Now showing items 1-7 of 7

• #### Benzene and toluene mixing ratios in indoor air of homes with attached garages and measurement of respective biomarkers of exposure and ventilation effects

Benzene and toluene mixing ratios were measured in the indoor air of homes with attached garages for several seasons using a thermal desorption GC-FID sampling and analysis protocol (EPA T0-17). Benzene in the living area of these homes ranged from 1--72 ppbv and toluene ranged 3--111 ppbv. The garage levels of benzene ranged from 8--304 pbbv and the toluene levels ranged from 14--591 ppbv. Numerous experiments and a model support the hypothesis of a single source of toluene and benzene. Source strength estimate calculations supported the hypothesis that gasoline in the attached garage is the primary source of these compounds in living area air. They also showed that the home with the air-to-air heat exchangers and forced ventilation had less transport of aromatics than an unventilated home. Perturbation experiments showed that a metal gas can filled with gasoline in the garage and an indoor window open were important factors for benzene and toluene levels in the living areas of the homes. For most experiments, weighted regression analyses of toluene and benzene mixing ratios were consistent with a sole source. Finally, no correlation was observed between the levels of benzene and toluene measured in living areas and their respective urinary biomarkers: t,t-MA and hippuric acid.
• #### Diet among Siberian Yup'iks of Alaska and the implications for cardiovascular disease

I investigated dietary factors associated with cardiovascular disease and their relation to blood lipids among Siberian Yup'iks. This study was prompted by reports of increasing mortality from cardiovascular disease in Alaska Natives and the need to know to what extent their unique diet may influence cardiovascular disease. Information on dietary intakes was collected in 1992 using two recall methods, from over one-half of the Siberian Yup'ik Eskimos (n = 65) $\geq$40 years-of-age in Gambell, Alaska, as part of a comprehensive screening for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Based on analysis of 29 nutrients, mean daily intakes of monounsaturated fats and antioxidants--vitamin E, selenium, and vitamin C (among men)--exceeded US recommendations. Mean intake of n-3 fatty acids (7.0 g/d) exceeded the level associated with favorable physiologic responses (>3 g/d) and was comparable to that of Greenlandic Eskimos (8.6 g/d). Although fat intake was high (44% of total energy for men, 42% for women), saturated (11%) and polyunsaturated fats (8%) were not different $(P>$ 0.05), but energy from monounsaturated fat was greater (18% vs. 13%, $P<$ 0.001) than the general US population (NHANES III). Native foods, including walrus, seal and whale, contributed 25% of the energy, >50% of the protein, n-3 fatty acids, arachidonic acid, cholesterol, iron and vitamin B-12, and all of the eicosapentaenoic acid. Nonnative foods were frequent sources of saturated fats. Mean intakes of saturated fat and cholesterol exceeded recommendations. Correlations between foods and blood cholesterol, LDL, HDLI triglycerides and LDL-HDL ratio produced differences by age and sex. Multicollinearity occurred among several nutrients, including $\alpha$-tocopherol and n-6 fatty acids (r = 0.888). When multiple regression was applied among all participants, $\alpha$-tocopherol and fresh bird were associated with reduced LDL-HDL ratio; body-mass index, pizza and syrup were positively associated. Adding obesity to this equation increased the percent of variation explained (42% to 59%). Dietary advice includes maintaining desirable weight, consuming a diet moderate in fat, rich in monounsaturated fats and low in saturated fats, and foods rich in n-3 fatty acids--e.g. Native foods--and vitamin E.
• #### Effective and meaningful collaboration to improve community health

This research project set out to identify those factors that are likely to lead to effective and meaningful collaboration among a broad range of stakeholders wishing to collaborate to improve health in rural communities. By studying two different collaborative efforts in rural Alaska that have succeeded in collaboration but have also faced many challenges, benefits of collaboration, challenges to collaboration, factors that contribute to benefits and challenges of collaboration, and important areas for development in collaboration were identified. Through the research study and a literature review conducted within the context of the researcher's professional experience, frameworks and tools were identified that can be used to help facilitate and support collaboration that is effective and meaningful in a community.
• #### Physical Activity, Body Composition And Their Associations With Health In Yup'ik People

Being active and preventing excess body fat are important for maintaining good health. The ability to measure activity and body composition accurately is important to understanding the role of activity and adiposity in health. This dissertation highlights key findings regarding assessment tools for physical activity and body composition and the associations between physical activity and body composition with health in Yup'ik people. The main objectives of this dissertation were to: l) assess the accuracy of bioimpedance and multiple regression models from anthropometry for estimating body composition (fat mass, fat-free mass, and percent body fat) as compared with doubly-labeled water (DLW) body composition estimates, 2) determined the associations between body size estimates, including simple anthropometry and body composition estimates, and obesity-related health risk factors and disease outcomes, 3) assess the accuracy of a combined heart rate/movement monitor (Actiheart) for determining physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) as compared with DLW PAEE, and 4) determine the associations between physical activity subcomponents and obesity-related health risk factors in Yup'ik people in southwestern Alaska. Body composition can accurately be estimated using only three variables -sex, waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference with a multiple R 2=0.9730 with DLW fat mass. WC and other anthropometries were more highly correlated with a number of obesity-related risk factors than were direct estimates of body composition. When determining the accuracy of the Actiheart for determining PAEE as compared with DLW PAEE, none of the software PAEE models investigated were significantly correlated with DLW PAEE (ranging from r=0.02 {95% e1 (-0.38, 0.41) to r=0.22 {-0.20, 0.56)). Limits of agreement (mean difference +/- 1.9650) for all software models were large, ranging from ---4540 to 1600 kcal/day. The best correlate of DLW PAEE from the Actiheart was the sum of accelerometer counts per day (r=O.SO (95% Cl = 0.13, 0.74)). The associations between physical activity and obesity-related health risk factors showed that total movement throughout the day was positively associated with HDL cholesterol (r<sub>s=0.13, r<sub>s =0.15 men and women respectively) and negatively associated with body weight, body mass index, we, percent body fat and triglycerides (r<sub>s range from -0.17 to -0.25 in men and -0.19 to -0.21 in women). Sedentary time was positively associated with body weight, we, and percent body fat (r<sub>s range from 0.10 to 0.18 in women) and negatively associated with HDL cholesterol (r<sub>s =-0.19 in women). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was only associated with fasting glucose. We conclude that 1) body composition in Yup'ik people can be accurately estimated from simple anthropometries and that simple anthropometries like WC can be used to assess obesity-related health risk, 2) the Actiheart software does not accurately estimate free-living PAEE in Yup'ik people however, total movement per day correlates with DLW PAEE and can be used as a proxy for PAEE, and 3) the accumulation of regular movement of any intensity while decreasing sedentary time may be more important for health in Yup'ik people than moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.
• #### The Social Construction Of Unique Caring Relationships: Metaphors And Descriptors Of Aids And Mutuality In Buddy Dyads

This study explores how acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is socially constructed in buddy dyads as revealed by the written metaphors and descriptors supplied by cultural members through a survey instrument. A buddy dyad consists of a volunteer caregiver and a person with AIDS (PWA). The metaphors and descriptors that the buddies recounted provide an understanding of these special relationships and the social construction of AIDS in this uniquely affected population.<p> Analysis revealed that AIDS is most often constructed as integral to community and activism in the AIDS Culture. The buddy relationship is most often constructed as a friendship rather than a caregiver/client relationship. The participants also revealed that buddy dyads are both life-affirming and significant relationships. The examination of buddies' metaphors and descriptors further suggests that their lived experience with AIDS is uniquely different than the construction of AIDS most often made by the media and the rest of U.S. culture. <p>
• #### Ways To Help And Ways To Hinder: Climate, Health, And Food Security In Alaska

This dissertation explores various ecological, socioeconomic, sociopolitical, and biophysical dimensions food security in Alaska. The context for this work is dramatic climatic change and ongoing demographic, socioeconomic and cultural transitions in Alaska's rural and urban communities. The unifying focus of the papers included here are human health. I provide multiple perspectives on how human health relates to community and ecosystem health, and of the roles of managers, policy makers, and researchers can play in supporting positive health outcomes. Topics include methylmercury (MeHg) contamination of wild fish, the impacts of changes to Alaskan landscapes and seascapes on subsistence and commercial activities, and on ways to design sustainable natural resource policies and co-management regimes such that they mimic natural systems. The operating premise of this work is that sustainability is ostensibly a matter of human health; the finding is that human health can provide a powerful point of integration for social and ecological sustainability research.