Now showing items 1397-1416 of 3321

• #### How The Devils Went Deaf: Ethnomycology, Cuisine, And Perception Of Landscape In The Russian North

Arctic tundra is rich mushroom country and a number of high latitude fungi species can potentially be used as food. Different regions often play host to many of the same or similar mushroom varieties. Yet, people's attitudes toward the same mushrooms---and mushrooms in general---vary widely both in temporal and geographical senses. The given work presents a study in ethnomycology---a field of inquiry concerned with human beliefs and practices associated with mushrooms, carried out in the Bering Strait area of Chukotka, Russia. Once avoided by the Native people living on the Russian and American sides of the Bering Strait, wild mushrooms are now considered to be deliciously edible among the Yupiit and Chukchi of Chukotka. In addition to its dietary contribution, mushroom gathering is also valued as a social, spiritual, and recreational activity which cultivates particular relationships between the people and the land. Prior to the influences of the mushroom-loving Russian cuisine, Yupik people in Chukotka regarded mushrooms as "devil ears," while the Chukchi largely viewed them as reindeer food unfit for human consumption. As an ethnographic study of a single commodity, this thesis examines past and present meanings of mushrooms in Chukotka, exploring local beliefs, practices, and knowledge associated with their use. It shows that the transformations in Yupik and Chukchi ideas about mushrooms are deeply connected with multiple aspects of social change taking place in Chukotka during and after the Soviet period.
• #### How to disappear completely (and never be found)

'How To Disappear Completely (And Never Be Found)' is a collection of six short stories that explore the theme of disappearance. The disappearance in each story works as a metaphor for the character's condition : the failure to act upon a definitive moment, the realization that everything is about to be lost, the inability to reverse an action. Another important theme that emerges is the way in which children are the unwitting victims of these characters' failures. How To Disappear Completely (And Never Be Found) uses a variety of narrative styles, from magic realism to fragmentation of stories within stories, as means of rendering the subjective reality of the characters in each story,
• #### How to guide: implementing place based learning into the classroom

New teachers to rural Alaska may have a difficult time integrating place-based education into their classroom while still using the mandated curriculum provided by their school district. Teachers may also have a hard time relating to their students because they are new to the community and culture. There are limited resources to help teachers learn how to implement place-based education into the curriculum given. Therefore, a how-to guide would be helpful to rural Alaska teachers. This how-to guide will include: Part I. Before Instruction, Part II. Adapting Instruction, Part III. Finding Resources, and Part IV. After the Lessons: Assessments.
• #### Human impacts to fire regime in Interior Alaska

A thorough analysis of human impacts on interior Alaska's fire regime demonstrates that human activities have effects in populated areas. Two approaches were used to determine impacts: I examined three regions with very different populations, and also one large region to analyze suppression, ignition, and vegetation interactions. The Fairbanks Region, with a large human population and an extensive road system, differs from two other regions with low human populations and few roads. In the Fairbanks Region, humans have impacted fire regime by causing more fires in certain fuel types and doubling the length of the fire season. The Fairbanks Region, with a higher level of suppression than the other two regions, has less area of land burn, even after controlling for fuel type and a higher number of human ignitions. In areas designated for high protection, there is less area burned and more human caused starts. For interior Alaska as a whole, human ignitions and suppression have only a minor effect on fire regime, and climate strongly influences the total area burned. However, in populated areas and areas designated for high protection, human ignitions account for most of the area burned, and less area bums overall due to suppression.
• #### Human social dynamics multi agent system

Current political and economic events are placing an emphasis on energy production and consumption more than ever before. This leads to the necessity for continued research with power distribution systems and factors influencing system operation. The Human Social Dynamics Multi Agent System (HSDMAS) is a project contributing to the study of power distribution networks. By examining power failures as a string of related events while incorporating intelligent learning agents representing human factors, the HSDMAS takes a unique approach towards the understanding and prevention of large scale power failures by coupling a probabilistic model of load-dependent cascading failure, CASCADE, with a dynamic power systems model, OPA. The HSDMAS project focuses on improving and optimizing the performance of the CASCADE and OPA models individually, then develops an interactive multi- layer, multi-agent system modeling power transmission and human factors represented by utility optimization.
• #### Human-bear interactions in the North Slope oilfields of Alaska (USA): characteristics of grizzly bear sightings and use of infrared for bear den detection

Minimizing unsafe human-bear (Ursus spp.) interactions in the North Slope oilfields of Alaska (USA) requires knowledge of where they occur and methods to prevent them. My research goals were to characterize the spatial and temporal dynamics of grizzly bear (U. arctos) sightings during the non-denning season around industrial infrastructure in the North Slope oilfields over the past 25 years (Chapter 2), and to evaluate the efficacy of forward-looking infrared (FLIR) systems to detect grizzly bears and polar bears (U. maritimus) in their winter dens (Chapter 3). I used reports (n = 2,453) of summer grizzly bear sightings collected by oilfield security officers from 1990-2014 to estimate how the spatial distribution of sightings for food-conditioned (FC) and natural food (NF) bears changed following restriction of bear access to anthropogenic food waste (to be known hereafter as "treatment") in 2001. I found that concentrations of FC bear sightings shifted toward the landfill with medium-low effect (Hedges' g = 0.41), one of the only remaining areas with available food waste, after the treatment. The treatment also decreased NF bear sighting distances to landfill with low effect (Hedges' g = 0.15). My findings suggested that grizzly bear access to food waste should be prevented to minimize negative human-bear interactions and that an active bear reporting system facilitates adaptive management of human-bear interactions. During the winter, grizzly bears and pregnant female polar bears enter dens in areas that overlap anthropogenic activity. FLIR techniques have been used to locate occupied dens by detecting heat emitted from denned bears. However, the effects of environmental conditions on den detection have not been rigorously evaluated. I used a FLIR-equipped Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) to collect images of artificial polar bear (APD) and grizzly bear (AGD) dens from horizontal and vertical perspectives from December 2016 to April 2017 to assess how odds of detection changed relative to den characteristics and environmental conditions. I used logistic regression to estimate effects of 11 weather variables on odds of detection using 291 images. I found that UAS-FLIR detected APDs two times better than AGDs, vertical perspective detected 4 times better than horizontal, and that lower air temperatures and wind speeds, and the absence of precipitation and direct solar radiation increased odds of detection for APDs. An increase of 1°C air temperature lowered the odds of detection by 12% for APD, and 8% for AGDs, but physical den characteristics such as den snow wall thickness determined detectability of AGDs. UAS-FLIR surveys should be conducted on cold, clear days, with calm winds and minimal solar radiation, early in the denning season. UAS-FLIR detectionof bear dens can be effective but should be confirmed by a secondary method.

• #### Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) entanglement in fishing gear in northern southeastern Alaska

The prevalence of non-lethal entanglements of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in fishing gear in northern southeastern Alaska (SEAK) was quantified using a scar-based method. The percentage of whales assessed to have been entangled ranged from 52% (minimal estimate) to 71% (conditional estimate) to 78% (maximal estimate). The conditional estimate is recommended because it is based solely on unambiguous scars. Eight percent of the whales in Glacier Bay/Icy Strait acquired new entanglement scars between years, although the sample size was small. Calves were less likely to have entanglement scars than older whales and males may be at higher risk than females. The temporal and spatial distribution of commercial fisheries is complex and difficult to correlate with these results. The percentage of whales with entanglement scarring is comparable to the Gulf of Maine where entanglement is a substantial management concern. Consequently, SEAK humpback whale-fisheries interactions may warrant a similar level of scrutiny.
• #### Humpback whale habitat use patterns and interactions with vessels at Point Adolphus, Southeastern Alaska

Humpback whales at Point Adolphus, in southeastern Alaska, are faced with the challenge of maximizing their energy gain from feeding and minimizing energy losses that can occur due to disturbance by vessel traffic. Point Adolphus is unique because of abundant prey resources that attract high concentrations of humpback whales during the summer and high levels of vessel activity. Using scan sampling and focal behavior observation sessions data were collected from an elevated shore station on the northern coast of Chichagof Island in 2001. Humpback whale numbers peaked during early ebb tide. Whales were distributed west during ebbing tides and east during flooding tides. During flood tides, humpback whales exhibited non-directional movement. Differences in humpback whale numbers, distribution and movement patterns in relation to tide appeared related to small-scale fronts and headland wake effects associated with Point Adolphus. Overall, humpback whale swimming speeds were faster when the number of vessels present was greater and distance to the nearest vessel was smaller. However, responses of individual whales differed. Humpback whales at Point Adolphus appear to have developed strategies to exploit predictable times to feed which are tidally-induced and practice short-term avoidance strategies that may reduce the effects of vessel traffic.

• #### Hydrovolcanism in Okmok caldera, Alaska

Hydrovolcanic activity in Okmok Caldera predominated on the crater floor during approximately the first 775 years after the caldera collapsed at 2050 yr. B.P. Interactions between rising magma and shallow water (<100 m) controlled the development of lithofacies observed in the early post-caldera deposits. The distinctive lithofacies reflect the eruptive processes active as Cone D, a composite tuff, lava flow, and cinder cone, breached the surface of a lake which once covered the caldera floor. Three phases of eruptive activity constructed Cone D: first, a subaqueous cycle; second, emergent; and finally a purely subaerial strombolian and hawaiian phase built the edifice to its current height. Radiocarbon dates provide constraining ages for a catastrophic flood that emptied the 4.3 x 10⁹ m³ caldera lake and exposed the subaqueous lithofacies. An effusion rate of 2.7 x 10⁶ m³yr⁻¹ for this early eruptive period is calculated using eruptive volumes determined from a 5-m resolution DEM, based on AirSAR data. The prehistoric effusion rate determined for Cone D is on the same order of magnitude as the calculated historic effusion rate of 5.3 x 10⁶ m³yr⁻¹ from Cone A, based on mapped extents and thicknesses of lava flows and the cone itself.
• #### I have a secret: choosing the persons to whom secrets are revealed

This Human Science research on secrecy is focused on the choices individuals make in choosing with whom they will share a secret. Specifically, this research probes the lived experience of women regarding their decision making about secret sharing and about choosing a person with whom to share a secret. In-depth, conversational interviews were conducted with five women. Narrative analysis was used to interpret the capta, resulting in three main themes. The findings show that characteristics such as trusting the potential secret keeper, predicting their possible reaction, and what benefits might be derived from self-disclosure are important for the participants in choosing to whom they will reveal secrets.
• #### "I'm a winner": the influences of group exercise on identity construction in cancer survivors

This research addresses the lived experience of individuals that have been diagnosed with cancer and who have participated in an oncology rehabilitation program as part of their treatment. Specifically, it examined the influence of the rehabilitation program in reshaping the participant's sense of identity. The study employs conversational interviewing to access the participant's understandings of the experience of the exercise program during cancer treatment, and utilizes thematic analysis in identifying three major themes emerged: 'I'm a Proactive Person', 'We're in the Same Boat', and 'There are Second Chances... You Better Make the Best of it'. Directions for future research include a study incorporating men and women, longitudinal studies, and research examining participants with a greater age range.
• #### Ice -wedge networks and "whale-hole" ponds in frozen ground

The patterns of ice-wedge networks and of whale-hole ponds in frozen ground self-organize by strong interactions between pattern elements. Mechanisms for the consistent spacing (15--25 m) and orientation between ice wedges are examined in a model encapsulating the opening of fractures under a combination of thermally-induced tensile stress, stress reduction near open fractures, and heterogeneity of frozen ground and insulating snow. Modeled networks are similar to ice-wedge networks on the Espenberg coastal plain, Bering Land-Bridge National Park, Alaska, at the level of variation among Espenberg networks, as indicated by: (i) comparisons of distributions of relative orientation and spacing between wedges; and (ii) application of nonlinear spatial forecasting to modeled and Espenberg network patterns. Spacing in modeled networks is sensitive to fracture depth and weakly sensitive to thermally-induced tensile stress and substrate strength, consistent with the narrow range of spacing between natural ice wedges in different regions. In an extended model that includes recurring fractures over thousands of winters, networks similar to natural ice-wedge networks form. The annual pattern of fractures diverges from the ice-wedge pattern, with only &frac12;--&frac34; of wedges fracturing in a single year at a steady-state reached after approximately 103 y. Short-lived sequences of extreme stress from cooling can permanently alter the spacing between and the fracture frequency of modeled ice wedges, suggesting that the existence and characteristics of existing and relic natural ice-wedge networks reflect extreme, not mean, climate conditions. Ponds on the Espenberg beach-ridge plain, approximately 2 m across and 1 m deep and surrounded by raised rings of ice-rich permafrost 2 m across and 0.5 m high, form through an interplay between localized bacterial decomposition of peat, thawing of frozen ground and frost heaving of peat in rings. Groups of hundreds of ponds at Espenberg assemble through time because new ponds are favored to form adjacent to raised rings around existing ponds. The nonlinear behavior that results from strong interactions in patterns of ice-wedge networks and in ponds suggests general limitations in the application of linear approaches to inferring the response of geomorphic systems to changes in forcing, such as climate change.