• How The Devils Went Deaf: Ethnomycology, Cuisine, And Perception Of Landscape In The Russian North

      Yamin-Pasternak, Sveta; Schwitzer, Peter (2007)
      Arctic tundra is rich mushroom country and a number of high latitude fungi species can potentially be used as food. Different regions often play host to many of the same or similar mushroom varieties. Yet, people's attitudes toward the same mushrooms---and mushrooms in general---vary widely both in temporal and geographical senses. The given work presents a study in ethnomycology---a field of inquiry concerned with human beliefs and practices associated with mushrooms, carried out in the Bering Strait area of Chukotka, Russia. Once avoided by the Native people living on the Russian and American sides of the Bering Strait, wild mushrooms are now considered to be deliciously edible among the Yupiit and Chukchi of Chukotka. In addition to its dietary contribution, mushroom gathering is also valued as a social, spiritual, and recreational activity which cultivates particular relationships between the people and the land. Prior to the influences of the mushroom-loving Russian cuisine, Yupik people in Chukotka regarded mushrooms as "devil ears," while the Chukchi largely viewed them as reindeer food unfit for human consumption. As an ethnographic study of a single commodity, this thesis examines past and present meanings of mushrooms in Chukotka, exploring local beliefs, practices, and knowledge associated with their use. It shows that the transformations in Yupik and Chukchi ideas about mushrooms are deeply connected with multiple aspects of social change taking place in Chukotka during and after the Soviet period.
    • How to disappear completely (and never be found)

      Mata, R. (2005-05)
      'How To Disappear Completely (And Never Be Found)' is a collection of six short stories that explore the theme of disappearance. The disappearance in each story works as a metaphor for the character's condition : the failure to act upon a definitive moment, the realization that everything is about to be lost, the inability to reverse an action. Another important theme that emerges is the way in which children are the unwitting victims of these characters' failures. How To Disappear Completely (And Never Be Found) uses a variety of narrative styles, from magic realism to fragmentation of stories within stories, as means of rendering the subjective reality of the characters in each story,
    • How to guide: implementing place based learning into the classroom

      Howard, Elisha (2017-12)
      New teachers to rural Alaska may have a difficult time integrating place-based education into their classroom while still using the mandated curriculum provided by their school district. Teachers may also have a hard time relating to their students because they are new to the community and culture. There are limited resources to help teachers learn how to implement place-based education into the curriculum given. Therefore, a how-to guide would be helpful to rural Alaska teachers. This how-to guide will include: Part I. Before Instruction, Part II. Adapting Instruction, Part III. Finding Resources, and Part IV. After the Lessons: Assessments.
    • Human impacts to fire regime in Interior Alaska

      DeWilde, La'ona (2003-12)
      A thorough analysis of human impacts on interior Alaska's fire regime demonstrates that human activities have effects in populated areas. Two approaches were used to determine impacts: I examined three regions with very different populations, and also one large region to analyze suppression, ignition, and vegetation interactions. The Fairbanks Region, with a large human population and an extensive road system, differs from two other regions with low human populations and few roads. In the Fairbanks Region, humans have impacted fire regime by causing more fires in certain fuel types and doubling the length of the fire season. The Fairbanks Region, with a higher level of suppression than the other two regions, has less area of land burn, even after controlling for fuel type and a higher number of human ignitions. In areas designated for high protection, there is less area burned and more human caused starts. For interior Alaska as a whole, human ignitions and suppression have only a minor effect on fire regime, and climate strongly influences the total area burned. However, in populated areas and areas designated for high protection, human ignitions account for most of the area burned, and less area bums overall due to suppression.
    • Human social dynamics multi agent system

      Nudson, Oralee N.; Nance, Kara; Hay, Brian; Newman, David (2009-05)
      Current political and economic events are placing an emphasis on energy production and consumption more than ever before. This leads to the necessity for continued research with power distribution systems and factors influencing system operation. The Human Social Dynamics Multi Agent System (HSDMAS) is a project contributing to the study of power distribution networks. By examining power failures as a string of related events while incorporating intelligent learning agents representing human factors, the HSDMAS takes a unique approach towards the understanding and prevention of large scale power failures by coupling a probabilistic model of load-dependent cascading failure, CASCADE, with a dynamic power systems model, OPA. The HSDMAS project focuses on improving and optimizing the performance of the CASCADE and OPA models individually, then develops an interactive multi- layer, multi-agent system modeling power transmission and human factors represented by utility optimization.
    • Human-bear interactions in the North Slope oilfields of Alaska (USA): characteristics of grizzly bear sightings and use of infrared for bear den detection

      Pedersen, Nils J. S.; Brinkman, Todd J.; Shideler, Richard T.; Brainerd, Scott; Lindberg, Mark (2019-05)
      Minimizing unsafe human-bear (Ursus spp.) interactions in the North Slope oilfields of Alaska (USA) requires knowledge of where they occur and methods to prevent them. My research goals were to characterize the spatial and temporal dynamics of grizzly bear (U. arctos) sightings during the non-denning season around industrial infrastructure in the North Slope oilfields over the past 25 years (Chapter 2), and to evaluate the efficacy of forward-looking infrared (FLIR) systems to detect grizzly bears and polar bears (U. maritimus) in their winter dens (Chapter 3). I used reports (n = 2,453) of summer grizzly bear sightings collected by oilfield security officers from 1990-2014 to estimate how the spatial distribution of sightings for food-conditioned (FC) and natural food (NF) bears changed following restriction of bear access to anthropogenic food waste (to be known hereafter as "treatment") in 2001. I found that concentrations of FC bear sightings shifted toward the landfill with medium-low effect (Hedges' g = 0.41), one of the only remaining areas with available food waste, after the treatment. The treatment also decreased NF bear sighting distances to landfill with low effect (Hedges' g = 0.15). My findings suggested that grizzly bear access to food waste should be prevented to minimize negative human-bear interactions and that an active bear reporting system facilitates adaptive management of human-bear interactions. During the winter, grizzly bears and pregnant female polar bears enter dens in areas that overlap anthropogenic activity. FLIR techniques have been used to locate occupied dens by detecting heat emitted from denned bears. However, the effects of environmental conditions on den detection have not been rigorously evaluated. I used a FLIR-equipped Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) to collect images of artificial polar bear (APD) and grizzly bear (AGD) dens from horizontal and vertical perspectives from December 2016 to April 2017 to assess how odds of detection changed relative to den characteristics and environmental conditions. I used logistic regression to estimate effects of 11 weather variables on odds of detection using 291 images. I found that UAS-FLIR detected APDs two times better than AGDs, vertical perspective detected 4 times better than horizontal, and that lower air temperatures and wind speeds, and the absence of precipitation and direct solar radiation increased odds of detection for APDs. An increase of 1°C air temperature lowered the odds of detection by 12% for APD, and 8% for AGDs, but physical den characteristics such as den snow wall thickness determined detectability of AGDs. UAS-FLIR surveys should be conducted on cold, clear days, with calm winds and minimal solar radiation, early in the denning season. UAS-FLIR detectionof bear dens can be effective but should be confirmed by a secondary method.
    • A humble guest: a phenomenological exploration of success and competence in rural Alaskan mental health care

      Herman, Daniel John; Gifford, Valerie M.; Whipple, Jason; David, Eric John; Swift, Joshua (2018-12)
      Objective: Rural communities in Alaska face a long list of mental health disparities that are exacerbated by the other challenging factors inherent within the rural context. Rural Alaskan mental health care providers are faced with the tremendous task of providing clinically and culturally competent care to underserved and marginalized populations, with limited personal and professional resources, all while balancing the needs of the community, their own personal boundaries, and the pressure of remaining accountable to the larger system of professional ethics and guidelines. The aim of this study was to explore, identify, and understand from the perspective of rural Alaskan providers what it means to be successful and competent mental health care providers in rural Alaska. The ultimate goal of this study was to develop a deeper understanding of what being successful and competent means from the perspective of providers who have been successful in rural Alaskan practice. Methods: This study utilized an exploratory qualitative methodology grounded in the interpretive/constructivist paradigm. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore the perspectives of 12 mental health providers who have practiced successfully and competently with rural Alaskan patients. Furthermore, a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach was applied in order to work collaboratively with participants to reach a deeper understanding of mental health care success and competence in a rural Alaskan context. Results: Ten contextual themes and 27 subthemes emerged from the interviews that illuminate the experience of success and competence as experienced by rural Alaskan mental health care providers. The implications of this study serve to deepen the current understanding of what it means to practice in rural Alaska with communities and Indigenous people. Furthermore, the findings provide a culture and context specific understanding of success and competence that will help current providers, employers, and communities to better serve rural Alaskan people. The findings contribute to the literature by promoting a salient perspective of practice that is within a context of mental health that is generally disregarded, overlooked, and rarely considered.
    • Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) entanglement in fishing gear in northern southeastern Alaska

      Neilson, Janet L. (2006-05)
      The prevalence of non-lethal entanglements of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in fishing gear in northern southeastern Alaska (SEAK) was quantified using a scar-based method. The percentage of whales assessed to have been entangled ranged from 52% (minimal estimate) to 71% (conditional estimate) to 78% (maximal estimate). The conditional estimate is recommended because it is based solely on unambiguous scars. Eight percent of the whales in Glacier Bay/Icy Strait acquired new entanglement scars between years, although the sample size was small. Calves were less likely to have entanglement scars than older whales and males may be at higher risk than females. The temporal and spatial distribution of commercial fisheries is complex and difficult to correlate with these results. The percentage of whales with entanglement scarring is comparable to the Gulf of Maine where entanglement is a substantial management concern. Consequently, SEAK humpback whale-fisheries interactions may warrant a similar level of scrutiny.
    • Humpback whale habitat use patterns and interactions with vessels at Point Adolphus, Southeastern Alaska

      Koehler, Nicole (2006-12)
      Humpback whales at Point Adolphus, in southeastern Alaska, are faced with the challenge of maximizing their energy gain from feeding and minimizing energy losses that can occur due to disturbance by vessel traffic. Point Adolphus is unique because of abundant prey resources that attract high concentrations of humpback whales during the summer and high levels of vessel activity. Using scan sampling and focal behavior observation sessions data were collected from an elevated shore station on the northern coast of Chichagof Island in 2001. Humpback whale numbers peaked during early ebb tide. Whales were distributed west during ebbing tides and east during flooding tides. During flood tides, humpback whales exhibited non-directional movement. Differences in humpback whale numbers, distribution and movement patterns in relation to tide appeared related to small-scale fronts and headland wake effects associated with Point Adolphus. Overall, humpback whale swimming speeds were faster when the number of vessels present was greater and distance to the nearest vessel was smaller. However, responses of individual whales differed. Humpback whales at Point Adolphus appear to have developed strategies to exploit predictable times to feed which are tidally-induced and practice short-term avoidance strategies that may reduce the effects of vessel traffic.
    • Humpback whales and humans: a multi-disciplinary approach to exploring the whale-watching industry in Juneau, Alaska

      Teerlink, Suzanne F.; Horstmann, Larissa; Witteveen, Briana; Mueter, Franz; DeMaster, Doug; Beaudreau, Anne (2017-05)
      A booming whale-watching industry in Juneau, Alaska is leading to complicated resource management challenges. Juneau's growing commercial whale-watching industry includes over 60 vessels and generates more than $25 million in annual revenue. As this industry has increased, so too have concerns for the welfare of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) exposed to this vessel traffic. However, we lack a fundamental understanding of long-term impacts, if any, that vessel disturbance has on humpback whales. Further, we have insufficient data on local abundance and seasonal attendance of humpback whales that are necessary to detect potential future changes. The aim of this project is to investigate Juneau area humpback whales and their interactions with whale-watching tourism to set a foundation for sustainable management of this resource and industry. To reach this objective, three studies were employed. 1) Methods for monitoring humpback whale population parameters through a citizen science program were developed and tested. Photo-identification data were collected on whale-watching platforms and compared to data from dedicated surveys to objectively evaluate the citizen science data collection methods and identify biases. 2) Physiological markers were evaluated for signs of a chronic stress response in blubber of Juneau-area humpback whales compared with humpback whales from other areas in Alaska with far less vessel traffic. The concentrations of several steroid hormones, including cortisol, were measured from biopsy samples and used to infer a relative cumulative stress response in whales exposed to Juneau's tourism fleet. 3) Community perceptions toward Juneau's whale-watching industry and humpback whale management were collated to consider stakeholder concerns and suggestions for local humpback whale management. Participants were given the opportunity to share their perspectives on humpback whale welfare, community considerations and concerns, and recent and proposed management changes that affect the whale-watching industry. I found that citizen science data can produce reliable estimates of abundance, especially with sufficient effort. I did not find evidence for increased stress response in Juneau-area humpback whales and argue that this indicates habituation in these animals. Respondents in our survey generally supported Juneau's whale-watching industry, but expressed concerns for the vessel crowding and the welfare of humpback whales in this area. This project combines multiple scientific disciplines to tackle the initial steps necessary in understanding the complex interaction between humans and humpback whales near Juneau, and in making management decisions that ensure a sustainable future for Juneau's humpback whales and the whale-watching industry that relies on them.
    • Hunters like skewness, not risk: evidence of gambling behaviors in the Alaska hunting permit lottery

      Lane, Brock; Little, Joseph; Greenberg, Joshua; Baek, Jungho (2018-05)
      In Alaska, hunting permits are distributed by traditional lottery. The absence of a preference point system means that applicants have little invested in their applications, and there are a variety of fallback hunting opportunities. Not unlike a jackpot-style state lottery, the cost to play is low relative to the potential prize winnings. These factors may cause risk-averse or risk-neutral individuals to exhibit a preference for positive skewness in their bets. Analysis in this paper is focused on four prevalent game species: moose, dall sheep, mountain goat, and bison. Pooled Ordinary Least Squares regression models were constructed to predict permit application levels as a function of various hunt characteristics, qualities, and restrictions. Permit descriptions are provided to applicants in a published document called the drawing supplement, which is the primary source of data for this study. Additional hunter-reported data is obtained from the Alaska Department of Fish and Game website. A comparison of calculated permit values and private ranch hunting opportunities validates many of the observations drawn from the models. Permit values are also used to fit a cubic model of bettor utility. Even when awarded prizes are not monetary, applicants exhibit a preference for positive skewness and aversion from risk that is typically associated with gambling.
    • Hybrid Electric Power Systems In Remote Arctic Villages: Economic And Environmental Analysis For Monitoring, Optimization, And Control

      Agrawal, Ashish N.; Wies, Richard (2006)
      The need for energy-efficient and reliable electric power in remote arctic communities of Alaska is a driving force for research in this work. Increasing oil prices, high transportation costs for fuels, and new environmental standards have forced many utilities to explore hybrid energy systems in an attempt to reduce the cost of electricity (COE). This research involves the development of a stand-alone hybrid power system model using MATLABRTM SimulinkRTM for synthesizing the power system data and performing the economic and environmental analysis of remote arctic power systems. The hybrid model consists of diesel electric generators (DEGs), a battery bank, a photovoltaic (PV) array, and wind turbine generators (WTGs). The economic part of the model is used to study the sensitivity analysis of fuel cost and the investment rate on the COE, the life cycle cost (LCC) of the system, and the payback time of the system. The environmental part of the model calculates the level of various pollutants including carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and the particulate matter (PM10). The environmental analyses part of the model also calculates the avoided cost of various pollutants. The developed model was used to study the economics and environmental impacts of a stand-alone DEG system installed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks Energy Center, the wind-diesel-battery hybrid power system installed at Wales Village, Alaska, and the PV-diesel-battery hybrid power system installed at Lime Village, Alaska. The model was also used to predict the performance of a designed PV-wind-diesel-battery system for Kongiganak Village. The results obtained from the SimulinkRTM model were in close agreement with those predicted by the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER) software developed at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).
    • Hydroclimate in Eurasia from the Arctic to the Tropics

      Majhi, Ipshita; Bhatt, Uma S.; Zhang, Xiangdong; Molders, Nicole; Walsh, John; Krishnamurthy (2018-05)
      Hydrometeorology in Eurasia connects the Arctic with lower latitudes through exchanges in moisture and teleconnections influencing climate variability. This thesis investigates the role of dams on the Kolyma basin, of precipitation and temperature change on a pristine permafrost lined basin of the Yana, and of changing snow cover over Eurasia on the Indian Monsoon. These three pieces of work illustrate different aspects of a changing climate that impact Eurasian hydrometeorological variations. The Kolyma is one of the large rivers which flows into the Arctic Ocean where there has been a large winter increase and summer decrease in flow over the 1986-2000 period. Winter months are characterized by low flow while summer months by high flow. Reservoir regulation was identified as the main cause of changes in the discharge pattern, since water is released in winter for power generation and stored in summer for flood control. The overall discharge to the Arctic Ocean has decreased for Kolyma basin, despite the increase during winter. This study documents how human activities (particularly reservoirs) impact seasonal and regional hydrological variations. The Yana Basin is a small pristine basin that has experienced minimal human impact and is ideal for investigating the role of climate variability on discharge. The precipitation discharge and temperature discharge analysis for Ubileinaya suggests that increased precipitation and higher temperatures resulted in higher discharge, but other parameters also come into play since greater precipitation does not always yield higher discharge. Overall our analysis for this station has increased our understanding of natural basins and how the climate variables like precipitation and temperature play a role. Recent increases in May-June Indian monsoon rain fall were investigated in the context of Eurasian snow cover variations since the onset of the monsoon has long been linked to Himalayan snow cover. Himalayan snow cover and depth have decreased and this study argues that this is the driver of increased rainfall during May-June, the pre-monsoon and early monsoon period. In addition, there has been an increase in snow water equivalent in Northern part of Eurasia and decrease in Southern part, suggesting that the anomalies are large-scale. Storm track analysis reveals an increase in the number of storms in northern and a decrease in southern Eurasia. The large-scale Eurasian snow increases have been shown by other studies to be linked to Arctic sea ice decline. The direct linkage between fall Arctic sea ice decline and an increase in May-June Indian monsoon rainfall is proposed in this work but the exact climate mechanism is tenuous at this point. This study is focused on understanding changing Arctic rivers and the connection of the Arctic with the Indian monsoon. Our study has shed some light into the connection between the Arctic and the tropics. This study could benefit from modeling study where we could have case study with and without sea ice to understand better how that could impact the monsoon and the hydrological cycle in the present and the future. Better understanding of the mechanism would help us take steps towards better adaptation policies.
    • Hydrologic comparisons and model simulations of subarctic watersheds containing continuous and discontinuous permafrost, Seward Peninsula, Alaska

      Carr, Anne T. (2003-05)
      Mauze Gulch (4.9 km²), and Niagara Creek (6.5 km²), located near Zougarok, Alaska and Melsing Creek (80.6 km²), and Clyde's Gulch (2 km²), located near Council, Alaska were studied to quantify the hydrologic response of these watersheds. They have been studied extensively as part of the NSF Arctic Transitions in the Land-Atmosphere System (ATLAS) study. These watersheds demonstrate a progression from a continental subarctic to a marine moderated subarctic environment. Each contains varying proportions of permafrost. Mauze Gulch and Niagara Creek are underlain by continuous, warm, thin permafrost (1̃5-50m thick). Melsing Creek and Clyde's Gulch are underlain by discontinuous permafrost. The Swedish HBV-96 model was applied to these watersheds. The model requires minimal input of meteorological data (temperature and precipitation) to generate hydrographs. Examining the basic stream hydrology showed that differences in hydrologic response based on permafrost distribution can be identified. By changing parameters, such as field capacity and the percolation to the groundwater, it is possible to reflect physical differences between watersheds using the model. Results of this study were compared with previously studied basins in Alaska. Comparisons showed that model parameters can be used to distinguish differences in hydrologic response in basins with varying amounts of permafrost.
    • Hydrologic Controls On Carbon Cycling In Alaskan Coastal Temperate Rainforest Soils

      D'Amore, David V.; David, Valentine, (2011)
      The northern perhumid North American Pacific coastal temperate rainforest (NCTR) extends along the coastal margin of British Columbia and southeast Alaska and has some of the densest carbon stocks in the world. Northern temperate ecosystems such as the NCTR play an important role in the global balance of carbon flows between atmospheric and terrestrial pools. However, there is little information on key components of the forest carbon budget in this region. Specifically, the large pool of soluble carbon that is transferred from soils via streamwater as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) certainly plays a role in the total carbon balance in wet forests such as the NCTR. In order to address this information gap, I applied the concept of hydropedology to define functional landscape units based on soil type to quantify soil carbon fluxes and apply these estimates to a conceptual model for determining the carbon balance in three NCTR watersheds. The strong hydrologic gradient among ecosystems served as a template for constructing a conceptual design and approach for constraining carbon budget estimates in the watersheds. Replicated hydropedologic units were identified in three classes: sloping bogs, forested wetlands, and uplands. Estimates of annual soil respiration and DOC fluxes from the hydropedologic types were obtained through seasonal measurements combined with temperature-dependent models. Soil respiration fluxes varied significantly across the hydrologic gradient where soil respiration was 78, 178, and 235 g CO2 m -2 y-1 in sloping bogs, forested wetlands and uplands respectively. Average DOC flux was 7.7, 30.3, to 33.0 g C m-2 y-1 in sloping bog, forested wetland, and upland sites respectively. Estimates of carbon efflux from the terrestrial ecosystem was combined with values of net primary productivity from remote sensing to determine net ecosystem production (NEP). The average NEP estimated in three NCTR watersheds was 2.0 +/- 0.8 Mg C ha-1. Carbon loss as DOC was 10--30% of the total carbon flux from the watersheds confirming the importance of this vector of carbon loss in the NCTR. The watershed estimates indicate that forests of the NCTR serve as a carbon sinks consistent with the average worldwide rate of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems.
    • Hydrothermal history of the Long Valley Caldera, California: Life after collapse

      Mcconnell, Vicki Sue (1995)
      Drilling of the Long Valley Exploratory Well (LVEW) on the resurgent dome in the 760 ka Long Valley Caldera opened a window to view the geologic history of the central caldera. Stratigraphic relationships indicate piston/cylinder (Valles-type) collapse for this caldera, and a resurgent structure intimately linked to post-caldera-collapse rhyolitic intrusions. Samples recovered from this and other wells proximal to the resurgent dome were characterized through isotope microanalytical techniques, petrographic and microprobe study, and analysis of fluid inclusions within alteration minerals. This work revealed the complexity of primary magmatic and secondary hydrothermal activity involved in the formation of a resurgent dome. Measurements of the $\rm\delta\sp{18}O$ composition of silicate components forming the intracaldera lithologies display disequilibrium within samples as a result of variable exchange with hydrothermal fluids. A maximum calculated temperature of $350\sp\circ\rm C$ at 1800 m depth in LVEW indicates paleohydrothermal temperatures exceeded the known present-day hydrothermal conditions by more than $100\sp\circ\rm C.$ Contouring of $\rm\delta\sp{18}O$ values from wells on a line crossing the caldera define a pattern of convective flow with upwelling beneath the resurgent dome. Although surface volcanism at the LVEW site ended about 650 ka, laser probe $\rm\sp{40}Ar/\sp{39}Ar$ microanalysis of samples from sill-like intrusions into the intracaldera ignimbrite reveals intrusive events at ${\sim}650$ ka, ${\sim}450$ ka, and ${\sim}350$ ka. Sanidine phenocrysts from the Bishop Tuff at 1772 and 1792 m depths and whole rock samples of the Mesozoic metavolcanic basement rocks at 1957 m depth record times of disturbance by hydrothermal pulses at ${\sim}530$ ka and ${\sim}350$ ka. Repeated emplacement of intrusions into the centrally located caldera ignimbrite was a primary process of resurgence. In turn, the feeders for the intrusions and the intrusions themselves supplied heat for resurgent-dome-centered hydrothermal flow. After approximately 300 ka, all activity shut off in the central caldera only to resume at ${\sim}40$ ka in response to renewed Holocene volcanic activity in the West Moat. Geophysical evidence of recent intrusive activity beneath the resurgent dome indicates this shallow magma emplacement mechanism is not totally extinct in the central caldera. Most likely a new cycle of volcanism and hydrothermal circulation is underway as the caldera matures.
    • Hydrovolcanism in Okmok caldera, Alaska

      Almberg, Leslie Deanne (2003-12)
      Hydrovolcanic activity in Okmok Caldera predominated on the crater floor during approximately the first 775 years after the caldera collapsed at 2050 yr. B.P. Interactions between rising magma and shallow water (<100 m) controlled the development of lithofacies observed in the early post-caldera deposits. The distinctive lithofacies reflect the eruptive processes active as Cone D, a composite tuff, lava flow, and cinder cone, breached the surface of a lake which once covered the caldera floor. Three phases of eruptive activity constructed Cone D: first, a subaqueous cycle; second, emergent; and finally a purely subaerial strombolian and hawaiian phase built the edifice to its current height. Radiocarbon dates provide constraining ages for a catastrophic flood that emptied the 4.3 x 10⁹ m³ caldera lake and exposed the subaqueous lithofacies. An effusion rate of 2.7 x 10⁶ m³yr⁻¹ for this early eruptive period is calculated using eruptive volumes determined from a 5-m resolution DEM, based on AirSAR data. The prehistoric effusion rate determined for Cone D is on the same order of magnitude as the calculated historic effusion rate of 5.3 x 10⁶ m³yr⁻¹ from Cone A, based on mapped extents and thicknesses of lava flows and the cone itself.
    • I have a secret: choosing the persons to whom secrets are revealed

      Ahmadova, Natavan (2006-05)
      This Human Science research on secrecy is focused on the choices individuals make in choosing with whom they will share a secret. Specifically, this research probes the lived experience of women regarding their decision making about secret sharing and about choosing a person with whom to share a secret. In-depth, conversational interviews were conducted with five women. Narrative analysis was used to interpret the capta, resulting in three main themes. The findings show that characteristics such as trusting the potential secret keeper, predicting their possible reaction, and what benefits might be derived from self-disclosure are important for the participants in choosing to whom they will reveal secrets.
    • "I'm a winner": the influences of group exercise on identity construction in cancer survivors

      Schirack, Marsha A.; Arundale, Robert; Cooper, Christine; Skewes, Monica (2010-05)
      This research addresses the lived experience of individuals that have been diagnosed with cancer and who have participated in an oncology rehabilitation program as part of their treatment. Specifically, it examined the influence of the rehabilitation program in reshaping the participant's sense of identity. The study employs conversational interviewing to access the participant's understandings of the experience of the exercise program during cancer treatment, and utilizes thematic analysis in identifying three major themes emerged: 'I'm a Proactive Person', 'We're in the Same Boat', and 'There are Second Chances... You Better Make the Best of it'. Directions for future research include a study incorporating men and women, longitudinal studies, and research examining participants with a greater age range.
    • Ice -wedge networks and "whale-hole" ponds in frozen ground

      Plug, Lawrence J.; Hopkins, David M. (2000)
      The patterns of ice-wedge networks and of whale-hole ponds in frozen ground self-organize by strong interactions between pattern elements. Mechanisms for the consistent spacing (15--25 m) and orientation between ice wedges are examined in a model encapsulating the opening of fractures under a combination of thermally-induced tensile stress, stress reduction near open fractures, and heterogeneity of frozen ground and insulating snow. Modeled networks are similar to ice-wedge networks on the Espenberg coastal plain, Bering Land-Bridge National Park, Alaska, at the level of variation among Espenberg networks, as indicated by: (i) comparisons of distributions of relative orientation and spacing between wedges; and (ii) application of nonlinear spatial forecasting to modeled and Espenberg network patterns. Spacing in modeled networks is sensitive to fracture depth and weakly sensitive to thermally-induced tensile stress and substrate strength, consistent with the narrow range of spacing between natural ice wedges in different regions. In an extended model that includes recurring fractures over thousands of winters, networks similar to natural ice-wedge networks form. The annual pattern of fractures diverges from the ice-wedge pattern, with only &frac12;--&frac34; of wedges fracturing in a single year at a steady-state reached after approximately 103 y. Short-lived sequences of extreme stress from cooling can permanently alter the spacing between and the fracture frequency of modeled ice wedges, suggesting that the existence and characteristics of existing and relic natural ice-wedge networks reflect extreme, not mean, climate conditions. Ponds on the Espenberg beach-ridge plain, approximately 2 m across and 1 m deep and surrounded by raised rings of ice-rich permafrost 2 m across and 0.5 m high, form through an interplay between localized bacterial decomposition of peat, thawing of frozen ground and frost heaving of peat in rings. Groups of hundreds of ponds at Espenberg assemble through time because new ponds are favored to form adjacent to raised rings around existing ponds. The nonlinear behavior that results from strong interactions in patterns of ice-wedge networks and in ponds suggests general limitations in the application of linear approaches to inferring the response of geomorphic systems to changes in forcing, such as climate change.