• Tackling revenge porn: mitigating destructive behaviors among minors through education

      Spencer, Dominique Nichelle; Boldt, Frank; Duke, J. Robert; Boldt, Frank (2019-08)
      Revenge porn is at the forefront of the American consciousness now more than ever before. The effects of revenge pom are long-lasting for both victims and perpetrators, yet efforts to address these behaviors remain highly unorganized. A combination of victim blaming, an inability to keep up with technology, and poor legislation have made the process of addressing revenge pom extremely challenging. Although anyone can become a victim of revenge pom, this report will focus on the group in our society which is the most susceptible to these risks and the least protected, minors and young adults. Furthermore, this report will delve into the social, psychological, financial, and legal ramifications of participating in revenge pom. Finally, this report will advocate for the implementation of comprehensive sex education programs in schools, because education is the only way to render the excuse of ignorance of the law invalid.
    • Taking Back the Knife: The Ulu as an Expression of Inuit Women's Strength

      Gillam, Patricia Hansen (2009-12)
      The ulu is an enduring object in the lives of Inuit women which has multiple meanings as both a tool and symbol of traditional subsistence activity. While it continues to be recognized as a symbol of identity for Inuit women across the Arctic, it has received little attention by Western scientists and academics. Following the twists and turns of both de-colonizing and engendering the ulu encourages a comprehension of the profoundly symbolic meaning of the ulu with respect to Inuit women's identity. The collecting phase of the Smithsonian in Alaska and the classifying impulse of archaeological reports are examined for their underlying rules of practice, conventions of representation and dynamics of scientific authority. Then in reaction to this 'objectification' of the ulu, the knife is taken back in a multitude of actions and expressions which seek to reclaim the ulu and restore its significance as a cultural item
    • Taminek taiut

      Siekmann, Sabine; Peter, Hishinlai'; Martelle, Wendy; Azuyak, Peggy (2015-12)
    • The taming of the stew: humans, reindeer, caribou and food systems on the southwestern Seward Peninsula, Alaska

      Miller, Odin Tarka Wolf; Plattet, Patrick; Finstad, Greg; Simon, James; Yamin-Pasternak, Sveta (2019-08)
      This thesis addresses the question, what is the role of reindeer within communities of Alaska's southwestern Seward Peninsula, particularly as a food source? Employing a mixed-method approach, I conducted several months' fieldwork in the Seward Peninsula communities of Nome and Teller between 2016 and 2018, using methods that included participant observation, ethnographic interviews and a household survey designed to describe and quantify use of reindeer as food. As two varieties of the same species, Rangifer tarandus, reindeer and caribou are very similar in appearance. When caribou herds migrate nearby, reindeer tend to join them and become feral. Given the important role caribou played in Bering Straits Iñupiaq culture before their disappearance and the subsequent introduction of reindeer during the late 1800s, I contextualize the history of reindeer herding as part of a broader pattern of human-Rangifer relationships. During the past 30 years, reindeer herding has been disrupted by the return of migrating caribou to the region. Results from my fieldwork suggest that herding involves not only keeping reindeer separate from caribou, but also achieving community-level recognition of reindeer herds as domestic, privately owned and non-caribou. This is reflected in reindeer's role as a food source. Among Seward Peninsula Iñupiat, reindeer's gastronomic role is similar to that of caribou and other land mammals. Yet reindeer products can be monetarily exchanged in ways that caribou and other wild foods cannot. A further distinguishing feature of reindeer, as a domestic animal, is that it can be controlled and commodified while alive. As rural Alaskans seek to adapt their food systems to rapid social-ecological change, some have expressed renewed interest in reindeer herding. I conclude that herders must actively negotiate between views of reindeer herding as monetary and marketable, on the one hand, and as a food that embodies Iñupiaq values of generosity and (nonmonetary) sharing, on the other.
    • Tanana Valley State Fair crisis public relations plan project

      Hoogestraat, Ron (2018)
      This project proposal outlines the necessity and importance of emergency public relations during a crisis situation for the Tanana Valley State Fair. It articulates what an organization can expect when it is not prepared to address communications during a crisis situation. This project proposal is a recommendation for management of the Tanana Valley State Fair for an effective Public Relations Crisis Communication Plan, as well as a personnel training program to address the current lack of a formal plan. The project also presents a literature review on the issue of crisis public relations and its application to the Tanana Valley State Fair. In addition, it describes the methodology employed in the development of the Public Relations Crisis Communication Plan. The training progam and its supporting materials for the training sessions, along with a media relations plan, have been developed based on the research discovered in public relations crisis communication. The construction of the training program is born by studies on prepatory data and its effects on human preformance during stressful situations. As a result of this research, the proposed project on a Public Relations Crisis Communication Plan and training program have been developed for the Tanana Valley State Fair.
    • Tangerqengiaraucaraq (being present)

      John-Shields, Agatha; Siekmann, Sabine; Parker-Webster, Joan; Barnhardt, Raymond; Vinlove, Amy (2018-08)
      This qualitative, participatory action research was conducted to investigate the following research questions: What are the attitudes of the teachers in ESDY 630: Language, Culture and Teaching in Secondary Schools class toward culturally responsive teaching and learning? How does participating in ESDY 630: Language, Culture and Teaching in Secondary Schools class affect attitudes of the educators? How do educators co-construct the relationship between standards and culturally responsive teaching and learning? Data were gathered from five pre-service teachers in the University of Alaska Anchorage Master of Arts in Teaching program in a 2-credit Language, Culture, and Teaching in Secondary Schools class. Data consisted of class recordings, student artifacts, teacher researcher journal and informal interviews. The data were analyzed using Constructive Grounded Theory framework. Tangerqengiaraucaraq (Being Present) emerged as a key concept based on the themes identified in the data: Becoming Aware, Adapting, Knowing Self and Others, and Building Relationship. The qasgiq (Indigenous community center) is proposed as a model to support ways to become a culturally responsive teacher.
    • Taphonomic Analysis Of Fish Remains From The Mink Island Site (Xmk-030): Implications For Zooarchaeological And Stable Isotopic Research

      Mckinney, Holly J.; Potter, Ben; Hanson, Diane; Hoover, Kara; Irish, Joel; Kruse, Gordon (2013)
      This dissertation is focused on shedding the taphonomic overprint at the Mink Island site (XMK-030) to assess temporal variability of the fish bone assemblage and to establish sample selection criteria for stable isotope (delta15N, delta13C) analysis. These retrospective data may be used to identify the causes and consequences of long-term variability in local fish assemblages when combined with modern fisheries and paleo-oceanographic data. To use these data, it is essential to account for the effects of biostratinomic and diagenic agents. Intertaxa and inter-elemental differences in bone density, shape, size, protein, and lipid content result in differing preservation and contamination potential. Without mitigating for the effects of these biostratinomic and diagenic agents, temporal changes in abundance may be skewed in favor of skeletal elements that best survive destruction. Moreover, stable isotope values may reflect differences in preservation and contamination rather than variability in ecosystem structure and function. The results of several experiments conducted to assess preservation and contamination levels of Mink Island fish bones revealed that: 1) Preservation and contamination potential are linked with completeness percentages and burial duration, but not with bone volume density; 2) Pacific cod dentaries that are intact, unburned, and free of visible contaminants are best suited for stable isotope analysis; 3) The modified Bell pretreatment method is validated for archaeological fish bones; and 4) Because color-affecting contaminants cannot be removed without heat, color-based methods are unsuitable for assessing the cooking/burning stage of archaeological fish bones. Interactions among humans and fishes at Mink Island were assessed using a four-stage resource depression and intensification model. The Mink Island occupants shifted their focus from small flatfishes during Stage I (7500-4500 cal. BP), to Pacific cod and sculpins during Stages II (4500-2800 cal. BP) and III (2800-900 cal. BP), to a mixture of taxa (sculpins, cods, herring, and salmon) during Stage IV (900-400 cal. BP). A decrease in Pacific cod fork lengths indicates that resource depression occurred during Stage II. Taxonomic proportion, evenness, salmon index, and skeletal element representation data demonstrate that salmon intensification did not occur during any stage at Mink Island.
    • The taphonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the Talkeetna mountains hadrosaur

      Stack, Kevin P. (2012-05)
      The fossil record of hadrosauroids (Ornithopoda, Hadrosauroidea) from the Albian to Santonian is very sparse, with few described North American and Asian taxa compared to the diverse record of Campanian to Maastrichtian hadrosaurids. In 1994, the partial postcranial remains of a hadrosauriform dinosaur were found in the Matanuska Formation of southern Alaska. The Matanuska Formation is a thick succession of Albian¬to Maastrichtian-aged, dominantly marine, sediments deposited in a forearc basin along the actively accreting western North American margin. The Alaskan specimen is assigned a Turonian age based on molluscan biostratigraphy. The skeleton consists of postcranial elements including cervical, dorsal and caudal vertebrae, a partial pectoral girdle, proximal elements of the forelimbs, a partial pelvic girdle, and representative portions of the hindlimbs. This fossil represents the most complete, single skeleton of a dinosaur known from Alaska, and one of the few skeletal remains recovered outside of the North Slope. It is only the second North American Turonian hadrosauroid described, the other being jeyawati rugoculus from New Mexico. This specimen also represents a new taxon of basal hadrosauroid that can be diagnosed by its unique combination of humeral, filial, and femoral characters. A phylogenetic analysis recovers the new taxon nested within a paraphyletic assemblage of non-hadrosaurid hadrosauroids, being more derived than the North American Cenomanian taxa Eolambia and Protohadros but more basal than stratigraphically younger hadrosauroids from Asia, including Tanius, Bactrosaurus, and Gilmoreosaurus. The temporal and geographic occurrence of the Alaskan taxon provides an important new data point for hypotheses of hadrosauroid biogeography in the Late Cretaceous.
    • Targeting Of Her-2 Overexpressing Breast Cancer Cells With Immunoliposomes

      Kullberg, Max P.; Kuhu, Tom; Owens, Jesse (2010)
      The goal of the research described in this thesis is to develop a liposome based drug delivery system which targets Her-2 overexpressing breast tumors with high specificity. Overexpression of the Her-2 receptor occurs in many cancers but is most prevalent in breast tumors, with 20--30 percent of all cases displaying overexpression of the receptor. In addition, Her-2 overexpressing breast tumors are often aggressive and have a high probability of metastasizing. In the research reported here, a drug delivery system has been created that selectively targets Her-2 overexpressing mammary cells by combining three liposomal technologies. First, a Her-2 targeting antibody was conjugated to the outer surface of the liposomes, resulting in highly specific binding and internalization of liposomes into mammary epithelial cells that overexpress Her-2. Second, the liposomes were designed to be thermosensitive, only releasing their encapsulated cargo in response to mild hyperthermia at 42�C. Finally, the liposomes were attached to a pore-forming protein, listeriolysin O (LLO), which compromises the target cell endosome, allowing for drug delivery directly to the cellular cytoplasm. The liposomes delivered a 22-fold higher concentration of fluorescent marker to cells overexpressing Her-2 than to normal cells, demonstrating the delivery system's potential for targeting Her-2 overexpressing tumors. When a cytotoxin, gelonin, was encapsulated within the liposomes, the delivery system selectively targeted and killed Her-2 overexpressing cells in vitro. To further increase specificity for Her-2 overexpressing cells, the concept of a two-component delivery system was explored. This system would require internalization of two different types of liposomes within a cell endosome for effective drug delivery. Experiments using fluorescent markers show that this method greatly increased targeting specificity for Her-2 overexpressing cells.
    • Taxonomy and phylogeny of the Rove beetle genus Phlaeopterus (Coleoptera: staphylinidae: Omaliinae: anthophagini)

      Mullen, Logan J.; Sikes, Derek; Lopez, Andres; Olson, Link (2017-08)
      The rove beetle genus Phlaeopterus contained 15 species prior to this work, which are found in mountainous regions of northwestern North America, and in East Siberia for one species. These beetles can be found in perpetually cold, wet habitats, usually living in close association with permanent or long-lasting alpine snowfields. Very little is known of the life history of Phlaeopterus, but they have been observed on the surface of snowfields mating as well as feeding on windblown arthropods that have become stranded on snowfield's surface. In this thesis, I present a taxonomic revision of the genus Phlaeopterus as well as a phylogeny using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods with 46 morphological characters and the mitochondrial gene COI. I found discordance between the morphological and molecular phylogenies, as well as between maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. Phlaeopterus castaneus and Phlaeopterus loganensis, species with distinct morphology but identical COI sequence data, appear to have undergone recent hybridization in the Rocky Mountains where their ranges overlap. I found strong support for the synonymy of the monotypic genus Vellica with Phlaeopterus. Published taxonomic hypotheses were mostly supported and a priori hypotheses received mixed support. Additionally, the genus Phlaeopterus is re-described, a dichotomous key of all species is provided, and eight new species are described. Two of these, Phlaeopterus bakerensis n. sp., and Phlaeopterus olympicus n. sp., are highly endemic snowfield-associated species, and have not been collected since the late 1970s and early 1980s respectively, lending concern to their conservation status.
    • A teacher's role in feedback and instructional conversations in a kindergarten ELA classroom

      Fairbanks, Emerie; Hogan, Maureen; Martelle, Wendy; Siekmann, Sabine (2018-12)
      This teacher action research examines the role of the teacher and the use of feedback to support kindergarten students' language development. This study provides three emergent categories: A) Corrective feedback provided by the teacher with and without the option of the correct form of students' utterance. B) Student provided feedback: self-correction (no teacher influence) or correcting a classmate. C) Extending the conversation through teacher prompting and students collaborating in the meaning-making process. The findings showed providing feedback was beneficial to students' language development. The findings in this research study can be used to inform educators interested in the role feedback plays in language development as well as how they can most effectively provide feedback to student errors. Although educators' contexts may be different, the findings in this study may assist and guide them in discovering what methods and ways of providing feedback work best for them and their students.
    • Teacher-led professional development in arts and culture: promoting teacher ability to engage students using their place

      King, Sandra J. (2017)
      This project is a piece of the SILKAT (Sustaining Indigenous and Local Knowledge, Arts, and Teaching) Grant that is funded by Margaret A. Cargill Philanthropies. It describes the development of one of the professional developments modules as well as two of the cultural art units that make up the Professional Development Course and Cultural K-12 Art Curriculum that are being created for the Bering Strait School District as (BSSD) a part of this grant. The professional development module described leads teachers through learning the core practice of "engaging students with their place." This is extremely valuable in all areas, but especially the BSSD, as the schools are very remote, located in Alaska Native villages off of the road system. The art units will address the cultural values of "understanding others" and "hard-work/self-sufficiency." These values will be reinforced using appropriate studio habits of mind that are transferable skills to any content or situation.
    • Teaching a novel using the common core state standards

      Holley, Danielle; Hogan, Maureen; Armstrong, Anne; Vinlove, Amy (2013-12)
      The purpose of this project was to explore ways that teachers can use the newly adopted Common Core State Standards to drive their instruction while teaching a novel. I created lessons for teachers to apply to the teaching of any novel and also gave specific lessons to use while teaching the novel The Adventures of Ulysses, by Bernard Evslin. I created lessons that addressed the Common Core's English Language Arts standards in reading literature, reading informational texts, writing, speaking and listening. My goal for this project was to explore how teachers could incorporate the use of informational texts, multimedia tools, the arts and their community as a way to support the teaching of a novel. I mainly incorporated these other resources as a way to get students to analyze literature more deeply and to help them strengthen their understanding of the novel itself. I wanted them to meet the rigorous Common Core State Standards while still experiencing literature as art and having a feeling of connectedness to the novel. The outcome of this project was a novel-centered unit that is aligned to the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts. There are two separate units included in the project. One unit was designed to be adapted to any novel and therefore is less specific and more of a suggested outline for a unit. The other unit is specific to The Adventures of Ulysses and includes detailed lesson plans that could be used by any teacher who teaches this novel.
    • Teaching adolescents conflict management skills

      DeLong, Debra M. (2011-05)
      In response to a parents request a workshop to teach a conflict management workshop to high school students was created. A pre-post test design to assess the effectiveness of the workshop was used, with the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument as the measurement. Responses were available for 76 students who were evenly divided between females and males. Overall preferences for using conflict styles did not show a statistically significant change; however, preferences for individual styles did change, with competition showing a statistically significant difference.
    • Teaching conflict management: active and traditional learning approaches in a group communication course

      Welborn, Rhonda D. (2007-05)
      The vital role of effective groups within modern organizations requires attention to the dynamics of group communication, specifically conflict management. The first context in which most individuals learn group communication skills is in the university classroom. Sims (2006) asserts that the established literature examining approaches to teaching has convinced most scholars that the student's classroom experience must advance beyond the traditional lecture format, to more interactive student involvement. This study investigated the hypothesis that active learning would result in higher perceptions of self-efficacy in students' group conflict management than would traditional lecture instruction. This study also explores issues associated with differences in instructional methods, as well as change in self-efficacy across time periods. University students in a group communication course who received either active learning or lecture based instruction in group conflict management voluntarily completed a conflict communication self-efficacy measure, and two conflict management measures. The analyses indicated that self-efficacy did increase significantly across time periods, however, no evidence was found of a difference between instructional methods. Measurement issues, the importance of a manipulation check, implications of the findings, and suggestions for future research are discussed.
    • Teaching English language learners in Alaska: a study of translanguaging choices

      Crace-Murray, Jacquelyn A.; Siekmann, Sabine; Parker-Webster, Joan; Marlow, Patrick; John, Theresa (2018-08)
      The number of English Language Learners continues to rise in U.S. schools. However, general classroom teachers are not equipped with English language acquisition methodologies and strategies to teach their increasingly diverse student populations. Because of the deficit views regarding bilingual students, and the monolingual ideologies present in today's public school system, these attitudes and perspectives impact teacher practices in the classroom. They negatively affect student language learning by neglecting to utilize the vast linguistic repertoires bilinguals bring with them to the classroom as resources. They also lead to the over-referral of English language learners for special education services and to teacher burn-out. Being drawn to the concept and utility of translanguaging, I conducted research on my own teaching practices as an English Language Learner Specialist in Alaska. From an autoethnographic stance, I focused on how I encouraged or discouraged translanguaging, what factors impacted my own attitudes and expectations towards translanguaging, and how those attitudes and expectations changed over the course of the action research. This occurred within the context of language moments and critical incidents with my students where I collected field notes, audio files, and reflexive journaling as data instruments. Using constructivist grounded theory for the analytic framework, I developed an informed awareness of my teaching, and how I can utilize translanguaging in the classroom to create meaning, invoke learning, and maximize communication. I found that I encouraged translanguaging with my students for 14 reasons/purposes. I categorized these reasons/purposes into three action-based categories: 1) Demonstrating Unity, 2) Working in Multiple Languages, and 3) Using Good Teaching Practices. The factors that impacted these practices included academic material and time constraint management, teacher/student language proficiencies, student dynamics, and school/classroom climate. Over the course of the study, my own attitudes and expectations towards translanguaging changed from an umbrella term for linguistic practices such as code-switching, code-mixing, and codemeshing to a strategic, purposeful, and intentional process along the language acquisition continuum. This change impacted how I use my languages in the classroom, and how I teach.
    • Teaching literacy skills with graphic novels to elementary students: curriculum unit for grades 1-6

      Gulsvig, Staci R.; Hogan, Maureen; Green, Carie; Marlow, Patrick; Siekmann, Sabine (2017-07)
      Today, many elementary educators praise teaching graphic novels to all kinds of learners, because they inspire students to build healthy reading habits. Yet, there is a lack of resources for elementary teachers to utilize this genre to teach the literacy skills students need. Those same literacy skills are applied when reading the visual elements of graphic novels. How can elementary teachers use graphic novels in their classroom curriculum to increase student achievement on comprehension skills and strategies? To answer this question I created a multi-grade level curriculum for four to ten students, four days a week, for eight weeks. The graphic novel I used is comprised of seven different graphic stories and authors, and shows different ways graphic novels use layout, visuals, and words. The structure of the curriculum is that each story focuses on one visual element of graphic novels and relates that to a specific literacy comprehension skills and strategy. The resulting curriculum showed the ability for students to significantly increase their motivation and achievement when applying comprehension skills and strategies in a new genre of literature. In conclusion, this paper and curriculum project provides elementary educators with the knowledge and tools needed to implement graphic novels into the classroom curriculum.
    • Teaching through culture in the K-12 classroom

      Littlebear, Janice DeVore; John, Theresa; Adams, Barbara; Barnhardt, Ray; Webster, Joan Parker (2018-05)
      This study explores how quality experienced teachers use culture to successfully deliver K-12 classroom instruction. Additionally, it develops and tests the effectiveness of a resource designed to instruct early career teachers on the use of culture to deliver classroom instruction. Research was conducted in two phases over a four-year time frame (2014-2017). The study followed a mixed methods exploratory sequential design, using a participatory action research approach. Phase 1 gathered qualitative data from 20 experienced teachers located in two states, which were analyzed using constructed grounded theory. The results of this analysis, accompanied by a literature review, resulted in the development of a Chapter about Culture (CAC), an instructional resource on teaching through culture for early career teachers. Phase 2 gathered quantitative data using a Checklist of Classroom Inventory (CCI) from eight Alaska early career teachers and one Montana experienced teacher, and were analyzed by averaging the pre/post CAC scores and comparing the differences. In addition, one open-ended question after use of CAC provided additional qualitative data about the resourcefulness of CAC, as well as the process for implementing the lessons. Phase 1 results revealed five common themes when teaching through culture: Relationships, Communication, Connections, Respect, and Multicultural Resources. These themes contributed to the construction of a value-added theory of practice for teaching through culture, and served as the basis of the CAC. Phase 2 results demonstrated growth by early career teachers after using the newly created CAC in all five themes of teaching through culture.
    • Technological development and culture change on St. Lawrence Island: A functional typology of toggle harpoon heads

      Lewis, Michael A. (1995)
      Our understanding of the culture history of the Bering Strait region is based on the chronology of St. Lawrence Island toggle harpoon heads proposed by Henry Collins in 1937. Subsequent attempts to develop harpoon head typologies from other parts of the Bering Strait are built on Collins' stylistic classification, which does not account for the full range of variation in St. Lawrence Island harpoon heads. The resulting confusion of harpoon head categories has clouded the interpretation of patterns in the material remains and has perpetuated a unilineal theory of culture change in Bering Strait Eskimo groups. This dissertation critically examines previous investigations and interpretations of archeological sites on St. Lawrence Island and Punuk Island. A contextual analysis of radiocarbon dates from these sites serves to evaluate the currently accepted chronology of occupation. The typology of St. Lawrence Island toggle harpoon heads proposed is based on a structural analysis of the raw materials and a functional analysis of the components of the harpoon head. The concept of functional strategies explains variation in harpoon head styles and gives meaning to the statistical analysis of attribute associations. A series of dendrochronological dates from the Kukulik site is compared with radiocarbon dates from other sites and combined with the harpoon head typology to develop a chronology of St. Lawrence Island occupations. The harpoon head typology reveals the presence of two distinct culture groups co-resident on St. Lawrence Island and the Bering Strait region from approximately 1600 to 1000 cal C-14 B.P. The Old Bering Sea/Birnirk group, associated with a generalized Eskimo subsistence adaptation, was present from 1600 to 1300 cal C-14 B.P. The Okvik/Ipiutak group, focused on sea mammal and whale hunting, is undated on St. Lawrence Island. Based on comparison with date ranges in other Bering Strait sites, the Okvik/Ipiutak group is assumed to be roughly contemporaneous with the Old Bering Sea/Birnirk group. The interaction of these two groups on St. Lawrence Island, interpreted by Collins as the Punuk culture, was present from 1300 to 1000 cal C-14 B.P.