• X-ray fluorescence spectrometry using synchrotron radiation with applications in unmanned aircraft environmental sensing

      Barberie, Sean Richard Gopal; Cahill, Catherine F.; Hatfield, Michael C.; Iceman, Christopher R. (2015-12)
      In this thesis I present an analytical optimization of the Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-XRF) technique for applications in unmanned aircraft aerosol studies. In environmental and atmospheric science, there is a pressing need for aerosol measurements at various altitudes in the atmosphere and spanning large regions. This need is currently either ignored, or met to a limited degree by studies that employ manned aircraft. There is, however, a great deal of opportunity to improve and expand on these studies using the emerging technology of unmanned aircraft systems. A newly developed aerosol sampler makes this opportunity a near-reality by its ability to collect aerosol samples in-situ from unmanned aircraft platforms. The challenge lies in analyzing these samples for elemental composition. In airborne aerosol studies, the ability to resolve where a sample was collected both spatially and temporally is limited by the sensitivity of the analysis technique. In aircraft-based aerosol collection, the length of the aerosol sample spot corresponds to distance. Thus the spatial resolution of an airborne study is limited by the amount of mass that must be collected for analysis. The SR-XRF optimizations outlined in this thesis decrease the amount of sample mass required for detectable elemental concentrations, allowing aerosol samples to be analyzed in smaller areas corresponding to smaller time steps. Since, in a flight path, time steps are directly correlated with distance, analysis of smaller time steps results in the ability to measure aerosols at higher spatial resolution. Four SR-XRF analysis configurations were experimentally tested: monochromatic beam, white beam, filtered white beam, and filtered white beam-filtered detector to determine which configuration gave the highest elemental sensitivity and selectivity. Of these tested methods, the straight polychromatic white beam configuration resulted in the best sensitivity for elements across a large range of x-ray energies for small amounts of mass collected on thin film substrates. The research in this thesis provides researchers with an optimized method for non-destructively analyzing a wide variety of environmental samples with high elemental sensitivity and selectivity. This research also has important implications for the ability to perform in-situ aerosol studies with unmanned aircraft on a systematic basis.
    • Xunaa Shuká Hít, the Tribal House, in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska

      Furuya, Emiko; Ehrlander, Mary F.; Nakazawa, Anthony; Ramos, Judith Daxootsu (2017-08)
      This research analyzes the Tribal House project in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve in Southeast Alaska, which the Hoonah Indian Association (the tribal government at Hoonah) and Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve have promoted collaboratively. The Tribal House project is the construction of an indigenous structure in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, primarily for the use of Hoonah, the local Tlingit community. This research investigates the motivations of the partners in supporting the project. It concludes that the two partners' motivations, which derive from distinct missions, reconcile with one another in a complex way. The Hoonah Indian Association supports the project primarily to reconnect the younger Tlingit generations to their ancestral land, Glacier Bay, and to promote their cultural survival, which lies at the core of the tribal government's mission. The reconnection also represents a metaphorical restitution of Glacier Bay in demonstrating for park visitors the Tlingit clans' ties with Glacier Bay, which have been maintained from prehistoric times to modern days. Both the reconnection and the restitution affirm Tlingit clan-based identities. The representation of contemporary Tlingit culture in the Tribal House, however, requires a consolidation of multiple clan identities. Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve promotes the project to accomplish the National Park Service's mission to tell Glacier Bay's history fairly to park visitors by acknowledging that Glacier Bay is the indigenous group's ancestral homeland. This acknowledgement contradicts the original purpose of the National Park, to preserve the region as uninhabited wilderness. This examination of the two entities' motivations in their collaborative project will serve as a case study for considering contemporary park management issues in light of indigenous peoples' inhabitation of park lands since time immemorial.
    • "You must always tell two": an examination of the Iñupiaq tale of "Aliŋnaq" and Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus

      Zibell, Chelsey; Burleson, Derick; Reilly, Terence; Ruppert, James; Hill, Sean (2015-05)
      This essay focuses specifically on a comparison between the Alaskan Inupiaq story of "Aliŋnaq" and Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus. "Aliŋnaq" comes in many variations and is known chiefly throughout the North American Arctic. Titus Andronicus is one of Shakespeare's less popular plays. But both stories, through the themes of agency, cannibalism, silencing and transformation, show the reader a world out of order, a world that must be set right. This comparison takes off from Joseph Campbell's concept of the monomyth, in which all stories are said to follow a basic plotline. In addition, this text serves to take a work of traditional ethnic folklore and bring it to its rightful place as literature alongside accepted canonized western literature.
    • You say I can, I think I can: peripheral route persuasion as a contributor to employability self-efficacy for undergraduate students

      Uzzell, Brandon W.; Sager, Kevin; Arundale, Robert; Richey, Jean (2011-05)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the persuasive communication phenomenon between university students and professors concerning students' post-degree employability. Communicative interactions were examined as originating with the Elaboration likelihood model's peripheral route cues (persuasive messages) and the outcomes of these interactions as student's employability self-efficacy (beliefs about employability). Hypotheses predicted that a positive correlation exists between perceived peripheral route cues and employability self-efficacy of students. Senior level undergraduate students at a Northwestern university voluntarily completed an electronic survey containing need for cognition, peripheral route cues, and employability self-efficacy measures. Analysis indicated that employability self-efficacy could be successfully predicted by peripheral route cues. Results showed an overall significant positive correlation between the predictor and outcome variable. Implications of these results, limitations of the study, and future research directions are discussed.
    • Young Native Fiddlers: A Case Study On Cultural Resilience In Interior Alaska

      Allan, Maryanne; Barnhardt, Raymond; Parker-Webster, Joan (2011)
      This study explores success for Alaska Native young people, defining success using an Alaska Native point of view, that is, interconnectedness between culturally healthy youth and a culturally nurturing community. As a participatory action research project, members of the community, including musicians, young fiddlers, and their parents and grandparents are collaborating to develop a culturally-based youth group (Young Native Fiddlers) focused on Athabascan fiddling, a 150 year old Athabascan tradition, with the goal of developing culturally healthy youth. This study focuses on the impact of this program on its members and on the community. Using a participatory action research process, data gathering includes interviews with young fiddlers, parents and grandparents, musicians and community members, journal entries, participant observation, notes from participants, photographs, videos, and local media coverage. Themes were identified in the data and references were tallied to determine the meaning given to involvement in this program. The themes referred to most often were empowerment and cultural connection. Results suggest that while acquiring the skills of fiddle performance, young participants are not only continuing this valuable cultural tradition but they are developing individual cultural resilience as well as leadership skills. And they are sharing culture and strengths with their cultural community, thereby contributing to community resilience.
    • Youth creating sustainable communities in rural Alaska

      Gram-Hanssen, Irmelin (2012-08)
      In this thesis I discuss the ability of the people of Igiugig to define their strengths and vulnerabilities as a village, and their ability to create innovative solutions in their conscious efforts to become a more sustainable village now and in the future. I argue that this process provides the village of Igiugig with a high degree of self-determination and increases its ability to move into the future on its own terms rather than terms defined solely by world politics and economics. A key component of Igiugig's process of becoming more sustainable is the accommodation and empowerment of its youth. The village makes an active effort to instill a feeling of belonging in its youth and encourages the young people to take an active part in the shaping of the village. The youth, categorized in this thesis as residents from age fourteen to thirty-one, make up roughly one third of the population in Igiugig and they contribute with a diverse set of resources that combined greatly enhances the strength of the community. Although all residents play an important part in Igiugig's sustainability efforts, it is this group of young people that in many ways is leading the development of the community. In order to accommodate the youth in this way and enable them to take on leadership the village has had to open up to change and compromise. While this has come with certain challenges, it has also to some degree strengthened the village by increasing diversity and thereby the ability to respond to change without jeopardizing the quality of life of the people living there. With this thesis I attempt to show the strengths of a rural Alaskan community and explore the idea that there is tremendous potential for creating innovative and healthy solutions to the problems faced by many rural villages, in Alaska and elsewhere. I also emphasize the great need for open communication about values and goals within a community, and the equally important need for intergenerational collaboration and acceptance. Furthermore, I argue that state and federal policy can both aid and hinder this positive change, and that rural villages need to be shown the trust and help needed for them to become more sustainable.
    • Yuraq: An Introduction To Writing

      Samson, Sally P.; Parker-Webster, Joan; Siekmann, Sabine (2010)
      Teacher research conducted at Ayaprun Elitnaurvik Charter School in Bethel, Alaska introduced 1819 kindergarten students to writing through Yuraq (Eskimo dancing). Within the teacher research, the case study followed four emergent writers as they developed in their writing abilities, how they connected Yuraq with writing, and their progression through their second language skills. The study followed two stories: the teacher's story and the students' story. The study found that Yuraq aided in writing instruction to second language learners, that there are aspects of the 6+1 Traits in Yuraq, and that students progressed in their L2 as well.
    • Yuraryararput Kangiit-Llu: Our Ways Of Dance And Their Meanings

      John, Theresa Arevgaq; Barnhardt, Ray; Webster, Joan Parker (2010)
      The first purpose of this study is to describe the categories of dance. The second purpose is to describe how Yup'ik music and dance has played a functional role in organizing and maintaining various societal infrastructures (kinship, social, political, subsistence/economic, and spiritual) within the Yup'ik culture (Fienup-Riordan, 1996; John, 1996; Kingston, 1999; Mather, 1985; Wallen, 1990; Wolf, 1999). This study seeks to further understand this role and how it has evolved over time. The study utilizes an ethnographic methodology that includes historical and contemporary perspectives to describe Yup'ik music and dance categories and to explain how dance serves to organize various aspects of Yup'ik culture and societal infrastructure. Data includes interviews from Yup'ik elders and adults, fieldnotes, research journal entries, digital recordings, photographs, and observations of Yup'ik immersion school performers and rural community cultural events such as the Cama-i Festival. The study suggests that Yup'ik dance and categories are important elements of the multiple cyclic rituals. It adds to the present literature revealing that there are twenty different dance types and categories, and many of the rituals are lost except for the ciuqitet (common dances), nangerceciyaraq (the first dance), and iluriurucaraq (teasing dance) dances. The study also suggests that dancing is an essential part of the Yup'ik social infrastructure and that dancing is integral to the social system. This is demonstrated through six themes: Kinship, Physical/Mental Health, Form of Prayer, Spiritual Enlightenment, Leadership, and Teasing. I also argue that there is connectedness in dance, music, and stories that are part of our yuuyaraq (epistemic worldview). Yuuyaraq is defined as a way of being a human (Napoleon, 1991) or an absolute unified social web. This web is represented in our social infrastructures of kinship, health/physical and mental, form of prayer/rituals, spiritual enlightenment, leadership, and teasing. There is a relationship in storytelling genres in dance and oral stories that represent people's historical and contemporary accounts, describing their social, cultural, and subsistence lifestyle. Interview participant data suggest these connections still exist in our society today.
    • Yuuyaraq: a transformative approach

      Kaganak, Wanda; Siekmann, Sabine; John, Theresa; Martelle, Wendy (2015-12)
    • Zinc oxide nanoparticles and SH-SY5Y cell line

      Zheng, Jinghui; 郑, 静慧; Duffy, Lawrence; Dunlap, Kriya; Drew, Kelly; Das, Debendra (2013-08)
      The Arctic and sub-arctic regions are impacted by the growth of the global nanotechnology industry. Nanomaterials have unique chemical and physical properties that may lead to toxicological effects that interfere with normal cellular metabolism. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are now very common and widely used in daily life. In industry, ZnO NPs are used to protect different materials from damage caused by UV exposure. The scientific literature suggests that ZnO NPs can have negative impacts on both living organisms and plants. However, there is a paucity of research on the mechanisms by which ZnO NPs may affect the neuronal cells. This study investigates how ZnO NPs interact with the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Using transmission electron microscopy, we observed that the ZnO NPs form 36 nm particles on average, and increase the level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in extracellular fluid, as measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Moreover, ZnO NPs, in presence of tumor neucrosis factor- α (TNF-α), can also decrease the level of extracellular VEGF compared with TNF-a treatment alone. These findings suggest the basis for more studies on understanding the mechanism by which ZnO NPs impact cytokine signaling. Another direction is using ELISA technology to observe the interactions of NPs with different cell types such as neuronal stem cells.
    • Zooarchaeological analysis at 49-RAT-32: historical ecology and maritime subsistence in the late Aleutian period

      Sippel, Kevin M.; Clark, Jamie; Reuther, Joshua; Rogers, Jason (2020-05)
      This thesis utilizes a zooarchaeological collection from 49-RAT-32 on Amchitka Island in the Western Aleutians to examine Unangax̂ subsistence strategies, and human/environment interactions from 620 ± 20 to 320 ± 20 years B.P. The materials used for this analysis were recovered from primary and secondary fill overlaying the House 1 floor. Paleoecological records within this region are limited and conflict with each other, but the cool and wet conditions of the Little Ice Age 600-100 years B.P, or C.E. 1350-1850 are believed to be in effect during the deposition of the fill materials. Marine mammal, fish, and sea urchin remains were analyzed to understand subsistence practices, seasonality, and land/seascape use. The relative abundance of the exploited taxa and fork lengths of marine fishes were analyzed to identify potential resource stress and change over time. Atka mackerel dominates the faunal assemblage and Pacific cod are present in very low frequencies, both of which make 49-RAT-32 unique when compared to other Aleutian assemblages. Atka mackerel, Pacific cod, and Irish lords are larger in size than their modern counterparts, with the large size of Pacific cod indicating deep sea fishing practices. The size differentials in Atka mackerel and Irish lords may reflect differences in ocean conditions. This analysis of fauna from 49-RAT-32 does not indicate the presence of human-driven resource depression, in fact, fish sizes were increasing, and diet breadth was shrinking. The opposite pattern from what would be expected if humans were overfishing. The data from this analysis increase our understanding of resource utilization and landscape use during the Late Aleutian Period, and provides baseline information for future studies analyzing changes in fish size over time.
    • Zooplankton abundance, community structure, and oceanography northeast of Kodiak Island, Alaska

      Wang, Xian (2007-08)
      Zooplankton community dynamics and correlations with physical characteristics of the water were studied in the northwestern Gulf of Alaska. Zooplankton were collected systematically northeast of Kodiak Island, Alaska in March, May, August and November of 2002 to 2004. Species composition, total abundance and spatial community structure were correlated to physical variables. Small copepods (numerically>50%) dominated the zooplankton composition and were most abundant in August. Average biomass was 48.7 g WW m⁻² in May and 52.0 g WW m⁻² in August in Kodiak region. Interannual zooplankton abundance variations were large, with May 2003 having a dramatically higher abundance (2x10⁴ individual m⁻³ higher) than 2002 and 2004, probably due to the higher temperature (1° C higher) and lower salinity in May 2003. Small to moderate correlations (r<0.7) were found between temporal zooplankton abundance and selected physical variables. Spatial patterns in zooplankton composition among stations were more discernable in May than in August, likely due to water column stability in the spring and more dynamic influences in the summer, but revealed no consistent spatial patterns. The zooplankton community patterns in this region thus appear to arise due to complex oceanographic and bathymetric interactions, and suggest high variability can occur in the availability of prey for higher trophic levels.
    • Zooplankton ecology of Norton Sound, Alaska

      Neimark, Lee Michael (1979-12)
      The zooplankton distribution in Norton Sound was monitored for the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program. Salinity, temperature, and predation were investigated as factors controlling species composition and community structure. Sampling was concentrated along the eastern coast of Norton Sound during July and August, 1976. The copepod Acartia clausi and the cladocerans Evadne sp. and Podon sp. were numerically dominant in the samples. These species are able to tolerate the widely ranging salinities and temperatures of the coastal waters. The A. clausi population abundance was correlated with water temperature, while cladoceran and larval mollusc populations were correlated with salinity. No differences in species composition were discerned between stations along the shallow coast; however, the seaward community contained a greater diversity of organisms supporting a larger planktonic carnivore biomass. Zooplankton was a numerically dominant item in the diets of many fish species, although the epibenthic mysid community was volumetrically most important.