Now showing items 2266-2285 of 3320

• #### Price credit and price risk simulation for Alaska natural gas pipleline project

This work describes the price risk involved in developing an Alaska Natural Gas Pipeline. Three alternatives were developed. They are an ALCAN Only 4.5 Bcf/day case, a Y-line case, and an ALCAN Only 5.5 Bcf/day case. The simulation result supports the conclusion that the ALCAN Only 4.5 Bcf/day case would be the most feasible and flexible choice for the long-run gas development with less commodity risk. Also, the price credit simulation was run based on the EIA natural gas price forecast. It shows how a Federal Tax Credit helps to reduce price risk making this marginal project more acceptable for participating oil companies. However it might not be revenue neutral for the Federal Government. The risk-assessment model was constructed in the Excel spreadsheet with a commercially purchased add-in feature (@RISK by Palisade Corp.) that performed the Monte Carlo simulation and the probabilistic outcomes. It was designed to be a dynamic tool that could estimate production performance with associated costs, and product prices to Yield an economic analysis. The model was specifically designed for the Alaska Natural Gas Pipeline. This work could be useful for government, companies, and any individual, who is currently involved with the Alaska Natural Gas Act.
• #### Primary afferent projections in a diver, the muskrat

In a preliminary search for primary afferent connections involved in the diving response, cutaneous afferents from the nose were traced in muskrats and compared with those in rats, and with projections from the soft palate, posterior pharynx and larynx. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was injected into the skin or mucosa, under anesthesia. After 48 h survival, the deeply anesthetized animal was transcardially perfused and the brain was frozen and sectioned transversely in a cryostat. The sections were reacted for HRP according to standard techniques, using tetramethylbenzidine; alternate sections were Nissl stained. HRP-labeled structures were mapped using darkfield photomicrographs and camera lucida drawings. Cutaneous afferents from the nose in the muskrat project densely to layers I-II of the ventral and dorsolateral parts of the caudal subnucleus of the spinal trigeminal nucleus (Sp5C) and sparsely to layers V-VI of Sp5C, sparsely to the ventromedial part of the interpolar subnucleus of the spinal trigeminal nucleus (Sp5I), moderately to the oral subnucleus of the spinal trigeminal nucleus (Sp5O)--particularly the dorsomedial part, possibly overlapping with the nucleus of the solitary tract, and with processes of labeled cells of other lateral facial nucleus extending into ventromedial Sp5O,--moderately to the principal trigeminal nucleus (Pr5); and to the paratrigeminal nucleus (Pa5). Projections in the rat were the same, except that little or no labeling of layers V-VI of Sp5C, dorsomedial Sp5O, or Pa5 was present. Projections from the soft palate to layers I-II of rostral Sp5C, Sp5O, Sp5I, and Pr5 were similar to those from the nose in the muskrat. Heavy projections from the soft palate, and less dense projections from the posterior pharynx and larynx, to Pa5 also were found. Those regions receiving dense projections from the nose, overlapping projections from the various sites, and more highly developed projections from the nose in the muskrat than in the rat, are of particular interest for further investigation of the neural substrate underlying the diving response. The projections traced from the nose correspond particularly with nociceptive and thermoreceptive projections, which suggests that thermoafferent function may be involved in the elicitation of the diving response.
• #### Primary production and nutrient dynamics of the southeastern Bering Sea shelf

Understanding the relationships between the distributions of organisms and oceanographic conditions was one of the major goals of the Southeastern Bering Sea Carrying Capacity (SEBSCC) study. As a part of SEBSCC, this study focused on the response of nutrients and primary production to the variations of physical conditions, the general distribution of primary production, and the dynamics of phytoplankton growth, and nutrient utilization over the middle shelf and shelf break regions. The concentration of nutrients and primary productivity were measured over the shelf during 1997-1999. Shipboard nutrient and iron addition experiments were conducted over the middle shelf and shelf break region of the southeastern Bering Sea shelf during 2000-2001. The variations in physical conditions strongly affected the distribution of nutrients in the surface euphotic layer as well as in the deep layer. The offshore transport of the middle shelf water at mid-depth over the outer shelf may playa very important role in the export of materials, including regenerated iron, from the middle shelf to the shelf break. There were large seasonal and spatial variations in the development of the spring phytoplankton bloom due to the strength of upwelling and the slope of the front at the shelf break. However, annual primary production, estimated by combining carbon uptake data of the PROBES study and this study, were similar over the inner (133 g C m⁻² y⁻¹), middle (144 g C m⁻² y⁻¹) and outer (138 g C m⁻² y⁻¹) shelves and the shelfbreak (143 g C m⁻² y⁻¹). Nutrient addition studies showed that nitrogen availability was essential to continuous phytoplankton growth during summer, and that the interaction between ammonium and nitrate may play an important role in the dynamics of nutrient utilization. The iron addition study suggested that lack of iron did not affect the growth of phytoplankton over the middle shelf, but slightly suppressed growth at the outside edge of the shelf break region.
• #### Principal stress orientations inferred from inversion of focal mechanism data in Hawaii and Iran

Fault plane solutions were inverted to estimate stress tensor directions in Hawaii and Iran. These directions were compared to the seismically released strain tensor obtained by summing the moment tensors of the same earthquakes. Attempts were made to determine which of the nodal planes was the fault plane. Regional seismotectonic models were constructed based on these results. The seismotectonic model for west Hawaii explains the seaward motion of the upper crust along a near-horizontal plane under a near-vertical greatest principal stress. The focal mechanism of the 1951 M = 6.9 Kona earthquake in west Hawaii was modeled as a decollement based on a synthesis of teleseismic body waves using a new method designed for sparse data sets. In southeast Hawaii, a single stress tensor orientation is compatible with a complex mixture of decollement, reverse, and normal faults. However, the stress field varies as a function of space and time. The differences between stress and strain orientations are caused by rotations of stress or strain directions, respectively, while the other remains constant. A rotation of the greatest principal stress in 1979 suggests magma movements within the aseismic part of Kilauea's southeast rift zone. Strain directions rotate due to the shifting of seismic activity from one fault to another in a volume of diverse faulting. These results show that the decollement plane at 10 km depth is weak and can slip in response to greatest principal stresses oriented near-perpendicular, sub-parallel or at 45$\sp\circ$ to it. In Iran, stress directions, as estimated from major earthquakes, are homogeneous over areas several hundred kilometers long and mostly coincide with strain directions, suggesting that the strength of the crust is uniform. The quality of the stress inversion results, measured by the size of the average misfit, is similar in Hawaii and Iran, although the dimensions of the study areas vary from tens to several hundreds of kilometers, and the magnitudes of the earthquakes from M = 3.5 $\pm$ 0.5 to M = 6 $\pm$ 0.5, respectively. Average misfits between 2$\sp\circ$ and 6$\sp\circ$ were obtained in both studies and are interpreted as characteristic of crustal volumes with homogeneous stress fields.
• #### Probabilistic decline curve analysis in unconventional reservoirs using Bayesian and approximate Bayesian inference

In this work, a probabilistic methodology for Decline Curve Analysis (DCA) in unconventional reservoirs is presented using a combination of Bayesian statistical methods and deterministic models. Accurate reserve estimation and uncertainty quantification are the primary objectives of this study. The Bayesian inferencing techniques described in this work utilizes three sampling mechanisms, namely the Gibbs Sampling (implemented in OpenBUGS), the Metropolis Algorithm, and Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) to sample parameter values from their posterior distributions. These different sampling mechanisms are applied in conjunction with DCA models like Arps, Power Law Exponential (PLE), Stretched Exponential Production Decline (SEPD), Duong and Logistic Growth Analysis (LGA) to estimate prediction intervals. Production is forecasted, and uncertainty bounds are established using these prediction intervals. A complete workflow and the summary steps for each of the sampling techniques are provided to permit readers to replicate results. To examine the reliability, the methodology was tested over 74 oil and gas wells located in the three main sub plays of the Permian Basin, namely, the Delaware play, the Central Basin Platform, and the Midland play. Results show that the examined DCA-Bayesian models are successful in providing a high coverage rate, low production prediction errors and narrow uncertainty bounds for the production history data sets. The methodology was also successfully applied to unconventional reservoirs with as low as 6 months of available production history. Depending on the amount of production history available, the combined deterministic-stochastic model that provides the best fit can vary. It is therefore recommended that all possible combinations of the deterministic and stochastic models be applied to the available production history data. This is in order to obtain more confidence in the conclusions related to the reserve estimates and uncertainty bounds. The novelty of this methodology relies in using multiple combinations of DCA-Bayesian models to achieve accurate reserve estimates and narrow uncertainty bounds. The paper can help assess shale plays as most of the shale plays are in the early stages of production when the reserve estimations are carried out.
• #### The problem with waking

'The problem with waking' investigates the human struggle of coming to an awareness of self and the self's place among those who make up key relationships throughout life. The emphasis of the text is on locating moments in which the human essence is revealed against a variety of landscapes including forests, lakeshores, ice rinks, urban streets, and an international array of bars, from Chinese nightclubs to Alaskan pubs. Within the poems there is always an awareness of the poem on the page, on striking a visual balance in stanza length and white space. Line lengths are determined fundamentally on the belief that the strength of a poem is based on the creation and resolution of tensions and on a sensitivity to sound. Within the landscapes, representative moments are sought out and made lyric. Simple actions, often fragments of larger events, take on microcosmic, even mythical importance.
• #### The process of founding Fairbanks Baptist Bible College: a case study

The purpose of this study was to compare the founding of Fairbanks Baptist Bible College with a procedure I later developed from various sources (Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education [ACPE], "Regulations," 2000; "Statutes," 2000; Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges [AGBUC], 2000; Cedarholm, 1988; Fadel, 1971; Fisher, 1983; Gribble, 1998; Halm and Hiatt, 1987; Ingram, 2003; Schindlbeck, 1969; Stark and Lattuca, 1997). The comparison shows that we omitted some important steps in establishing the college. Based on the previous sources, the results of the study, and Thornton's (1966) procedure, I developed a recommended process describing the responsibilities of four successive groups: the founders, the Board, the president, and the college. I concluded with some implications for future study.
• #### Processes controlling nitrogen release and turnover in Arctic tundra

This thesis provides data on nitrogen cycling among communities representative of the major vegetation types in arctic Alaska. Through field studies, I examined the pattern of nitrogen dynamics in four tundra ecosystems (dry lichen heath, wet meadow, tussock tundra, and deciduous shrub tundra) of contrasting structure and productivity near Toolik Lake, Alaska. In addition, through field and laboratory experiments, I sought to identify the major controls over nitrogen release and turnover in these nitrogen-limited systems. These ecosystems, representing extremes of productivity in arctic Alaska, show order-of-magnitude differences in biomass and net primary productivity, and likewise, exhibit order-of-magnitude differences in net nitrogen mineralization and nitrogen turnover. Decomposition, soil respiration, net nitrogen mineralization, and the turnover of soil inorganic nitrogen were all highly correlated with net primary production. These results show that nutrient availability, in particular nitrogen availability, is a major control over tundra ecosystem function. Soil pools of organic nitrogen are large, whereas the pools of inorganic nitrogen are small, and the net rate of nitrogen mineralization in situ is low. Thus, nitrogen mineralization represents a major control point in the nitrogen cycle. Net nitrogen mineralization is relatively insensitive to changes in soil temperature, but highly responsive to changes in available soil carbon and nitrogen. Thus, the effect of organic matter quality on microbial activity is a more important control of nitrogen release than is the direct effect of temperature. Free amino acids constitute a larger proportion of extractable soil nitrogen than do ammonium and nitrate. Tundra species have the capacity to absorb some amino acids directly at rates comparable to ammonium absorption. These experimental results contrast with the widely held assumption that mineral nitrogen is the only form of nitrogen available to plants. I conclude that we must examine the behavior of both inorganic and organic soil nitrogen in order to adequately understand nitrogen cycling in tundra soils and the functioning of arctic ecosystems.

• #### Processes Controlling Radon-222 And Radium-226 On The Southeastern Bering Sea Shelf (Chemical Oceanography, Two-Dimensional Model, Continental, Gas-Exchange, Sediment Flux)

An investigation was made into the use of ('222)Rn and ('226)Ra as tracers of air-sea gas exchange, water column mixing and sediment-water exchange on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf. Furthermore, a two-dimensional model was developed to unify these three processes into a coherent picture of ('222)Rn flux out of the sediments, through the water column and into the atmosphere. The best time period to average wind speeds when regressing them against gas transfer coefficients was found to be 3.3 days by a linear regression optimization, approximately the synoptic time scale of storms in the southeastern Bering Sea. A statistically significant relationship between averaged wind speed and transfer coefficients was found at the 80% confidence level. Gas transfer coefficients were found to be obscured in shallow waters by radon flux from the sediments. Two-dimensional mixing in these continental shelf waters rendered the traditional one-dimensional vertical mixing model of excess ('222)Rn unable to obtain reliable vertical eddy diffusivities. Exchange across the sediment-water interface was calculated from the deficiency of ('222)Rn measured in sediment cores, the standing crop of excess ('222)Rn in the overlying water column and the ('222)Rn production rate of sediment surface grab samples. The flux of radon out of the sediments was found to increase in the onshore direction. Biological irrigation appears to be the primary exchange mechanism between the sediment and water columns on this shelf. Distributions in the water column show finestructure reported previously as well as biological removal of ('226)Ra. A (chi)('2) hypersurface search found the optimal horizontal and vertical eddy diffusivities that explained the two-dimensional distribution of ('222)Rn provided from a kriging estimation exercise on the data measured in this study. This model was essentially a hybrid of a least squares surface fit and a numerical integration of the governing differential equation of ('222)Rn. When considered as a two-dimensional system in the cross-shelf direction, the rates of gas exchange, water column mixing and sediment-water exchange agree with each other to an acceptable degree.
• #### Processes controlling thermokarst lake expansion rates on the Arctic coastal plain of Northern Alaska

Thermokarst lakes are a dominant factor of landscape scale processes and permafrost dynamics in the otherwise continuous permafrost region of the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of northern Alaska. Lakes cover greater than 20% of the landscape on the ACP and drained lake basins cover an additional 50 to 60% of the landscape. The formation, expansion, drainage, and reformation of thermokarst lakes has been described by some researchers as part of a natural cycle, the thaw lake cycle, that has reworked the ACP landscape during the course of the Holocene. Yet the factors and processes controlling contemporary thermokarst lake expansion remain poorly described. This thesis focuses on the factors controlling variation in extant thermokarst lake expansion rates in three ACP regions that vary with respect to landscape history, ground-ice content, and lake characteristics (i.e. size and depth). Through the use of historical aerial imagery, satellite imagery, and field-based data collection, this study identifies the controlling factors at multiple spatial and temporal scales to better understand the processes relating to thermokarst lake expansion. Comparison of 35 lakes across the ACP shows regional differences in expansion rate related to permafrost ice content ranging from an average expansion rate of 0.62 m/yr on the Younger Outer Coastal Plain where ice content is highest to 0.16 m/yr on the Inner Coastal Plain where ice content is lowest. Within each region, lakes vary in their expansion rates due to factors such as lake size, lake depth, and winter ice regime. On an individual level, lakes vary due to shoreline characteristics such as local bathymetry and bluff height. Predicting how thermokarst lakes will behave locally and on a landscape scale is increasingly important for managing habitat and water resources and informing models of land-climate interactions in the Arctic.
• #### Processes controlling trace metal and nutrient geochemistry in two southeast Alaskan fjords

Environmental processes controlling trace metal and nutrient chemistry in sediment were investigated in Smeaton Bay and Boca de Quadra, two southeast Alaskan fjords. These pristine, non-glacial fjords (55°20'N) are located in a rugged mountainous region just north of the Alaska-British Columbia border. Close interval sampling and the remote location of the study allowed detailed examination of biogeochemical cycles in an unperturbed system. To do this, for a period of three years, spatial and temporal variations in watershed inputs, marine primary productivity, and sediment geochemistry were examined. Unlike temperate estuaries where the rivers are often significant sources of nutrients and trace metals, in the Wilson and Blossom Rivers (which drain into Smeaton Bay), the concentrations and export rates of nutrients and copper are low for most of the year. The maximum nutrient export from the Wilson-Blossom system appears to be closely tied to the annual salmon cycle. Iron and manganese export rates from the watersheds are much higher than those for copper, reflecting solubilization of iron and manganese under reducing conditions that develop in muskeg ponds during drought periods. The association of metals with organics allows transport of iron and possibly other metals throughout the fjord system, in contrast with the large-scale removal of metals in or near the river's mouth, observed elsewhere. Episodic physical mixing and the supply of reactive (autochthonous) organic matter are responsible for the temporal variations observed in interstitial water profiles. In the shallower areas of the fjords, non-linear log ^210Pb profiles and enhanced ^137Cs penetration depths suggest a substantial terrestrial contribution of sediment, and mixing coefficients ranging from >6.6 to >65 cm^2yr^-1. Small scale variability is considerable and interstitial waters are greatly undersaturated with respect to manganese- and iron- phosphates or carbonates. In the deep basin locations, sediment focusing and less mixing result in linear log ^210Pb distributions with apparent accumulation rates of 88 ± 15 mg cm^-2yr^-1, and reducing conditions near the sediment-water interface.
• #### Production and quality of spring sap from Alaskan birch (Betula neoalaskana sargent) in Interior Alaska

Little is known about the specifics of spring sap production in Alaskan birch Betula neoalaskana Sargent. With an emerging industry in Alaska based on the harvest of birch sap, additional information is needed. This thesis is an exploratory study that investigates the production of sap during the 2002 and 2003 spring seasons in the Fairbanks region and characterizes the dissolved solid components of the sap harvested in 2003. April 2002 and 2003 had strongly contrasting weather patterns which affected sap yields. In general, trees yielded more sap in the wet, cool spring of 2002 than the dry, warm spring of 2003. Larger diameter trees yielded more sap in both years, and this correlation was stronger during the dry, warm spring. Stand location on the hillside and indicator species were also related to sap yield. Carbohydrate content of birch sap is mostly glucose (44%) and fructose (40.3-54.6%); sucrose and galactose are also present. The relative concentration of carbohydrates varied throughout the sap season. Macronutrients (Ca, K, and Mg) and micronutrients (Mn, Fe, Al, Na, Zn and Cu) are present in the sap; their concentrations increase throughout the season.
• #### Production modeling and economic evaluation of a potential gas hydrate pilot production program on the North Slope of Alaska

Methane hydrates consist of a water ice lattice with methane gas molecules contained in the lattice cavities. When dissociated into its constituent water and methane, one volume of hydrate contains approximately 138 volumes of methane gas. On the North Slope area of Alaska, it is estimated that accumulations containing between 300 and 5000 trillion cubic feet of gas. The feasibility of a pilot production project was computed to determine the production potential of the hydrate accumulation and its economic return. The production of gas from a 1 mile by 4 mile reservoir block containing hydrate underlain by an accumulation of free gas was simulated and the resulting production profile inputted into an economic model. As the mechanism for the production of hydrates differs from conventional hydrocarbons, an existing thermal hydrocarbon computer simulation program was adapted. Results of the simulations indicate that depressurization of the free gas zone reduces the pressure at the gas-hydrate interface below that necessary for hydrate stability and causes the hydrate to dissociate into methane gas and water. Analysis found that, in most situations, a development project would be profitable, though the results are highly leveraged to the transportation cost and gas sales price.
• #### Production of vascular aquatic plants in wetlands of Alaska: A comparative study

I examined the effects of climate and hydrology on aboveground biomass of macrophytes in wetlands across Alaska by investigating the effects of latitude, July mean air temperature, lake type (open, periodically inundated, and closed), hydrology, and water and sediment chemistry on emergent and submersed vascular plant biomass to determine environmental variables that influenced wetland plant growth. I sampled aboveground biomass of macrophytes in four wetland complexes within Alaska: Kenai and Tetlin National Wildlife Refuges, Minto Flats State Game Refuge, and the Arctic Coastal Plain near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. In addition to peak aboveground biomass, I also collected water and sediment samples from each lake that were analyzed for water temperature, color, alkalinity, turbidity, pH, orthophosphate, $\rm NO\sb3/NO\sb2$-N, NH$\sb4\sp+$, and total sediment C, N, and P. I found a quadratic relationship between emergent plant biomass and latitude. Minto, the second most northern site, had the greatest plant biomass, Prudhoe Bay, the most northern site had the least, and Kenai and Tetlin had moderate levels of biomass. I found a positive linear relationship between emergent plant biomass and July mean temperature, suggesting that on-site summer condition is important in predicting biomass. Submersed plant biomass was better related to alkalinity, turbidity and sediment P than to latitude, which suggests that climate is not as important in predicting submersed plant biomass as it is in predicting emergent plant biomass. Emergent plant biomass differed spatially and temporally, while submersed plant biomass showed no distinct patterns in variation across the landscape and with changes in hydrologic input. Many water and sediment chemistry variables differed among lake types and between flood regimes. Emergent plant biomass was associated with changes in water level as well as changes in water. Plant species composition differed among lake types and tended to change with flood regime as well. A separate suite of species occupied closed lakes, while open and periodically inundated lakes tended to contain more similar plant species. Both climate and hydrology appear to have a significant impact on emergent and submersed plant biomass and species composition in wetlands of Alaska. These spatial and temporal differences have direct influences on secondary producers living in wetlands of Alaska.
• #### Production optimization and forecasting of shale gas wells using simulation models and decline curve analysis

Production data from the Eagle Ford shale (an analogue to the Shublik shale of Alaska) was compiled from three neighboring counties and analyzed using decline curve analysis (DCA) to correlate production performance with completion method (horizontal leg/stages of fracture) and length of horizontal leg. Generic simulation models were built and run using a realistic range of properties. Simulation results provided a better understanding of interplay between static properties and dynamic behavior. Results from the DCA of 24 producing wells with production histories of 9-57 months showed, for most cases, an increase in reserves with more fracture stages. However, the DCA generated different forecasts depending on which part of the data were used. This clearly indicated the need for running simulations. Simulation runs can generate more reliable production forecast of which the decline part can be used to evaluate the capability of DCA to reproduce the production profiles. A combination of simulation models and DCA was used to optimize production and forecasting. Simulation models were used to optimize production for a range of different reservoir and completion parameters. The ability for DCA to reproduce simulated results (built with similar data from the Eagle Ford) for wells with different production periods was also analyzed. This results in better and more reliable production forecasts for the Eagle Ford and other young producing shale reservoirs possessing short production history. Modeling of the complex reservoir geometry and fracture networks of these types of reservoirs would give an extensive understanding of the flow mechanics.
• #### Program notes of graduate recital

This paper discusses the four pieces of the graduate recital of student Evanthia Maniatopoulou; Johann Sebastian Bach's Prelude and Fugue in F minor, Well-Tempered Clavier Book II, BWV 881; Ludwig van Beethoven's Piano Sonata No. 30, Op. 109; Frederic Chopin's Scherzo No. 3, Op. 39; and Sergei Prokofiev's Piano Sonata No. 7, Op. 83. It is divided into four chapters, with one chapter dedicated to each piece. In each chapter there is a discussion about the composer's background, then some comments about his compositional style in general, then some information about the genre in which every piece falls into, and finally a brief analysis and discussion about the specific piece that was in the graduate recital.
• #### Proinflammatory cytokines induce a Rac1-mediated superoxide-dependent reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in neuronal cells

A dynamic actin cytoskeleton in central nervous system (CNS) neurons is pivotal for regeneration. Following acute CNS trauma, the proinflammatory cytokines TNF[alpha] and IL-1[beta] become expressed in cells and induce Rac 1-mediated actin filament reorganization. Also, Rac 1 regulates a NAD(P)H oxidase activity that generates superoxide (·O₂). This study's objective was to determine whether TNF[alpha] and/or IL-1[beta] induce a Rac 1-dependent actin filament reorganization in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and in chick spinal cord neurons via the signaling intermediate, superoxide. SH-SY5Y cells respond to soluble TNF[alpha] or IL-1[beta] with transient, biphasic actin filament reorganization. Over a time period of 30 min, increased membrane ruffling precedes formation of stress fibers and arrest of cell motility, compared to controls. Similarly, in chick growth cones soluble TNF[alpha] or IL-1[beta] for 15 and 30 minute time periods caused increased lamellipodia formation. The actin filament reorganization in both SH-SY5Y cells and chick spinal cord neurons was inhibited by DPI, an irreversible inhibitor of NAD(P)H oxidase, and MnTBAP, a superoxide dismutase mimetic. Conclusively, TNF[alpha] and IL-1[beta] a transient Rac 1-mediated actin filament reorganization, which could block regeneration of injured axons. Our findings that DPI and MnTBAP prevent this reorganization reveals a potential therapy to mitigate the inflammatory response.
• #### Project to demonstrate feasibility of gas production with sensitivities on production schemes on Sterling B4 sands formation

The Sterling B4 reservoir is a low-relief anticline structure underlain by a weak aquifer located on the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska. This dry gas-on-water reservoir, holding approximately 13.9 BCF, has experienced challenges since its first development in the 1960s. The gas-water contact is very mobile and easily influenced upward by gas production. All four wells, largely producing in succession of one another, have experienced excessive water production which killed gas production. Faulty drilling and completion work exacerbated the challenges associated with bringing the gas to market. This project covers an effort to develop the Sterling B4 and determine feasible alternatives for commercialization. Those alternatives include infill drilling, variable production, and co-production. Co-production is a method by which gas is produced from a single upper perforation and water is produced from a lower perforation; each of the streams are produced independently by mechanical means which utilize packers and tubing. The only feasible alternative found by this study is co-production. Of the two coproduction methods analyzed, the highest ultimate recovery includes the utilization of an existing vertical well perforating the upper portion of the reservoir for gas production and a new lower horizontal well perforating the water zone to control the gas-water contact. Modeled production schemes proved the gas-water contact was able to be controlled from upward mobility by maintaining a threshold pressure delta between the bottom-hole pressures of the two producing wells. Utilizing co-production in this manner yielded incremental benefit of over 2 BCF until shut-in limits were triggered. Economic analysis of the project has proved bringing the gas to sales presents a significant prize able to support production and able to support facility operational expense despite no other revenue streams. Should other nearby formations demonstrate sufficient targets the economic case would be enhanced and present an even greater prize.
• #### Projecting absence: a decade of US Arctic intelligence, policy, and perceptions of Russia

The U.S. government engaged in Arctic security and politics at a low level throughout early 2000s, while the Russian government was quite active in it Arctic region during this timeframe. Using text, data and visual analysis tools, this research conducts content analysis, sentiment analysis and mapping on U.S. Arctic intelligence documents released through Wikileaks. It compares patterns found in the content of intelligence documents with content and sentiment patterns found in U.S. Arctic policy to correlate a shared perception of Russian Arctic engagement. Research findings indicate that the dialogue about Russian engagement in the Arctic in the early 2000s in both the intelligence community (IC) and policy-making communities attribute a low level of threat to U.S. national security with regard to Arctic issues. These findings may contribute to the lack of U.S. engagement in the Arctic leading up to the Crimean/Ukraine conflict.