• Ion dynamics in auroral potential structures and formation of ion conic distribution

      Yang, Wei-hong (1981-12)
      This thesis is concerned with the problem of how the positive ions are energized by the two-dimensional potential structures along auroral field lines; these auroral potential structures are known to be responsible for accelerating electrons into the ionosphere to produce discrete auroras. A systematic numerical study of the test ion dynamics in auroral potential structures, either V-shaped or S-shaped, has been carried out. Transverse ion accelerations occur if the width of the auroral potential structure (Lx ≤ ρi). This result shows that the conic distribution of upstreaming ions observed on auroral field lines can be generated by the same potential structures which produce the thin auroral arcs (Lx ≤ ρi). This transverse acceleration mechanism operates more effectively on heavier ions, resulting in O+ ions more energetic than H+ ions as indicated by observations.
    • Ionospheric correction of interferometric SAR data with application to the cryospheric sciences

      Liao, Heming; Meyer, Franz J.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Tape, Carl; Watkins, Brenton (2018-08)
      The ionosphere has been identified as an important error source for spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data and SAR Interferometry (InSAR), especially for low frequency SAR missions, operating, e.g., at L-band or P-band. Developing effective algorithms for the correction of ionospheric effects is still a developing and active topic of remote sensing research. The focus of this thesis is to develop robust and accurate techniques for ionospheric correction of SAR and InSAR data and evaluate the benefit of these techniques for cryospheric research fields such as glacier ice velocity tracking and permafrost deformation monitoring. As both topics are mostly concerned with high latitude areas where the ionosphere is often active and characterized by turbulence, ionospheric correction is particularly relevant for these applications. After an introduction to the research topic in Chapter 1, Chapter 2 will discuss open issues in ionospheric correction including processing issues related to baseline-induced spectrum shifts. The effect of large baseline on split spectrum InSAR technique has been thoroughly evaluated and effective solutions for compensating this effect are proposed. In addition, a multiple sub-band approach is proposed for increasing the algorithm robustness and accuracy. Selected case studies are shown with the purpose of demonstrating the performance of the developed algorithm. In Chapter 3, the developed ionospheric correction technology is applied to optimize InSAR-based ice velocity measurements over the big ice sheets in Greenland and the Antarctic. Selected case studies are presented to demonstrate and validate the effectiveness of the proposed correction algorithms for ice velocity applications. It is shown that the ionosphere signal can be larger than the actual glacier motion signal in the interior of Greenland and Antarctic, emphasizing the necessity for operational ionospheric correction. The case studies also show that the accuracy of ice velocity estimates was significantly improved once the developed ionospheric correction techniques were integrated into the data processing flow. We demonstrate that the proposed ionosphere correction outperforms the traditionally-used approaches such as the averaging of multi-temporal data and the removal of obviously affected data sets. For instance, it is shown that about one hundred multi-temporal ice velocity estimates would need to be averaged to achieve the estimation accuracy of a single ionosphere-corrected measurement. In Chapter 4, we evaluate the necessity and benefit of ionospheric-correction for L-band InSAR-based permafrost research. In permafrost zones, InSAR-based surface deformation measurements are used together with geophysical models to estimate permafrost parameters such as active layer thickness, soil ice content, and permafrost degradation. Accurate error correction is needed to avoid biases in the estimated parameters and their co-variance properties. Through statistical analyses of a large number of L-band InSAR data sets over Alaska, we show that ionospheric signal distortions, at different levels of magnitude, are present in almost every InSAR dataset acquired in permafrost-affected regions. We analyze the ionospheric correction performance that can be achieved in permafrost zones by statistically analyzing correction results for large number of InSAR data. We also investigate the impact of ionospheric correction on the performance of the two main InSAR approaches that are used in permafrost zones: (1) we show the importance of ionospheric correction for permafrost deformation estimation from discrete InSAR observations; (2) we demonstrate that ionospheric correction leads to significant improvements in the accuracy of time-series InSAR-based permafrost products. Chapter 5 summarizes the work conducted in this dissertation and proposes next steps in this field of research.
    • Isolation and characterization of Photobacterium phosphoreum from migrating Alaskan salmon

      Budsberg, Kevin Jon (2004-05)
      We isolated luminous bacteria from drying chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta, reported by Alaska native fishermen to be 'glowing in the dark.' The salmon were harvested for subsistence use from the Yukon River, Alaska. We identified our luminous bacterial isolates as Photobacterium phosphoreum based on nutritional versatility, and 16S rDNA and luxA gene sequences. P. phosphoreum has previously only been isolated from the marine environment. We tested whether our strains, isolated from fish harvested in freshwater, represent cold-adapted, freshwater-tolerant strains of P. phosphoreum. We also analyzed lux operon composition and organization, and examined the 5' promoter region of the lux operon for shared genes and regulatory elements from strains of P. phosphoreum from Alaska, the Black Sea, Oregon, and from near the Canary Islands. Our results indicate our P. phosphoreum strains have a lower optimal growth temperature than other strains but rapidly lose viability after inoculation into river water. Analyses of the P. phosphoreum lux operon reveal a striking pattern of conservation of composition and organization, and suggest there is conservation in the location of the transcriptional start among geographically separated strains of the same species.
    • Isostasy and origin of the Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge, Arctic Ocean

      Williams, Christina C. (2006-12)
      The Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge is an aseismic ridge bisecting the Amerasian Basin, Arctic Ocean. There is no widely accepted theory of formation. Gravity and bathymetry data from the poorly understood ridge are used to constrain the isostatic compensation of the feature in the frequency domain. Spectral analysis of the cross correlation between gravity and bathymetry along nine data transects collected from submarines and ice breakers over the ridge yield an average crustal thickness estimate of 30 km and density estimate of 2.75 g-cm⁻³. It also suggests compensation by local isostasy, as a near-ridge oceanic plateau or an extended fragment of continental shelf. These parameters are used to constrain gravity models of crustal structure. The analysis suggests no difference between the compensation of the Alpha and Mendeleev Ridges. These results are discussed in the broader tectonic context of the Amerasian Basin, in light of the current controversy over the formation of the ridge.
    • 'It's a magnifying glass': the communication of power in a remote field station

      McDermott, Victoria; May, Amy; Taylor, Karen; Richey, Jean (2019-05)
      Remote field stations play a critical role in advancing our understanding of the world and how humans cause environmental change. Remote field stations are sentinels of Earth's climate, environment, and biodiversity that provide scientists with the infrastructure to collect data in inaccessible areas of the globe. These research stations are considered isolated, confined and extreme (ICE) environments which provide people with unique opportunities and intensely stressful potentially life-threatening situations to overcome. Traditionally, remote field stations have been considered harassment hell for men and women, alike. There is little research on the impact of remote field stations on communication and factors that influence power communication within remote field stations. In the present study, the researcher traveled 10 hours north of Fairbanks, Alaska to Toolik Field Station in the Brooks Range of the Alaskan Mountains. The researcher interviewed 20 participants, 15 males and 5 females, willing to talk about their experiences in remote field stations and especially their experiences at Toolik. Using theories of power construction, standpoint theory, and contrapower harassment this study sought to understand how remote field stations impact communication dynamics and the influence of gender on communication within a remote field station. Findings in the present study suggest that gender is a crucial factor that impacts power dynamics in remote field station. Through the data collected in this study, three areas of opportunity were identified for overall camp improvement, including group cohesion, reintegration coping strategies and overcoming gender barriers.
    • It's all in the past

      Phillips, Jill; Marlow, Patrick; Martelle, Wendy; John, Theresa; Siekmann, Sabine (2015-12)
      This project is a response to what I noticed to be a challenge for both my ELL students and myself in multiple school settings--teaching and learning specific English grammar skills. Prior to beginning this program, over the past ten years I had the privilege of working in a number of schools--both internationally and stateside--teaching various ages/levels of ELL learners. It was, however, my time in rural Alaska that prompted me to seek out additional schooling for help in overcoming the challenges of teaching grammar skills.
    • Jackie Gleeson's neighborhood

      Garoupa, Justin Craig (2005-05)
      Jackie Gleeson's Neighborhood is a collection of short stories that deal in narratives of possession and the struggle of an individual toward what some readers might consider a 'lesser epiphany.' The characters of the stories attempt to own and separate themselves from the world at large through the act of storytelling and the examination of their landscape through metaphor. This collection moves through experience and draws the common thread of connection between what we feel and what our minds allow us to see. The result of this re-visioning is not always change or knowledge but feelings of hope, terror, and possibility.
    • Jakobshavn Isbr�_: velocity variations from hourly to decadal time scales at Greenland's fastest tidewater glacier

      Podrasky, David Bryan; Truffer, Martin; Bueler, Edward; Hock, Regine; Larsen, Christopher; Motyka, Roman (2013-12)
      Outlet glaciers in Greenland, and elsewhere, have recently shown large variations in terminus position and ice flux. One example is the tidewater retreat of Jakobshavn Isbr�_, which began in the late 1990s with high thinning rates, acceleration and collapse of the floating glacier tongue. The retreat has continued to the present, with glacier speeds more than doubling in two decades' time. A campaign of in-situ measurements was initiated in 2006 with the aim of determining the importance of short-term forcing as a control on the continuing evolution of the glacier. Three years of continuous GPS measurements along the centerline of Jakobshavn Isbr�_ reveal seasonal velocity variations due to seasonally varying terminus position. The relationship between glacier speed and surface melt is complex, with both speed-up and slowdown events in response to variations in the rate of surface melt. During a particularly long and intense melt season in 2007, a series of melt-driven slowdowns effectively reduced the mean ice flow over the whole year. On shorter timescales, the response to surface meltwater input is more predictable with diurnal velocity variations of 1-2 % that closely match changes in meltwater input. The influence of iceberg calving and tidal forcing is restricted to the lower 10 km of the glacier, imposing an upper limit on longitudinal stress coupling length of a few ice thicknesses. The response to these forcings does not exceed 5 % of mean flow. This is consistent with a glacier operating under high driving stresses. Ice sheet velocities as far as 120 km inland of the margin have responded to the continuing retreat with increases in speed. The flow has also rotated toward the centerline of the main channel. This speedup and channelization of flow are the result of evolving ice surface gradients as the glacier continues to respond to changes initiated at the periphery. This shows that ocean driven changes have led to increased ice flux far inland on the Greenland Ice Sheet, implying a continuing large-scale evolution of the Jakobshavn Isbr�_ drainage basin.
    • James Church McCook and American consular diplomacy in the Klondike, 1898-1901

      Jessup, David Eric; Cole, Terrence; Naske, Claus-M.; Irwin, Robert (2001-08)
      The Klondike Gold Rush saw tens of thousands of Americans pour into the Canadian Yukon. Although the unprecedented event was of marginal diplomatic significance to Washington, the United States government responded by establishing an official American presence in the Klondike boomtown of Dawson City. Congress provided for a United States consulate in Dawson in January of 1898, and the following summer, James Church McCook arrived to serve as the first consul. McCook served for three and a half years as the only U.S. government official in what was essentially an American town on Canadian soil. A retired confectionary manufacturer from Philadelphia, McCook was representative of the amateur tradition of American consular diplomacy. His State Department correspondence revealed both the hardships of consular work and the notion of devoted service, while shedding light on Washington's relationship with Canada at the time of the United State' emergence as a world power.
    • James Hogg, Fyodor Dostoevsky, and romantic anachronism

      Stewart, Heather Ann; Edson, Michael; Burleson, Derick; Carr, Richard (2013-08)
      This thesis explores the problematic nature of the term "Romanticism" as traditionally dictated by national and temporal constraints. Most scholars and literary institutions (i.e., anthologies) define Romanticism as a solely European phenomenon of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. This definition, intentionally or not, serves an elitist function in assuming that only Europeans of a specific era were capable of producing texts with Romantic qualities. Further, even authors who fall into this temporal and nationalistic category are often excluded due to their social class. This thesis seeks to extend the boundaries of Romanticism through examining two authors who, despite some recent efforts at re-appropriation, had previously been excluded by Romanticism: Scotland's James Hogg (1770-1835) and Russia's Fyodor Dostoevsky (1821-1881). Specifically, this thesis explores a defining Romantic aesthetic trait -- the Romantic Anachronism -- as it operates in both authors' uncannily similar masterworks, Hogg's The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner (1824), and Dostoevsky's The Brothers Karamazov (1880). By placing emphasis on aesthetic rather than temporal and national constraints, Romanticism may be redefined towards an inclusivity that bolsters the relevance of Romanticism for current and future scholars operating in an increasingly globalized and rapidly diversifying world.
    • Japanese winter tourism in rural Alaska: Bettles Lodge

      Kojima, Mie (2000-12)
      Japanese tourists increasingly visit the Arctic in wintertime because of their interest in northern lights. Some rural communities in Alaska see this as an opportunity to enter winter tourism by targeting the Japanese market. The purpose of this study is to gain better understanding of the interests of these Japanese visitors and to explore potentials for tourism development in rural Alaska. A Japanese visitor survey was conducted in the spring of 2000 at Bettles Lodge in Interior Alaska. The data reveal that the average visitor to Bettles Lodge was female, over 61 years of age, an urban dweller, employed full-time, and college educated. Results show that Bettles Lodge receives a mixture of younger individual travelers and older group travelers, who have very different needs and expectations. The study suggests that sustainable tourism development may be best achieved through cooperation involving all local interests and stakeholders.
    • Joint stewardship of the Barents Sea: Russian and Norwegian policy expectations for preventing offshore oil spills

      Bouffard, Troy J.; Boylan, Brandon M.; Ehrlander, Mary F.; Kassof, Brian (2016-08)
      As Arctic environmental conditions fluctuate, ongoing economic-related agreements established for the Barents Region continue to support and attract Norwegian and Russian oil-producing expeditions within the shared maritime zone. Increased industrial activity throughout the Circumpolar North heightens the need to understand the factors that influence policies responsible for protecting the environment – in particular, preventive measures. Agency theory provides the framework for an analysis of various dynamics that influence the Norwegian and Russian governments (principals) as they develop and enforce rules that regulate petroleum industries (agents). The research question asks about differences between the prevention policies of the two nations even though both acknowledge a very similar need to protect the Barents. Since the regulatory and governance structures cannot fully explain the differences between the two countries’ prevention policies, the hypothesis presents an argument that the strategic goals of Norway and Russia in the global political economy provide sufficient conditions for policy divergence. This research presents case studies of economic and environmental factors that influence how Russia and Norway develop energy-related prevention policies in the Barents Sea. The findings suggest that differing strategic goals between the two countries influence their oil spill prevention policies. Russia’s oil spill prevention policy enables it to maintain high production levels that it can leverage to further its geopolitical aims. Norway’s more cautious prevention policies promote domestic economic stability. In a progressively interdependent world, this study contributes insight into contemporary international relations regarding aspects of partnerships, energy economics, and geostrategic policy.
    • Jumping in quickly is best

      Glynn, Amber Anastasia (2002-03)
      'Jumping in Quickly is Best' examines the expectations that women and men have for themselves and each other. These moments of unveiled expectations happen in bars, in bed, while listening to George Jones, slapping another layer of make-up on. In these moments the common phrases and conversational style of the poems allow the characters to open up within the language and therefore to the reader. The characters with this language then have no problem asking for directions to Winnemucca or ordering another beer, and the reader is sitting right there in the next barstool over, listening and humming to the music. It is the people in these places, the music, the sight of the falling sun and their reaction to what is expected of them that lead to moments of discovery and self-reflection.
    • Jumping off place

      DiPier, Lynn Marie (2001-08)
      'Jumping Off Place' is about eating from the tree of knowledge, which often has brutal and painful consequences. Childhood and adolescence play significant roles, as this is where emotional growth begins. Within family and societal constructs, physical and psychological thresholds are crossed and inner landscapes are suggested in the process. Three sections define a beginning, middle, and end to the journey, yet it is a cyclical story. The poems' speakers eventually make choices that confront the world's mutability; speakers progress as they comprehend, adjust, decide, and finally move forward through the barrier of risk to autonomy, but do not emerge unscathed. In the sense of Aristotelian poetic theory, the characters in these poems are plot: action, reaction, and interaction create metaphor. Although the poems are predominantly narrative, lyric and formal impulses and close attention to sound encourage the development of ideas and musicality of verse.
    • Juvenile Bristol Bay Sockeye Salmon Ecology

      Farley, Edward V., Jr.; Adkison, Milo (2008)
      Predicting annual returns of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) has been difficult due to large, unexplained variations in return strength. Ocean conditions, particularly during the first few months after salmon leave freshwater, are believed to have a strong influence on their early marine growth and survival. Limited historical and present research suggests that sea temperature can affect juvenile Bristol Bay distribution. During years with cool spring sea temperatures, juvenile sockeye salmon are distributed nearshore along the Alaska Peninsula, whereas they are found further offshore during years with warm spring sea temperatures. Juvenile sockeye salmon are larger, in better condition, and have higher marine stage survival after the first year at sea when they are distributed further offshore than when they are distributed nearshore along the Alaska Peninsula. Juvenile sockeye salmon stomach contents also shift from primarily Pacific sand lance ( Ammodytes hexapterus) and euphausiids to age 0 walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma) when their distribution changes from nearshore to further offshore. Annual averages of juvenile sockeye salmon growth rate potential (GRP) were generally lower among years and regions with cool spring sea temperatures. In addition, juvenile sockeye salmon GRP was generally higher in offshore regions than nearshore regions of the eastern Bering Sea shelf. A sensitivity analysis indicated that juvenile sockeye salmon GRP was more sensitive to changes in observed (August to September) sea surface temperatures during years when prey densities were lower. The results of the dissertation suggest that variability in early marine survival is primarily due to bottom-up control of the trophic structure of the eastern Bering Sea ecosystem.
    • Juvenile Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) feeding ecology in Prince William Sound, Alaska

      Foy, Robert James; Norcross, Brenda; Cooney, Robert T.; Paul, A. J.; Mason, Doran M.; Stokesbury, Kevin (2000-12)
      Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) are commercially exploited along the Asiatic and North American Pacific Ocean continental shelves. In Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, herring were commercially important until a year class failures in 1993. A noticeable lack of life history information on juveniles was available in PWS to use for studies addressing the failed recruitment. This study describes the seasonal herring feeding ecology in PWS nursery areas from 1996 to 1998. Zooplankton from 535 vertical tows and herring diet data from 3,282 stomach contents were collected from Eaglek, Simpson, Whale and Zaikof Bays. Zooplankton species composition was dominated by small calanoid copepods, cyclopoids, invertebrate eggs, and adult euphausiids in March prior to the spring phytoplankton bloom. Small calanoid copepods, especially Pseudocalanus spp., were dominant during the peak abundance. Oikopleurans were abundant from August to October. The zooplankton density peaked at 1,234 to 5,594 individuals m-3 between June and July 1996. Zooplankton density was significantly lower in 1997 than 1996. Seasonal density and diversity were found to vary among and within the four bays. The abundance of prey in herring diets was correlated to the timing and degree of zooplankton prey availability. Feeding was highest at 1,192 items per fish in July 1996 and decreased until winter (December to March) when the number of empty stomachs ranged from 70 to 90 %. Lower zooplankton densities in 1997 were reflected in significantly lower abundances of prey in 1997 diets. Prey selectivity was negatively correlated with zooplankton densities among months. Diel and ontogenetic feeding trends as well as differences between feeding depths were noted. Assimilation rates of smaller herring were closer to basal metabolic rates and herring less than 3 g had insufficient energy reserves to survive the winters of 1995-1996 and 1996-1997. These patterns suggest that juvenile herring are dependent on an abundance of prey to successfully feed and have enough energy reserves to overwinter. The effects of increased temperatures on zooplankton fluctuations and changes in herring condition may have had population level consequences in PWS. Successful feeding when prey abundance and composition was highly variable reveals herring’s adaptability to multiple environments.
    • Kanban teaching examples

      Remick, Karen J.; Genetti, Jon; Lawlor, Orion; Chappell, Glenn (2017-04)
    • The Kandik map: cultural exchange along the Yukon River

      Johnson, Linda R. (2007-05)
      The Kandik Map drawn in 1880 by Yukon Indian Paul Kandik and annotated by French Canadian fur trader François Mercier and U.S. Census Agent Ivan Petroff is a unique record in the documentary history of Northwestern North America. It traces the Yukon, Tanana, and Kuskokwim Rivers from their headwaters to the Pacific, showing trading posts, trails, and place names in several Athabascan languages, as well as French and English. As one of the oldest maps of the Alaska-Yukon borderlands it documents indigenous knowledge and the dynamic cultural exchange between Native residents and non-native newcomers along the Yukon River prior to the Klondike Gold Rush. Using oral traditions, archival and published sources, this thesis examines the significance and meanings of the map from 1880 to the present. The original map is preserved at The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.