. (2013-05)
      Communities and ecosystems in the Alaskan boreal forest are undergoing substantial change. People contribute to this change. They are also impacted by the consequences. For example, wildfire and spruce bark beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreaks have increased in frequency and severity due to warming trends, affecting the ecosystem and services important to people. I conducted a study to explore the social and ecological implications of changing natural disturbances. I evaluated how the occurrence of spruce bark beetle outbreak has altered the probability of wildfire between 2001 and 2009 on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Modeling the effects of bark beetle outbreak on the probability of large wildfire (> 500 ha) and small wildfires (<500 ha), I found that the influence of the outbreak differed as a function of wildfire size. The occurrence and length of outbreak increased large wildfire probability. Small wildfires were mediated by human influence and less so by bark beetle outbreak. I also used spatial econometric techniques to estimate how wildfires and the bark beetle outbreak affected property values on the Kenai Peninsula in 2001 and 2010. I found that wildfires> 3.3 ha and the bark-beetle outbreak increased property values. Wildfires <3.3 ha decreased property values.
    • Linking climate history and ice crystalline fabric evolution in polar ice sheets

      Kennedy, Joseph Huston; Pettit, Erin; Truffer, Martin; Bueler, Ed; Newman, David; Szuberla, Curt (2015-08)
      An ice sheet consists of an unfathomable number of ice crystallites (grains) that typically have a preferred orientation of the crystalline lattices, termed fabric. At the surface of ice sheets, the microstructural processes that control the grain structure and fabric evolution are influenced by climate variables. Layers of firn, in different climate regimes, may have an observable variation in fabric which can persist deep into the ice sheet; fabric may have 'memory' of these past climate regimes. To model the evolution of a subtle variation in fabric below the firn-ice transition, we have developed and released an open-source Fabric Evolution with Recrystallization (FEvoR) model. FEvoR is an anisotropic stress model that distributes stresses through explicit nearest-neighbor interaction. The model includes parameterizations of grain growth, rotation recrystallization and migration recrystallization which account for the major recrystallization processes that affect the macroscopic grain structure and fabric evolution. Using this model, we explore the evolution of a subtle variation in near-surface fabric using both constant applied stress and a stress-temperature history based on data from Taylor Dome, East Antarctica. Our results show that a subtle fabric variation will be preserved for ~200ka in compressive stress regimes with temperatures typical of polar ice-sheets. The addition of shear to compressive stress regimes preserves fabric variations longer than in compression-only regimes because shear drives a positive feedback between crystal rotation and deformation. We find that temperature affects how long the fabric variation is preserved, but does not affect the strain-integrated fabric evolution profile except when crossing the thermal-activation-energy threshold (~-10°C). Even at high temperatures, migration recrystallization does not rid the fabric of its memory under most conditions. High levels of nearest-neighbor interactions between grains will rid the fabric of its memory more quickly than low levels of nearest-neighbor interactions. Because FEvoR does not compute flow, an integrated fabric-flow model is needed to investigate the flow-fabric feedbacks that arise in ice sheets. Using the open-source Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) and FEvoR, we develop a combined flow-fabric model (PISM-FEvoR). We provide the first integrated flow-fabric model that explicitly computes the fabric evolution and includes all three major recrystallization processes. We show that PISM-FEvoR is able to capture the flow enhancement due to fabric by modeling a slab-on-slope glacier, initialized with a variety of fabric profiles. We also show that the entire integrated fabric-flow history affects the final simulated flow. This provides a further, independent validation of using an integrated fabric-flow model over a constant enhancement factor in ice-sheet models.