• Oxidative stress is transient and tissue-specific during cold acclimation of threespine sticklebacks

      Kammer, Aaron R. (2010-08)
      We sought to determine if oxidative stress occurs in liver, oxidative muscle or glycolytic muscle of threespine sticklebacks during cold acclimation. Fishes were held at 20°C for 12 wks and then acclimated to 8°C for 9 wks or held at 20°C for an additional 9 wks. Animals were harvested during the first four days of cold acclimation, and at wk 1, 4 and 9. Protein carbonyls were quantified as an indirect measure of the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), levels of SOD mRNA, and glutathione levels were quantified as indices of protection against ROS. All measurements were made in liver, glycolytic muscle and oxidative muscle. Protein carbonyl levels increased in livers of fishes after 1 wk at 8°C and decreased after wk 4. Total glutathione levels increased in livers on day 3 of cold acclimation and then decreased by wk 4. Measured at a common temperature, SOD activity increased early in all tissues and remained elevated throughout cold acclimation. Measured at the acclimation temperature, SOD activity increased only in oxidative muscle after 9 wks of cold acclimation. Together, these results indicate that oxidative stress is transient and tissue-specific during cold acclimation of fishes.