• Divergence, gene flow, and the speciation continuum in trans-Beringian birds

      McLaughlin, Jessica F.; Winker, Kevin; Takebayashi, Naoki; Hundertmark, Chris (2017-08)
      Understanding the processes of divergence and speciation, particularly in the presence of gene flow, is key to understanding the generation of biodiversity. I investigated divergence and gene flow in nine lineages of birds with a trans-Beringian distribution, including pairs of populations, subspecies, and species, using loci containing ultraconserved elements (UCEs). I found that although these lineages spanned conditions from panmixia to fully biologically isolated species, they were not smoothly distributed across this continuum, but formed two discontinuous groups: relatively shallow splits with gene flow between Asian and North American populations, no fixed SNPs, and lower divergence; and relatively deeply split lineages with multiple fixed SNPs, higher divergence, and relatively low rates of gene flow. All eight lineages in which two populations were distinguishable shared the same divergence model, one with gene flow without a prolonged period of isolation. This was despite the diversity of lineages included that might not have responded in the same ways to the glacial-interglacial cycles of connection and isolation in Beringia. Together, these results highlight the role of gene flow in influencing divergence in these Beringian lineages. Sample size is a critical aspect of study design in population genomics research, yet few empirical studies have examined the impacts of small sample sizes. Using split-migration models optimized with full datasets, I subsampled the datasets from Chapter 1 at sequentially smaller sample sizes from full datasets of 6 - 8 diploid individuals per population and then compared parameter estimates and their variances. Effective population size parameters (ν) tended to be underestimated at low sample sizes (fewer than 3 diploid individuals per population), migration (m) was fairly reliably estimated until under 2 individuals per population, and no trend of over- or underestimation was found in either time since divergence (T) or Θ (4Nrefμ) . Lineages that were split above the population level (subspecies and species pairs) tended to have lower variance at smaller sample sizes than population-level splits, with many parameters reliably estimated at levels as low as 3 diploid individuals per population, whereas shallower splits (i.e., populations) often required at least 5 individuals per population for reliable demographic inferences. Although divergence levels may be unknown at the outset of study design, my results provide a framework for planning appropriate sampling, and for interpreting results if smaller sample sizes must be used.
    • Diversification of the fern genus Cryptogramma across time and space

      Metzgar, Jordan S.; Ickert-Bond, Stefanie; Wolf, Diana; Windham, Michael; Takebayashi, Naoki; Pryer, Kathleen (2016-05)
      I examined diversification, biogeographic history and polyploidy within the parsley ferns (Cryptogramma) across multiple time scales. Cryptogramma is a small circumboreal genus of rock ferns in the large, diverse family Pteridaceae and is most closely related to the Asian genus Coniogramme and the monotypic Central American genus Llavea. I generated a combined six locus plastid sequence alignment (rbcL, rbcL-accD, rbcL-atpB, rps4-trnS, trnG-trnR, and trnPpetG) and a low-copy nuclear marker (gapCp) alignment for 40 accessions. Phylogenetic analysis of these datasets using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference demonstrate that all three genera are reciprocally monophyletic, with Cryptogramma and Coniogramme most closely related to one another. This analysis also recovered the monotypic Cryptogramma section Homopteris and sect. Cryptogramma as reciprocally monophyletic. Within sect. Cryptogramma, the unambiguously supported phylogeny supported recognizing most described species as reciprocally monophyletic clades that are mostly allopatric and can be delineated by a few morphological characters. The nuclear DNA phylogeny supported the hypothesis that the allotetraploid Cr. sitchensis originated from a hybridization event between the Asian Cr. raddeana and the Beringian Cr. acrostichoides, and the plastid DNA phylogeny revealed that Cr. acrostichoides was the maternal parent. In contrast, the tetraploid Cr. crispa appears to have originated as an autopolyploid from an undiscovered or extinct ancestor. Further phylogenetic investigation of European Cryptogramma species using DNA sequence data from 15 accessions from Europe and southwest Asia revealed that Pleistocene glacial cycles have created genetic partitioning of Cr. crispa into eastern and western clades and have also led to the formation of the Turkish auto-octoploid Cr. bithynica with Cr. crispa as the parental taxon. Divergence time estimates for key nodes were inferred using Bayesian analysis of the plastid data set coupled with secondary time constraints to reveal that crown group Cryptogramma began diversifying in the Oligocene, with most present-day species originating in the Pliocene and Pleistocene. The genus was inferred by likelihood-based ancestral area reconstruction of the chronogram and geographic distribution data to have originated in east Asia, with four colonization events reconstructed by vicariance or dispersal to the New World. My Bayesian Analysis of Macroevolutionary Mixtures (BAMM) showed no significant difference in speciation rates across time or among clades. The morphological stasis of Cryptogramma and its stable speciation rates in response to climate cycles during the Pleistocene suggest it will survive future range shifts caused by anthropogenically induced climate change.
    • Diversity In The Boreal Forest Of Alaska: Distribution And Impacts On Ecosystem Services

      Young, Brian D.; Yarie, John; Chapin, F. Stuart; Greenburg, Josh; Huettmann, Falk; Verbyla, David (2012)
      Within the forest management community, diversity is often considered as simply a list of species present at a location. In this study, diversity refers to species richness and evenness and takes into account vegetation structure (i.e. size, density, and complexity) that characterize a given forest ecosystem and can typically be measured using existing forest inventories. Within interior Alaska the largest forest inventories are the Cooperative Alaska Forest Inventory and the Wainwright Forest Inventory. The limited distribution of these inventories constrains the predictions that can be made. In this thesis, I examine forest diversity in three distinct frameworks; Recruitment, Patterns, and Production. In Chapter 1, I explore forest management decisions that may shape forest diversity and its role and impacts in the boreal forest. In Chapter 2, I evaluate and map the relationships between recruitment and species and tree size diversity using a geospatial approach. My results show a consistent positive relationship between recruitment and species diversity and a general negative relationship between recruitment and tree size diversity, indicating a tradeoff between species diversity and tree size diversity in their effects on recruitment. In Chapter 3, I modeled and mapped current and possible future forest diversity patterns within the boreal forest of Alaska using machine learning. The results indicate that the geographic patterns of the two diversity measures differ greatly for both current conditions and future scenarios and that these are more strongly influenced by human impacts than by ecological factors. In Chapter 4, I developed a method for mapping and predicting forest biomass for the boreal forest of interior Alaska using three different machine-learning techniques. I developed first time high resolution prediction maps at a 1 km2 pixel size for aboveground woody biomass. My results indicate that the geographic patterns of biomass are strongly influenced by the tree size class diversity of a given stand. Finally, in Chapter 5, I argue that the methods and results developed for this dissertation can aid in our understanding of forest ecology and forest management decisions within the boreal region.
    • Diversity, abundance and fate of ice algae and phytoplankton in the Bering Sea

      Szymanski, Anna; Gradinger, Rolf; Iken, Katrin; Collins, R. Eric (2014-12)
      Sea ice algae are an essential part of Arctic and subarctic ecosystems. They significantly contribute to total algal primary production, serve as an early spring food source for both pelagic and benthic biota, and can seed the spring phytoplankton bloom during periods of ice melt. In the subarctic Bering Sea, virtually nothing has been known about the composition of the ice algal community, its magnitude, and its connection to pelagic and benthic ecosystems. This study, therefore, focused on the diversity, abundance, and ultimate fate of ice algae in the Bering Sea using sea ice, water and sub-ice sediment trap samples collected during two spring periods: ice growth (March to mid-April) and ice melt (mid-April to May) in 2008 and 2009. Ice algal species composition was comparable to those in Arctic regions. The phytoplankton species inventory was similar to that found in the overlying ice, suggesting that the spring phytoplankton were seeded from the ice algae. Algal abundance in the ice was on average three orders of magnitude higher than in the water column throughout both periods, as the extensive Bering Sea ice cover in 2008-2009 delayed the phytoplankton bloom. There was a substantial increase in the vertical flux of algal cells beneath the ice during the period of ice melt, but measurable amounts appeared as early as mid-March. The majority of this flux was composed of healthy algal cells, making it a rich food source for benthic organisms. Differences in the relative species composition between ice and trap samples indicate that algal fate was influenced by the species specific sinking rate of algal cells, among other factors, in the water column. In conclusion, ice algae in the Bering Sea are diverse and abundant, and contribute to both pelagic and benthic systems.
    • Diving physiology of the ringed seal: adaptations, capability and implications

      Ferren, Howard Jennings (1980-08)
      Adaptations that influence duration of diving in the ringed seal, Phoaa (Pusa) hispida were examined. Mean blood volume was 234 ml/kg lean body mass (LBM) and oxygen capacity was 30.7 ml O2/100 ml of whole blood, yielding a total blood oxygen capacity of 70 ml O2/kg LBM. Abrupt and prolonged bradycardia occurred upon submersion. Experimental dives indicated submersion durations of up to 18 minutes before the onset of physiological dysfunction. The percentage of LBM represented by the brain is least in the relatively large Weddell seal (0.2%), greater in the harbor seal (0.7%) (the compared species) and greatest in the ringed seal (1.4%); this sets the requirement for minimum obligatory oxygen consumption. The differences observed in diving durations between the three species is considered to be mainly the consequence of brain/body size relationship.
    • Division of parental roles in the monogamous western sandpiper, Calidris mauri

      Neville, Juliette Aimee (2002-05)
      I investigated whether male and female Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) contributed equal amounts of parental care during the breeding season, near Nome, AK, USA (64 ̊N) during 1998 and 1999. I repeatedly observed which parent was present at the nest during incubation and which parent tended the brood during the brood care period. Females incubated predominantly at night (18:00-06:00 hr ADT); males incubated predominantly during the day (06:00-18:00 hr ADT). Males spent more time incubating than females (57% vs. 43%, P<0.05). Females deserted their broods on average 5.6 days after hatch, while males tended broods on average 13.0 days after hatch (P<0.001). Nests that hatched earlier in the season received significantly more bi-parental care during the brood care period (P=0.01). Timing of nest initiation had the greatest effect on the division of parental care between sexes for Western Sandpipers.
    • DNA mismatch repair at an oncogenic hotspot correlated with phase of the cell cycle and environmentally relevant concentrations of the Arctic pollutant p, p'-DDE

      Simonetti, Josephine (2001-05)
      Part I: Mismatch repair in G₁ synchronized mammalian cells. Deficiencies in DNA mismatch repair have been found in hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC), as well as in sporadic cancers, illustrating the importance of this single repair system in maintaining genomic integrity. In bacteria, this repair system functions primarily, after DNA replication, in the correction of polymerase base insertion errors and in mammalian cells it was also assumed that the mismatch repair system functioned within a similar timeframe. However, DNA mismatches occur ubiquitously and their repair before DNA replication is of paramount importance for faithful genome copying. We investigated the activity of the mismatch repair system, in G₁ synchronized NIH 3T3 cells, in the repair of four mismatches at an oncogenic hotspot in the H-ras gene. Our results clearly show that the mismatch repair system is active and accurate during the pre-replicative G₁ phase of the mammalian cell cycle. Part II: Effects of p, p'-DDE on cell toxicity and DNA mismatch repair ability. Umbilical cord blood, from Inupiat infants in Barrow Alaska, was examined for the presence of several environmental contaminants. All 24 blood samples analyzed contained measurable levels of p, p'-DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene) with an average concentration of 0.33 ug/1. We examined whether this low concentration of p, p'-DDE had detectable effects on NIH 3T3 (mouse embryonic) and WS1 (human fetal) cells in culture. Initial experiments indicated that exposure to p, p'-DDE resulted in a decrease in the cell number of both cell types. Subsequent analysis revealed that this decrease was due to cell death in NIH 3T3 cells and to cell cycle arrest in WS1 cells. We also examined the effect of p, p'-DDE on the ability of both cell types to repair mismatches at an oncogenic hotspot in H-ras. Preliminary results indicate that p, p'-DDE does not have a discernable effect on the ability of either cell type to correctly repair the G:T mismatch. However, p, p'-DDE exposure results in an increased rate of correct repair of the G:A mismatch by both cell types. Overall, this study demonstrates that p, p'-DDE, at concentrations relevant to the Alaskan environment has significantn but different effects on two immature cell types in culture.
    • DNA recovery from latent blood after identification by fluorescein

      Martin, Laurie A. (2005-05)
      Luminol has been widely used in the field of crime scene investigations to detect latent blood; however, luminol has the tendency to destroy DNA evidence. Fluorescein, an alternative to luminol for detecting latent blood at a crime scene, had not been adequately evaluated for its impact on DNA evidence. This thesis demonstrates the successful recovery of DNA from a blood sample treated with fluorescein. DNA was extracted from blood-containing denim substrates after fluorescein was applied to the substrates. The DNA locus, D18S51, was amplified using standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques, separated by gel electrophoresis, and visualized using ultraviolet light. The results demonstrate that DNA was successfully recovered from the samples.
    • Do wintering conditions drive population trends in semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla)? Evidence from a corticosterone biomarker

      Boldenow, Megan L.; Powell, Abby; Kitaysky, Alexander; Lanctot, Richard (2018-05)
      Some of the most extreme long-distance migrants, Arctic-breeding shorebirds are disproportionately represented in tallies of declining species worldwide. For many shorebirds, including the semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla), the specific causes and mechanisms behind population declines have not been identified. Stressful conditions affecting birds during wintering are often implicated. Interactions between events and processes occurring in the disparate locations used throughout the annual cycle also may be critical in shaping both individual life histories and population demographics. The main objectives of my graduate research were: a) to examine whether semipalmated sandpipers wintering in specific locations incur differential levels of stress; and b) to test whether stressful conditions may carry over between different stages of an individual's life cycle. Using measurements of corticosterone (the primary avian stress hormone) deposited in winter-grown feathers, I examined the contribution of breeding season and fall migration to winter-incurred stress, and looked for evidence of carryover effects from wintering conditions to spring migration and subsequent reproductive performance. In Chapter 1, I compared the levels of stress exposure of 40 semipalmated sandpipers that bred at five Arctic sites and spent the austral summer in distinct regions (identified via light-sensing geolocators) across their tropical 'wintering' range. I found stress exposure varied by wintering region, and birds using locations along the Atlantic coast of northeastern South America and the Pacific coast of Central America had the highest feather corticosterone levels. I did not find evidence that carryover effects from the breeding season and/or fall migration influenced birds' physiology during winter. In Chapter 2, I investigated whether greater stress exposure during winter might subsequently affect birds during spring migration and/or breeding. I found that geolocator-tracked birds with increased stress levels delayed spring migration and initiated nests later. However, results for a larger dataset (including 254 birds breeding at seven sites across the North American Arctic) suggested low-stress birds nested later. It is possible the larger dataset included replacement clutches that could have confounded relationships with feather corticosterone, as only birds in better condition are likely to re-nest after clutch failure. In addition, I found evidence that stressful wintering conditions carryover to affect reproductive performance: females that accrued high levels of stress during wintering subsequently laid fewer eggs. In confirmed first nests, we found evidence for a clutch size-egg volume tradeoff, with high-stress females producing fewer offspring but potentially investing more in individual offspring. This research represents the first instance of the feather corticosterone technique being used to compare conditions across the wintering range of a calidrid shorebird and reveals specific wintering locations with high levels of stress exposure. This is also the first research that provides a mechanistic perspective on carryover effects between the wintering and breeding stages in a shorebird, through measurements of feather corticosterone. Finally, by showing that poor environmental conditions at wintering sites far from Arctic breeding areas may be detrimental to the reproductive performance of a species with declining populations, this research emphasizes the importance of considering full annual cycles in conservation and research efforts for migratory species.
    • Do you know Title IX: a sexual assault navigation tool for college students

      Napolski, Jamie; Koskey, Michael; Drew, Elaine; McGee, Sean; Ramos, Judith (2017-05)
      This paper presents a Master's Project in Cross-Cultural Studies at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) that sought to understand Alaska Native and first-year (freshman) students beliefs and behaviors about the Title IX process at UAF. Title IX is a federal law which states that no individual in the United States shall be discriminated or excluded from participation, denied the benefits or subject to discrimination, based on their sex, within any educational program or activity that receives Federal financial assistance. This project undertook a mixed-method study utilizing a survey and focus groups to identify what information students are being provided regarding Title IX, how much students understand regarding their rights and resources, and ultimately to develop a practical tool to improve students' understanding and navigation of the Title IX process. The results of the focus groups and surveys are presented and discussed. The tool includes an explanation of remedies and also where to locate resources here at the University of Alaska Fairbanks.
    • Doppler sodar observations of the winds and structure in the lower atmosphere over Fairbanks, Alaska

      Kankanala, Pavan Kumar Reddy (2007-12)
      Fairbanks, Alaska (64°49ʹ N, 147°52ʹ W) experiences strong temperature inversions which when combined with the low wind speeds prevailing during the winter cause serious air pollution problems. The SODAR (Sound Detection And Ranging) or acoustic sounder is a very useful instrument for studying the lower atmosphere as it can continuously and reliably measure the vertical profiles of wind speed and direction,vertical motions, turbulence and the thermal structure in the lower part of the troposphere. A Doppler sodar was operated from December 2005 to April 2006 at the National Weather Service site in Fairbanks. The wind observations from the sodar indicate that the majority of the winds during the winter months were from the North, Northeast or the East, which is in good agreement with the radiosonde measurements and the long term trends in the wind patterns over Fairbanks area. Case studies were carried out using the sodar data depicting drainage winds, low-level jets, formation and breakup of inversions and estimation of the mixing layer height.
    • Double-difference relocation of earthquakes at Uturuncu Volcano, Bolivia, and Interior Alaska

      Hutchinson, Laura; West, Michael; Christensen, Douglas; Freymueller, Jeffrey (2015-08)
      In order to reliably interpret seismic patterns, we must have reliable earthquake locations. To improve our catalog locations, I incorporate cross-correlations into double-difference earthquake relocations to generate high precision relative locations. I perform relocations for two regions, one volcanic and one tectonic. At Uturuncu volcano, I incorporate a wealth of previous studies to present a picture of the processes at play. Seismic, gravity, InSAR, and electromagnetic studies all show that there is a magma body underlying the entire region, and chemical studies suggest that this magma body (the Altiplano-Puna Magma Body, or APMB) is the source of the large ignimbrite eruptions that have occurred in the past. The recent uplift has been modeled as a new batch of magma rising off the APMB, beginning the ascent as a diapir. My relocation results indicate that the seismicity aligns with the top of one of the imaged low velocities zones, which I interpret as a diaper beneath Uturuncu. The earthquakes mark the depth at which the crust is cool enough for brittle deformation. I also perform cross-correlations to determine families of similar events. These families are located around the summit of Uturuncu and display a radial pattern. This suggests that they are due to local volcanic stresses, such as inflation of the volcano, rather than regional stresses. In Interior Alaska, I study a region that is very seismically active, yet has no mapped Holocene faults. There are a series of seismic zones in the area, each comprised of NNE-striking seismic lineations. I perform earthquake relocations on 40 years worth of seismicity in order to refine and interpret fault planes. I additionally examine three earthquake sequences in the Minto Flats Seismic Zone (MFSZ). These earthquakes are large enough (≥M5) to produce an aftershock sequence to map out the rupture plane. I find that two of the three earthquakes occurred on WNW-striking planes, roughly perpendicular to the dominant direction of the seismic zone. The third earthquake ruptured along a NNE-striking plane but generated a WNWESE halo of aftershocks, suggesting that the basement is highly fractured in the region. The NW pattern that I find for the three sequences falls in line with my findings for the rest of the Interior: there are a series of NE-striking faults that are cut by NW-striking faults. Throughout the Interior, these faults cross at approximately 60°, suggesting that they are conjugate faults. I believe that the three earthquake sequences in the MFSZ are also conjugate faults and are a part of the broader conjugate system throughout the Interior.
    • Down side up: representations of Down syndrome in Born This Way

      Olson, Bekah L.; May, Amy; Hum, Richard; Lazarus, Jason (2018-05)
      Stereotypical media representations of people with disabilities reinforce stigma, resulting in dehumanization. Conversely, positive representations create counter narratives that challenge stereotypes and stigmatized information disseminated by the media. While some studies have explored media depictions of people with disabilities in general, there is a lack of research focusing specifically on Down syndrome. Born This Way, a reality TV show, provides an opportunity to explore mass media depictions of Down Syndrome. Qualitative content analysis was used to understand how Born This Way constructs representations of adults with Down syndrome. Four major themes were identified. Born This Way's representation of people with Down syndrome is a departure from previous portrayals of people with disabilities. Specifically, people with Down syndrome speak for themselves and take back their narrative. Instead of dehumanizing individuals with Down syndrome, Born This Way represents people with Down syndrome as capable, independent, sexual, and multifaceted. Although Born This Way depicts differences associated with Down syndrome, these differences do not become more important than the person with Down syndrome. The portrayals in Born This Way have the ability to educate and influence viewer perceptions of people Down syndrome and positively influence viewers who have Down syndrome as well. Additionally, Born This Way seems to be offering a type of vicarious social support for parents of children with Down syndrome.
    • Dramatics in the classroom: activating and enhancing the elementary intermediate level reading curriculum

      Finnell, Sarah K.; Vinlove, Amy; Hornig, Joan; Brink-Hart, Paula (2014-07)
      Elementary classroom teachers have been using drama to teach a variety of subjects since the 1960s. There are a myriad of books on the subject to which educators can turn for ideas to use in their classrooms. Theorists and practitioners have recognized that it is not enough for teachers to simply read about and practice drama in their classrooms; they should be trained in using drama effectively. In the Fairbanks North Star Borough School District teachers are well-equipped and exposed to visual arts lessons. Nearly every school has a music program, but there remains limited training or resources teachers might use to incorporate drama into their curriculum. This project would begin to fill that gap. In this report, I outline the research that justifies the use of drama as a tool to support the reading curriculum in intermediate elementary classrooms. My final project is a set of nine lessons that can be used by any teacher to support reading comprehension skills in intermediate elementary classrooms.
    • Drawing my body nude

      Bennett, Nathan (2004-08)
      Divided into five sections that mirror mankind's fall and return to grace, Drawing My Body Nude is a modern-day examination of the Romantic notions of innocence, experience and experienced innocence. Covering a span of nearly fifteen years, the text weaves together four seemingly disparate storylines: the author's addiction to, and subsequent recovery from, pornography; his mother's enrollment in a nude drawing class at a local college; the death of his patriarchal grandfather; and his own coming of age as he and his wife raise a family of their own. The text is driven by religious (specifically Latter-Day Saint), artistic and metaphysical themes. By questioning the complex issues surrounding birth and death, human existence and the afterlife, nude art and pornography, love and lust, as well as raising children and what it means to be a child, the text is an attempt to both reconcile and understand physical and inherent beauty.
    • Drifting and directed: the post-high school plans of students from three communities in rural Alaska

      Doyle, Aaron T. (2006-12)
      Many students in Alaska's rural villages complete their secondary education without a direction for life after high school. Students consistently report high aspirations to vocational training, college, and careers that require postsecondary education, yet few end up realizing these plans. To understand this paradox, this thesis uses qualitative methods to examine the influences that shaped the post-high school plans of 49 rural Alaska Native students in three villages in western Alaska. This thesis finds that misgivings about the purpose of education, difficult choices about leaving home, a substandard education, a lack of information, and perceptions of failure all combined to create drifting students who left high school without direction. Directed students were attached to postsecondary programs that provided them with a structured script with specific guidelines to follow.
    • Dubble

      Abrams, David (2004-05)
      Set in Hollywood during the 1940s, "Dubble" is a novel about an adult midget/stuntman who goes to work for enfant terrible child actor Eddie Danger. As Eddie's personal stuntman and bodyguard, David Dubble gets drawn into a sinister plot which includes sex with older women, canine homicide and studio sabotage. Written in the rat-a-tat style of a classic screwball comedy movie but also nodding in the direction of postmodernism, the novel explores the porous boundary between reality and illusion, compounded by the fact that Eddie and Dubble are filming a Western about twin brothers-one good, one bad. With character names like Paige Turner, "Bunny" Torpor and Dubble himself, the reader inevitably enters the text on a symbolic level. My goal is to write not only an entertaining story, but also one which examines the duplicity of public versus private lives in Hollywood
    • Duckling survival and incubation behaviors in common goldeneyes in Interior Alaska

      Schmidt, Joshua Harold (2004-08)
      The lack of research on the common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula) in Interior Alaska prompted this study. My objectives were to estimate duckling survival relative to several explanatory variables and to characterize incubation behaviors in a subset of females nesting in the Chena River State Recreation Area. My estimates of duckling survival were higher than previously reported for this species: 0.65 (95% CI 0.49 to 0.82) and 0.68 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.79) for 2002 and 2003 respectively. Seasonally, duckling survival increased linearly throughout 2002, remained nearly constant in 2003, and was negatively related to daily precipitation in both years. Nest attendance patterns and incubation behaviors were not related to weather, female experience, clutch size, or day of incubation. Average number of recesses per day (2.9 ± 0.05), length of recesses (100.7 ± 1.5 min), and incubation constancy (79.8 ± 0.3%) were similar to values previously reported for this species (mean ± SE). I observed nocturnal recesses in this population. Although not previously reported for this species, these recesses may occur due to extended daylight hours during the incubation period.
    • Duff moisture dynamics in black spruce feather moss stands and their relation to the Canadian forest fire danger rating system

      Wilmore, Brenda (2001-08)
      The Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System's Fire Weather Index (FWI) system models 3 levels of fuel moisture within the forest floor using simple environmental inputs. Wildland fire managers in interior Alaska have expressed concern that the FWI System does not take northern latitude factors such as long day lengths and permafrost into account. During the 1999 fire season destructive sampling methods were employed to monitor moisture content throughout the feather moss profile in 3 interior Alaska black spruce stands. Measured moisture contents were compared to the FWI System's fuel moisture predictions. The FWI System followed general trends of the seasonal fuel moisture within the feather moss profile. However, the short-term response of the interior Alaska moss profile is more dynamic than the FWI System's fuel moistrue code predictions. Hydraulic properties that have been linked to bulk density may be the causative agent for the observed short-term discrepancy.
    • DUI courts: the need for standardized DUI court evaluations

      Cameron, Howard; May, Jeff; Boldt, Frank; Duke, J. Robert (2018-12)
      There have been numerous evaluations of driving under the influence (DUI) treatment courts. The evaluation process and tools vary widely. This research project reviewed seven individual courts' evaluations, including process evaluations and outcome evaluations to determine the strength of each court's evaluation. The research goal was to better understand how these courts are evaluated, the strength of those evaluation processes, and to determine what, if any, changes can and should be made to strengthen them. Presently, there are not any standardized evaluations tools for DUI treatment courts. This research concludes that evaluations should be standardized and such standardization will allow for a stronger evaluation and the ability to uniformly compare courts and court processes.