• Hot flow anomalies at earth's bow shock and their magnetospheric-ionospheric signatures

      Chu, Christina Seiman; Zhang, Hui; Otto, Antonius; Ng, Chung-Sang; Sibeck, David (2017-08)
      Hot flow anomalies (HFAs) are typically observed upstream of bow shocks. They are characterized by a significant increase in particle temperature and substantial flow deflection from the solar wind flow direction coinciding with a decrease in density. HFAs are important to study and understand because they may play an important role in solar wind-magnetosphere coupling. They may drive magnetopause motion, boundary waves, and flux transfer events. They can excite ultra low frequency waves in the magnetosphere, drive magnetic impulse events in the ionosphere, and trigger aurora brightening or dimming. Studying HFAs will aid in the understanding of fundamental processes that operate throughout the heliosphere such as particle energization and shocks. This dissertation presents statistical and case studies of hot flow anomalies identified in Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions During Substorms (THEMIS) satellite data from 2007-2009. The characteristics and occurrence of HFAs, their dependence on solar wind/interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions and location, and their magnetospheric-ionospheric signatures, have been investigated using in-situ spacecraft observations and ground based observations. THEMIS observations show that HFAs span a wide range of magnetic local times (MLTs) from approximately 7 to 16.5 MLT. HFAs were observed up to 6.3 Earth radii (RE) upstream from the bow shock. It has been found that the HFA occurrence rate depends on solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions as well as distance from the bow shock. HFA occurrence decreases with distance upstream from the bow shock. HFAs are more prevalent when there is an approximately radial interplanetary magnetic field. No HFAs were observed when the Mach number was less than 5, suggesting there is a minimum threshold Mach number for HFAs to form. HFAs occur most preferentially for solar wind speeds from 550-600 km/s. Multiple THEMIS spacecraft observations of the same HFA provide an excellent opportunity to perform a spatial and temporal analysis of an HFA. The leading edge, tangential discontinuity inside the HFA, and trailing shock boundaries for the event were identified. The boundaries' orientations and motion through space were characterized. The HFA expansion against the solar wind was 283 km/s. The spatial structure of the HFA was deduced from multiple spacecraft observations. The HFA is thicker closer to the bow shock. The magnetospheric-ionospheric signatures of an HFA have been investigated using in-situ spacecraft observations and ground based observations. Magnetic field perturbations were observed by three GOES spacecraft at geostationary orbit and high-latitude ground magnetometers in both hemispheres. Observations from magnetometers located at different MLTs showed that the perturbation propagates tailward at 0.32°/s or 9 km/s (1.27°/s or 21 km/s) for the northern (southern) hemisphere, which is consistent with an HFA propagating tailward along the dawn flank. SuperDARN radar observations showed a change in plasma velocity shortly after the HFA was observed by THEMIS.
    • Hotspots and behavioral patterns of southern Alaska resident killer whales (Orcinus orca)

      Olsen, Daniel W.; Atkinson, Shannon; Mueter, Franz; Matkin, Craig (2017-05)
      The resident killer whale (Orcinus orca) is a genetically and behaviorally distinct ecotype of killer whale that feeds primarily on Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). Long-term monitoring over 30 years of study has enabled detailed investigation into pod-specific, seasonal, and compositional differences in space use and behavior. To investigate use of habitat, 33 resident killer whales representing 14 pods in the northern Gulf of Alaska were tagged with satellite transmitters during all years from 2006 to 2014, and transmissions were received during the months of June to January. Core use areas were identified through utilization distributions using a biased Brownian Bridge movement model. Tagging results indicate different core use areas between pods, which could be due to cultural transmission within matrilineal groups. To investigate differences in behavior, 1337 hours of behavioral data were collected from 2006 to 2015. For these observations, chi squared tests were used to determine significant differences in behavior budgets between seasons, regions, haplotypes, and numbers of pods. The presence of 'rarely sighted' pods (sighted in less than 5% of encounters) had a large influence on the frequency of social behavior, which increased from 18.5% without their presence to 31.4% with it (X² = 17.3, df = 1, P < 0.001). Frequency of social behavior was also significantly affected by the number of pods present (X² = 72.8, df = 3,P < 0.001), and increased from 4.7% to 31.2% with one pod to more than four pods present. Strong seasonal and pod-specific differences were found in core use areas, possibly driven by the availability of seasonal salmon migration. Social behavior, and to some extent foraging and resting behaviors, appear to be driven by group composition and numbers of pods throughout the spring to fall seasons. Overall, these findings help clarify spatial and behavioral patterns observed for resident killer whales.
    • The hound at the end of the road: stories

      Woolley, Caitlin E.; Farmer, Daryl; Mellen, Kyle; Schell, Jennifer (2015-05)
      The Hound at the End of the Road is a collection of fictional stories that examines loneliness, isolation, and loss through a lens that is by turns magical and horrific. The stylistic choices in these stories are magic and lyricism, used to amplify the powerful imaginations of their characters to present a world that is as familiar as it is unfamiliar. A father deals with his teenage daughter's transformation into a beast; two children get lost in the woods on a vital winter hunt; and a woman is willing to endure anything to keep her late-in-life pregnancy. The stories choices in this thesis are meant to make the wonderful out of the ordinary. They illuminate the strange to remind us that being human means being fallible, and that being human is often mystifying and rewarding.
    • How can participatory social network analysis contribute to community-led natural resources management?: a case study from Bua Province, Fiji Islands

      McDavid, Brook. M.; Todd, Susan; Vance-Borland, Ken; Gasbarro, Anthony (2015-12)
      Adaptive co-management of natural resources requires a variety of stakeholders across different scales and sectors to communicate and collaborate effectively. Social network theory recognizes that stakeholders interact with each other through networks and that various network characteristics affect the way in which they function. Social relationships can be visualized through network mapping and their patterns systematically analyzed in a process known as social network analysis (SNA). Participatory SNA allows members of the network to be involved in the mapping or analysis process. Participants can then apply their knowledge of these relationships to build, improve, or better utilize their connections to increase desired outcomes. These actions are referred to as network interventions or network weaving. In Bua Province in the Fiji Islands, the Wildlife Conservation Society and other partners are facilitating "ridge to reef" ecosystem-based management planning and are striving to build local capacity for natural resources governance and conservation. This study seeks to determine how participatory SNA might be used as a tool for enhancing community-led natural resources management. First it was necessary to develop methods for conducting participatory SNA research with rural Fijian communities. Network data was then gathered from eight Districts and fifty villages. Social network maps were presented back to community stakeholders for their interpretation and to elicit their ideas for improving their resource governance networks. SNA was used to characterize and map patterns of information exchange and collaboration among stakeholders involved in natural resource management in Bua. Even without complete network data, several patterns emerged. These included: 1) Traditional decision-making networks that were more cohesive than information exchange networks, reflecting the importance of social hierarchies for decision making within rural Fijian communities and the need for resource governance to link into these structures. 2) All the District-level networks had a number of fragmented groups and more ties within than between communities. This highlights the challenge of getting communities to effectively collaborate at the District-level due to issues like distance between villages, conflicts, barriers to communication (e.g. no phone/internet), and clan-based (mataqali) land-ownership system. These issues suggest the need for innovative actions to help bridge these gaps and present an opportunity for network weaving. 3) Actor position analyses (indegree and outdegree) provided a list of opinion leaders and people who are good at reaching out to others. These individuals may be good candidates to receive network weaver trainings. These measures also highlighted individuals and groups that communities would like to work with in the future and who facilitators can help to connect. Overall, these results indicate that SNA can be a valuable tool for better understanding relationships between actors involved in collaborative natural resource management, but its use in rural settings can be limited by the challenges of collecting data in remote villages. The participatory process of evaluating networks with participants was beneficial since it helped communities recognize and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of their resource governance networks. This resulted in a list of recommended capacity-building activities (such as alternative livelihoods projects and special trainings for traditional leaders) based on their self-identified needs. However, the real potential benefits of this process will not be realized until the study results are applied, until network weaving and capacity building actually take place, and the process is evaluated to determine if any positive outcomes resulted for communities or conservation. This will require considerable commitment on the part of a network coordinator(s) to impart network concepts, facilitate network weaving activities, and in due course empower a transformation from the status quo to self-organizing, action-oriented conservation networks.
    • How chemical differences in dissolved organic matter relate to vegetation

      Seelen, Sarah Jean (2004-12)
      The purpose of this study was to better understand the link between dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soil leachate and different vegetation attributes. Soil cores were collected from the Caribou Poker Creeks Research Watershed (CPCRW) and subjected to a laboratory leaching procedure. The leachates were then subjected to a number of analytical tests, including pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (py-GC/MS). Py-GC/MS is a 'molecular fingerprinting' technique that was used to help determine similarities and differences in organic matter leached from soils with different vegetation attributes. Numerous statistical tests were performed including Student-t, analysis of variance, principal components analysis, and partial least squares regression (PLS). Results from Student-t tests indicated that local vegetation plays an important role in the character of the DOM in soil leachate. Additionally, a principal components test revealed relationships between soil leachates and vegetation attributes. A prediction model was created using PLS to predict components of leachate DOM based on vegetation attributes. This model, while in its early development, was able to predict 70% of the total molecular fingerprint of leachate DOM based on cover vegetation.
    • How do general education teachers (K-5th grade) in the Mat-Su Borough School District teach handwriting skills for automaticity

      Williams, Rebecca W.; Green, Carie; Holland, Sean; Cook, Lorri (2020-05)
      In 2012 the State of Alaska adopted English Language Arts Standards with no handwriting standards beyond the first grade. This change does not display an understanding of how students develop handwriting skills, nor the importance of a student's ability to write with automaticity. The stage many students make the greatest gains in handwriting fluency is at the intermediate level (grades 3-5). This study surveyed kindergarten through fifth grade general education teachers in the Matanuska-Susitna Borough School District to learn if handwriting skills are being taught and what instructional methods are being used to develop automaticity. This study found that teachers in the Mat-Su Borough School District think handwriting instruction is important but, there are no common standards, curriculum, or materials. In addition, only 24% of the teachers are using the best instructional methods to develop handwriting automaticity. In the Mat-Su Borough School District the importance of handwriting instruction seems to be overlooked. The district needs to provide additional professional development on handwriting instruction, develop vertically aligned standards for handwriting, and provide resources for schools to purchase research-based materials.
    • How drama in Kodiak motivated my teaching

      Fogle, Tamie Everton (2004-08)
      In order to help myself overcome several frustrations which had arisen in my secondary classroom, I began looking for teaching techniques that would motivate both myself and my students. The Kodiak Island Borough School District Inservice trainings led me to the use of drama as an instructional tool. In order to understand how drama and theatre differed, I began my research with a phenomenological study of the directorial staff for the play Peter Pan. That research showed me that I needed more information about how the drama techniques could be applied. Therefore, I conducted semi-structured depth interviews with seven teachers who had also attended the training in order to compare how they had utilized drama techniques in their classrooms. I discovered an amazing variety in the types of drama these teachers used as well as the ways that they applied their knowledge to their teaching practices.
    • How much does a man cost? A dirty, dull, and dangerous application

      Hatfield, Rebecca A.; Taylor, Karen; DeCaro, Peter; Carlson, Cameron (2017-05)
      This study illuminates the many abilities of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). One area of importance includes the UAV's capability to assist in the development, implementation, and execution of crisis management. This research focuses on UAV uses in pre and post crisis planning and accomplishments. The accompaniment of unmanned vehicles with base teams can make crisis management plans more reliable for the general public and teams faced with tasks such as search and rescue and firefighting. In the fight for mass acceptance of UAV integration, knowledge and attitude inventories were collected and analyzed. Methodology includes mixed method research collected by interviews and questionnaires available to experts and ground teams in the UAV fields, mining industry, firefighting and police force career field, and general city planning crisis management members. This information was compiled to assist professionals in creation of general guidelines and recommendations for how to utilize UAVs in crisis management planning and implementation as well as integration of UAVs into the educational system. The results from this study show the benefits and disadvantages of strategically giving UAVs a role in the construction and implementation of crisis management plans and other areas of interest. The results also show that the general public is lacking information and education on the abilities of UAVs. This education gap shows a correlation with negative attitudes towards UAVs. Educational programs to teach the public benefits of UAV integration should be implemented.
    • How oil prices impact the labor market: empirical evidence from Alaska

      Bocklet, Johanna; Baek, Jungho; Wright, Christopher; Little, Joseph (2016-05)
      The present paper uses a linear autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach in order to test for symmetric effects of oil price changes on employment in the oil-industry and employment in non-oil industries in Alaska. The ARDL model allows for the examination of short and long-run effects of employment by changes in crude oil prices, interest rate and personal income. Using quarterly data over the period 1987-2015, the long run results show strong positive correlation of crude oil prices and oil-industry employment and negative correlation between crude oil prices and employment in the non-oil industry in Alaska, supporting the sectoral shift hypothesis. Furthermore, interest rates significantly impact employment in both economic sectors, in the short and in the long run. While a higher interest rate leads to job creation in the oil-industry, it causes job destruction in the non-oil industry.
    • How The Devils Went Deaf: Ethnomycology, Cuisine, And Perception Of Landscape In The Russian North

      Yamin-Pasternak, Sveta; Schwitzer, Peter (2007)
      Arctic tundra is rich mushroom country and a number of high latitude fungi species can potentially be used as food. Different regions often play host to many of the same or similar mushroom varieties. Yet, people's attitudes toward the same mushrooms---and mushrooms in general---vary widely both in temporal and geographical senses. The given work presents a study in ethnomycology---a field of inquiry concerned with human beliefs and practices associated with mushrooms, carried out in the Bering Strait area of Chukotka, Russia. Once avoided by the Native people living on the Russian and American sides of the Bering Strait, wild mushrooms are now considered to be deliciously edible among the Yupiit and Chukchi of Chukotka. In addition to its dietary contribution, mushroom gathering is also valued as a social, spiritual, and recreational activity which cultivates particular relationships between the people and the land. Prior to the influences of the mushroom-loving Russian cuisine, Yupik people in Chukotka regarded mushrooms as "devil ears," while the Chukchi largely viewed them as reindeer food unfit for human consumption. As an ethnographic study of a single commodity, this thesis examines past and present meanings of mushrooms in Chukotka, exploring local beliefs, practices, and knowledge associated with their use. It shows that the transformations in Yupik and Chukchi ideas about mushrooms are deeply connected with multiple aspects of social change taking place in Chukotka during and after the Soviet period.
    • How to disappear completely (and never be found)

      Mata, R. (2005-05)
      'How To Disappear Completely (And Never Be Found)' is a collection of six short stories that explore the theme of disappearance. The disappearance in each story works as a metaphor for the character's condition : the failure to act upon a definitive moment, the realization that everything is about to be lost, the inability to reverse an action. Another important theme that emerges is the way in which children are the unwitting victims of these characters' failures. How To Disappear Completely (And Never Be Found) uses a variety of narrative styles, from magic realism to fragmentation of stories within stories, as means of rendering the subjective reality of the characters in each story,
    • How to guide: implementing place based learning into the classroom

      Howard, Elisha (2017-12)
      New teachers to rural Alaska may have a difficult time integrating place-based education into their classroom while still using the mandated curriculum provided by their school district. Teachers may also have a hard time relating to their students because they are new to the community and culture. There are limited resources to help teachers learn how to implement place-based education into the curriculum given. Therefore, a how-to guide would be helpful to rural Alaska teachers. This how-to guide will include: Part I. Before Instruction, Part II. Adapting Instruction, Part III. Finding Resources, and Part IV. After the Lessons: Assessments.
    • Human and ecological responses to the Northern White River Ash eruption

      Smith, Holly A.; Reuther, Joshua; Bigelow, Nancy; Clark, Jamie (2020-05)
      The White River Ash northern lobe (WRAn) volcanic eruption deposited a blanket of tephra (volcanic ash) along the Yukon-Alaska border ~1625 cal BP (calibrated years before present). Currently, there has been limited investigation into the effect of this natural disaster on the environment and local hunter-gatherer populations. This research seeks to analyze and explore the potential ecological and cultural responses to the WRAn event. To address this question, paired archaeological and palynological studies bracketing the WRAn were conducted. Excavations at the Forty Mile/Ch'ëdä Dëk Territorial Historic Site in the Yukon (LcVn-2) revealed a multicomponent site including cultural deposits dating to approximately 1500 and 2000 years ago, with a band of WRAn ash separating them. The focus of the project was to identify similarities and differences in artifactual and faunal assemblages and feature types between cultural occupations pre- and post-tephra deposition that could indicate variations in site use, hunting practices, and tool manufacture. A decadal-scale pollen analysis spanning ~80 years before and after the WRAn tephra fall was conducted on a lake core collected near Eagle, Alaska, to explore the potential environmental impacts of the tephra deposition on the landscape. Results from this project suggest that the WRAn eruption did not create a prolonged negative environmental or cultural impact. At the study location, which experienced at least ~1 cm of tephra deposition, there is a prompt reoccupation of the Forty Mile Site, with multiple subsequent occupations, displaying a resilient population that was able to adapt to the fluctuating environmental surroundings. Similarly, the pollen displays a period of ~5 years of reduced influx and productivity, followed by spikes of abundance before returning to pre-eruptive comparable levels ~35 years after the WRAn. In this thesis, I argue that no hiatus in cultural occupation occurs following the WRAn tephra deposition and the archaeological assemblage displays characteristics in accordance with general cultural transitions occurring in southwestern Yukon and interior Alaskan archaeology.
    • Human impacts to fire regime in Interior Alaska

      DeWilde, La'ona (2003-12)
      A thorough analysis of human impacts on interior Alaska's fire regime demonstrates that human activities have effects in populated areas. Two approaches were used to determine impacts: I examined three regions with very different populations, and also one large region to analyze suppression, ignition, and vegetation interactions. The Fairbanks Region, with a large human population and an extensive road system, differs from two other regions with low human populations and few roads. In the Fairbanks Region, humans have impacted fire regime by causing more fires in certain fuel types and doubling the length of the fire season. The Fairbanks Region, with a higher level of suppression than the other two regions, has less area of land burn, even after controlling for fuel type and a higher number of human ignitions. In areas designated for high protection, there is less area burned and more human caused starts. For interior Alaska as a whole, human ignitions and suppression have only a minor effect on fire regime, and climate strongly influences the total area burned. However, in populated areas and areas designated for high protection, human ignitions account for most of the area burned, and less area bums overall due to suppression.
    • Human social dynamics multi agent system

      Nudson, Oralee N.; Nance, Kara; Hay, Brian; Newman, David (2009-05)
      Current political and economic events are placing an emphasis on energy production and consumption more than ever before. This leads to the necessity for continued research with power distribution systems and factors influencing system operation. The Human Social Dynamics Multi Agent System (HSDMAS) is a project contributing to the study of power distribution networks. By examining power failures as a string of related events while incorporating intelligent learning agents representing human factors, the HSDMAS takes a unique approach towards the understanding and prevention of large scale power failures by coupling a probabilistic model of load-dependent cascading failure, CASCADE, with a dynamic power systems model, OPA. The HSDMAS project focuses on improving and optimizing the performance of the CASCADE and OPA models individually, then develops an interactive multi- layer, multi-agent system modeling power transmission and human factors represented by utility optimization.
    • Human well-being in recreation: an investigation of the expectancy-valence theory

      Harrington, Andrew M. (2011-05)
      Over the past 50 years, numerous approaches exploring the recreation experience have offered a multitude of concepts and terminology, resulting in a debate over which best represent recreation behavior. This study adopts one of these approaches, the motivational approach, and explores its underpinning theory, expectancy-valence; addresses its limitations presented in the literature; and investigates the potential for the integration with other approaches. A modified analytic induction methodology was applied to address five hypotheses developed to address study questions. Longitudinal, qualitative data were collected through two separate interviews one week apart with 16 individuals that captured their thoughts regarding their recreation activities. A codebook was developed and a kappa statistic revealed an acceptable (K = 0.61 to 0.80) level of inter-coder reliability. Codes were developed based on constructs from the expectancy-valence framework prior to examining the transcripts. Evidence of these codes in the transcripts provided support for the theory. Consistent with modified analytic induction, some hypotheses were confirmed, while one was modified when evidence to the contrary was found. Further examination of the data revealed the potential for integration of other approaches.
    • Human-bear interactions in the North Slope oilfields of Alaska (USA): characteristics of grizzly bear sightings and use of infrared for bear den detection

      Pedersen, Nils J. S.; Brinkman, Todd J.; Shideler, Richard T.; Brainerd, Scott; Lindberg, Mark (2019-05)
      Minimizing unsafe human-bear (Ursus spp.) interactions in the North Slope oilfields of Alaska (USA) requires knowledge of where they occur and methods to prevent them. My research goals were to characterize the spatial and temporal dynamics of grizzly bear (U. arctos) sightings during the non-denning season around industrial infrastructure in the North Slope oilfields over the past 25 years (Chapter 2), and to evaluate the efficacy of forward-looking infrared (FLIR) systems to detect grizzly bears and polar bears (U. maritimus) in their winter dens (Chapter 3). I used reports (n = 2,453) of summer grizzly bear sightings collected by oilfield security officers from 1990-2014 to estimate how the spatial distribution of sightings for food-conditioned (FC) and natural food (NF) bears changed following restriction of bear access to anthropogenic food waste (to be known hereafter as "treatment") in 2001. I found that concentrations of FC bear sightings shifted toward the landfill with medium-low effect (Hedges' g = 0.41), one of the only remaining areas with available food waste, after the treatment. The treatment also decreased NF bear sighting distances to landfill with low effect (Hedges' g = 0.15). My findings suggested that grizzly bear access to food waste should be prevented to minimize negative human-bear interactions and that an active bear reporting system facilitates adaptive management of human-bear interactions. During the winter, grizzly bears and pregnant female polar bears enter dens in areas that overlap anthropogenic activity. FLIR techniques have been used to locate occupied dens by detecting heat emitted from denned bears. However, the effects of environmental conditions on den detection have not been rigorously evaluated. I used a FLIR-equipped Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) to collect images of artificial polar bear (APD) and grizzly bear (AGD) dens from horizontal and vertical perspectives from December 2016 to April 2017 to assess how odds of detection changed relative to den characteristics and environmental conditions. I used logistic regression to estimate effects of 11 weather variables on odds of detection using 291 images. I found that UAS-FLIR detected APDs two times better than AGDs, vertical perspective detected 4 times better than horizontal, and that lower air temperatures and wind speeds, and the absence of precipitation and direct solar radiation increased odds of detection for APDs. An increase of 1°C air temperature lowered the odds of detection by 12% for APD, and 8% for AGDs, but physical den characteristics such as den snow wall thickness determined detectability of AGDs. UAS-FLIR surveys should be conducted on cold, clear days, with calm winds and minimal solar radiation, early in the denning season. UAS-FLIR detectionof bear dens can be effective but should be confirmed by a secondary method.
    • A humble guest: a phenomenological exploration of success and competence in rural Alaskan mental health care

      Herman, Daniel John; Gifford, Valerie M.; Whipple, Jason; David, Eric John; Swift, Joshua (2018-12)
      Objective: Rural communities in Alaska face a long list of mental health disparities that are exacerbated by the other challenging factors inherent within the rural context. Rural Alaskan mental health care providers are faced with the tremendous task of providing clinically and culturally competent care to underserved and marginalized populations, with limited personal and professional resources, all while balancing the needs of the community, their own personal boundaries, and the pressure of remaining accountable to the larger system of professional ethics and guidelines. The aim of this study was to explore, identify, and understand from the perspective of rural Alaskan providers what it means to be successful and competent mental health care providers in rural Alaska. The ultimate goal of this study was to develop a deeper understanding of what being successful and competent means from the perspective of providers who have been successful in rural Alaskan practice. Methods: This study utilized an exploratory qualitative methodology grounded in the interpretive/constructivist paradigm. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore the perspectives of 12 mental health providers who have practiced successfully and competently with rural Alaskan patients. Furthermore, a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach was applied in order to work collaboratively with participants to reach a deeper understanding of mental health care success and competence in a rural Alaskan context. Results: Ten contextual themes and 27 subthemes emerged from the interviews that illuminate the experience of success and competence as experienced by rural Alaskan mental health care providers. The implications of this study serve to deepen the current understanding of what it means to practice in rural Alaska with communities and Indigenous people. Furthermore, the findings provide a culture and context specific understanding of success and competence that will help current providers, employers, and communities to better serve rural Alaskan people. The findings contribute to the literature by promoting a salient perspective of practice that is within a context of mental health that is generally disregarded, overlooked, and rarely considered.
    • Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) entanglement in fishing gear in northern southeastern Alaska

      Neilson, Janet L. (2006-05)
      The prevalence of non-lethal entanglements of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in fishing gear in northern southeastern Alaska (SEAK) was quantified using a scar-based method. The percentage of whales assessed to have been entangled ranged from 52% (minimal estimate) to 71% (conditional estimate) to 78% (maximal estimate). The conditional estimate is recommended because it is based solely on unambiguous scars. Eight percent of the whales in Glacier Bay/Icy Strait acquired new entanglement scars between years, although the sample size was small. Calves were less likely to have entanglement scars than older whales and males may be at higher risk than females. The temporal and spatial distribution of commercial fisheries is complex and difficult to correlate with these results. The percentage of whales with entanglement scarring is comparable to the Gulf of Maine where entanglement is a substantial management concern. Consequently, SEAK humpback whale-fisheries interactions may warrant a similar level of scrutiny.